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Communication and Interpersonal relations

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Communication and Interpersonal relations

  1. 1. Communication Shany Thomas Asst. Professor MBNC
  2. 2. • Communication is inter change of information between two or more people. • Exchange of ideas or thoughts • Communication is any means of exchanging information or feeling between two or more people.
  3. 3. COMMUNICATION PROCESS
  4. 4. SENDER ENCODING CHANNEL RECEIVER DECODING FEEDBACK (MESSAGE)
  5. 5. Elements of communication  Sender – It is the person who intends to make contact with the objective of passing the message to other persons.  Message – This is the subject matter of the communication which is intended to be passed to the receiver from the sender.  Encoding – The process of converting the message into communication symbols.
  6. 6.  Channel – Message encoded into symbols are transmitted by the sender through a channel.  Receiver – The person or group to whom the message is directed.  Decoding – The receiver translates the words and symbols used in the message into idea and interprets it to obtain its meaning.  Feedback – It is the way of judging the effectiveness of the message.
  7. 7. Modes of communication • Verbal communication: uses spoken or written words • Non verbal communication: Uses other forms such as facial expression, touch etc • Electronic communication: using e-mail, sms etc
  8. 8. Verbal communication Points to consider: • Pace and intonation: manner of speech • Simplicity: use of commonly understood words • Clarity and Brevity: message should be direct and simple • Timing and relevance: • Adaptability: Adjusting according to the behavioral cues • Credibility: Trustworthiness, reliable • Humor:
  9. 9. Non verbal communication Points to remember Personal Appearance: Posture and gait: Facial expression: Gestures:
  10. 10. Types of communication: • Verbal, non verbal • One way, two way communication • Serial communication • Inter personal or intrapersonal communication • Mechanical communication • Physiological communication • Psychic communication • Formal, informal communication
  11. 11. • Verbal communication: Language is the chief vehicle of communication. Through it, one can interact with other and exchange of ideas will take place and information can be passed through • Non verbal communication: Through gestures, body movements, posture, facial expressions etc., the ideas or the processes will be communicated
  12. 12. • Interpersonal communication: It is a process in which the communicator and the communicate engage in a face to face interaction Ex. Interviews, group meetings • Serial communication: Person to person, the message will be passed like a chain. Sender pass the message to one person, then that receiver passes information to other and so on • Mechanical communication: By using mechanical devices the communication will be sent Ex. Internet, web site • Physiological communication: If a stimulus received by the body immediately the brain receives the information and transmits to the respective organ through the neurons, where it has to be passed
  13. 13. • Psychic communication: Extra sensory perception occurs i.e., something which will occur in future. The person perceives and predicts in advance is called psychic communication • Formal communication: Officially organized channels of communication, it is a delayed communication. • Informal communication: Friends, interest groups, like minded people, clique gossip groups, casual groups, it is a fast communication.
  14. 14. Levels of communication • Intra personal communication • Interpersonal communication • Small group communication • Organizational communication
  15. 15. Factors influencing communication • Development: language, psychological and intellectual development • Gender: • Values and perception: • Personal space: • Territoriality: the concept of space and things that an individual considers as belonging to the self • Roles and relations: • Environment: • Congruence: matching the verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication • Interpersonal attitudes
  16. 16. Effective communication Techniques of effective communication •Listening •Broad openings •Restating •Clarification •Reflection •Focusing •Sharing perceptions •Silence •Humor •Informing •Suggesting
  17. 17. • Listening: Listening is a sign of respect for the person who is talking and a powerful reinforce of relationships. It allows the patients to talk more, without which the relationship cannot progress. • Broad openings: These encourage the patient to select topics for discussion, and indicate that nurse is there, listening to him and following him. • Restarting: nurse repeats to the patient the main thought he has expressed.
  18. 18. • Clarification: clarify the unintelligible ideas of the patients. • Reflection: This means directing back to the patient his ideas, feeling, questions and content. • Focusing: The discussion on a topic of importance • Sharing perceptions: These are the techniques of asking the patient to verify the nurse understands of what he is thinking or feeling. • Silence: This is lack of verbal communication for a therapeutic reason. Then the nurse’s silence prompts patient to talk.
  19. 19. • Informing: This is the skill of giving information. • Suggesting: This is the presentation of alternative ideas related to problem solving.
  20. 20. Barriers in effective communication: • Personal barriers – Language – Mental state – Personality complexes – Bias and prejudice – Impatience – Inhibition attitude – Hospitalization – Cultural factors – Age and sex • Physical barriers • Psychological factors • Mechanical factors • Educational difference • Organizational barriers • Pathological barriers
  21. 21. Nurse patient relationship • It is an interaction process in which the nurse fulfills her role by using her professional knowledge and skill in such a way that she is able to help the patient physically, socially and emotionally.
  22. 22. Goals of therapeutic communication : • Establishing a therapeutic provider-client relationship . • Identify client’s concerns and problem . • Assess client’s perception of the problem . • Recognize client’s needs. • Guide client towards a satisfying and socially acceptable solution .
  23. 23. Phases of a Therapeutic Relationship •Preorientation or preinteraction phase •Orientation phase •Working phase •Termination
  24. 24. • Planning stage before an interview • Create the setting – comfortable, safe • Prepare for the interaction/relationship –review patient’s history, diagnosis, review nursing theory • Anticipate obstacles, difficulties
  25. 25. • Introductions • Getting to know each other and developing a degree of trust • Opening the relationship • Clarifying the problems • Structuring and formulating the contract • Gives patient information about the purpose, possible goals, and the time frame of the relationship • Include the patient as a partner in the relationship
  26. 26. • Assess the patient’s problems and needs • Plan goals and outcomes with the patient • Develop trust and rapport with the patient • Demonstrate caring • Demonstrate that you see the patient as an individual
  27. 27. • Exploring and understanding the thoughts and feelings Empathetic listening and responding Respect Genuineness Concreteness Confrontation • Facilitating and taking action • Evaluate intermediate outcomes • Re-plan if necessary; think of alternative solutions • Implement alternative solutions
  28. 28. • Occurs when goals have been reached or referral is advisable • Nurse and patient examine meaning and value of the relationship • Feelings are discussed • Plans for follow-up are made, if necessary • Anticipatory guidance and/or teaching should be done or repeated • Evaluation of outcomes • Summarization of the relationship and the goals achieved
  29. 29. Dimensions Of Helping Relationship There are five dimensions and are foundational aspects of building healthy and productive relationships with clients in need of service.
  30. 30. • Empathy :Empathy is described as the ability to understand the clients condition in a way that you as the helper can relate the experience to your own life. • Respect: Helping professionals should have an amount of respect for the client that affords them a feeling of being listened to and acknowledged. • Genuineness: A certain amount of self-disclosure may be necessary to let the client know that you are approachable and available to discuss matters pertaining to the relationship.
  31. 31. • Concreteness: Being clear about the nature of the relationship you are entering into is one way to establish a sense of concreteness. In addition to defining the helping relationship, it is important to provide tangible ways the client can ascertain the effectiveness of the treatment or service. • Warmth: Warmth is an important aspect of the helping relationship. Tone of voice and eye contact can greatly improve one's warmth factor.

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