TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
B. Tech (3rd yr. , 6th Semester)
Roll No. : 08110014016
Smart textiles introduces a shift from passive
functionality to active behaviour.
It is the result of the integration of microelectronics in
textiles to endow materials with new properties.
The production of smart textiles is now a reality after a
successful marriage of traditional textiles and clothing
technology with other branches of science like material
science, structural mechanics, sensor and actuator
technology, advance processing
technology, communication, artificial
intelligence, biology etc.
Smart textiles are defined as textiles that can sense and
react via an active control mechanism to
environmental conditions or stimuli from
mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical or magnetic
Passive Smart Textile
Can only sense the environment
These are sensors
Active Smart Textile
Can sense and react to the environmental
These are sensors and actuators
Ultra Smart Textile
Can sense, react and adapt themselves to
Cognition, reasoning and activating
Functions of smart textiles
Basically , sensing is the function of transforming a
signal into another signal that can be read and
understood by a predefined reader which can be a real
device or a person.
For real devices all the signals should be ultimately
converted into electrical ones.
Thermocouple, quantum tunneling composite( based
on softswitch technology), fibre bragg grating sensors(
basically optical fibres) are used to convert the signals
into electrical ones.
Data processing is one of the components that are
required only when active processing is necessary
Problems need to be overcome before imparting textile
material for this function are : fastness to washing,
deformation, interconnections, etc.
So far, pieces of electronics are used for data
processing which are now available in miniaturised
and even in a flexible form.
Actuators respond to an impulse resulting from sensor
function , possibly data processing.
Actuators make things move , release substances, make
noise and many more.
Shape memory material, drug supply system(emitting
substances) are the best suiting examples in this field.
Sensing, data processing, actuation, communication,
they usually need energy, mostly electrical energy.
For efficient energy management there should be an
appropriate combination of energy supply and energy
Here sources of energy are-- instance body heat,
mechanical motion (elastic from deformation of the
fabrics, kinetic from body motion), radiation, etc.
Phase change materials or PCM acts as energy storage.
It may be required
Within one element of a suit---optical fibres,
Between the individual elements within the suit---
optical fibres, conductive yarns
From the wearer to the suit to pass instructions---
From the suit to the wearer or his environment to
pass information---wireless connection i.e.
antenna manufactured in textile material
Thermo regulating material
PCMs are applied either in spinning or during chemical
finishing of textiles like coating, lamination etc.
Paraffin phase change material
Acts as a storage of heat in
Provide a thermal balance
between the heat generated by
the body while engaging in a
sport and the heat released into
Change their colour reversibly
according to external environmental
Photochromic: external stimulus is
Thermochromic: external stimulus is
Electrochromic: external stimulus is
Piezorochromic: external stimulus is
Solvatechromic: external stimulus is
liquid or gas.
Emits lights according to external
stimulus is light
stimulus is electricity
stimulus is a chemical reaction
stimulus is friction
Function: It conducts electricity.
weight, flexible, cost competitive
with ability to be
crimped, soldered and subjected
to textile processing.
Preparation: It can be made by
filling synthetic fibres with
carbon or metal particles, coating
fibres with conductive polymers
or using conductive short fibres.
Storage of energy for electronic
Use of solar cells
Photovoltaic materials possess
the property to generate electric
current by means of a light
Research underway to produce
and store electricity from body
movements and wrist rotation
These are materials with
electronic functionality and at the
same time textile characteristics.
Advantages: Light weight,
durable, washable, integratable
with human body.
The sensory Baby Vest
The wearable computer
Areas of R & D
For sensors - actuators:
chemical responsive materials
micro- and nano-materials
For signal transmission, processing and
neural networks and control systems
cognition theory and systems
For integrated processes and products:
Textiles are changing day by day and this hybridisation of
textiles with other branches of science has been most
welcome by all. It has shifted the consumer value ---
instead of wanting the finest natural material, people
look at the engineered beauty, innovative design and
intelligent aspect of product.
So, if smart textile are affordable I think they will be
accepted by the user as part of his everyday life…