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Significance of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture in Maharashtra

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Soil survey is the study and mapping of soils in their natural environment.
It is to enables, more numerous, more accurate, more useful prediction of soil for specific purpose
It is starting point of all soil research. .

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Significance of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning for Sustainable Agriculture in Maharashtra

  1. 1. Welco me
  2. 2. Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani College of Agriculture, Latur-413512 Prepared by CHADAR B.R. 2015A/38ML DEPT. OF SSAC COA, LATUR Research Guide Dr. P.H.VAIDYA ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEPT. OF SSAC COA, LATUR Master’s Seminar (SOILS - 591)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Soil survey  Soil survey is the study and mapping of soils in their natural environment.  It is to enables, more numerous, more accurate, more useful prediction of soil for specific purpose  It is starting point of all soil research. . =>Arial Photograph =>Remotely sensed data (IRS & Landsat) Use: Large scale Base survey =>To establish co-relation between soil and areal photo- unit. Grid survey =>Checking & confirmation of the established soil physiographic relationship & make soil Map of Area Free survey Methods of Soil Survey
  4. 4. TYPES OF SOIL SURVEY : 1. Detailed soil survey use at - Piolet project ,Agriculture research station,Micro watershed scale : cadastral map (1:5,000 to 1:8,000) Areal photos (1:10,000) 2. Reconnaissance soil survey use at – Regional level scale -1:250,000 3. Semi- Detailed survey use at – Destricts level scale – 1:50,000 4. Detailed – Reconnainssance combines both detailed and reconnaissance
  5. 5. What is land evaluation ? Land evaluation is assessment of land performance and its production potential. • Land evaluation is only part of the process of land use planning. • The function of land use planning is to guide decision on land use in such a way that the resources of the environments are put to the most beneficial use for man conserving those for the future
  6. 6. LAND EVALUTION METHOD Land capability classification Soil and land irrigability classification Parametric method Land Productive Index Soil productivity Index
  7. 7. Land Capability classification There are eight capability classes Class І to class IV:Arable land (suitable for cultivation) Class V to class VIII:Non arable land (unsuitable for cultivation) The subclass are based on kinds of dominant limitation such as wetness or excess water(w), climate(c) and erosion(e)
  8. 8. S1 : Suitable to all type of crop. S2 : Moderately Suitable S3 : Marginally Suitable N1: almost Unsuitable N2 : Unsuitable for crop Soil suitability
  9. 9. What is Sustainable Agriculture ? Sustainable agriculture is an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site specific application that will over the long term. •Satisfy human food fiber needs. •Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources. •Sustain the economic viability of farm operation. •Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole
  10. 10. Sustainable agriculture practices
  11. 11. AIMS OF SOIL SURVEY  To describe and classify soils giving uniform system of classification with uniform nomenclature with correlate the soil of different area.  To show distribution of different soils in the field (soil mapping)  To provide data for decision support system (DSS)
  12. 12. AIMS OF LAND USE PLANNING To fitness of the land for specific kind of use To restore productivity of degraded lands Suitable and scientific management, conservation & development of land resources for sustainable agriculture
  13. 13. OBJECTIVES OF SEMINAR To Know the soil quality for land use planning To suggest the land use plan for sustainable agriculture.
  14. 14. SOIL QUALITY  Morphological characteristics' Physical characteristics Chemical characteristics Soil fertility status
  15. 15. Soil of Catenary area of Central India Mandel et. al.(2005)
  16. 16. TABLE 1 : PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REPRESENTATIVE PEDONS OF CATENARY AREA OF CENTRAL INDIA Soils Horizon Depth (cm) CF (%) Partical size distribution BD. mg/m3 Water retention sand silt clay 1500 kPa P2 (Pediments) Typic Haplusteps Ap 0-17 3.5 14.0 31.0 55.0 1.17 38.8 BW1 17-34 3.8 16.0 24.0 60.0 1.73 40.7 BW2 34-45 4.5 30.8 20.2 49.0 1.75 34.6 Cr 45-55 Weathered besalt P4 (Narrow Valley) Typic Haplusterts Ap 0-15 2.1 28.5 22.2 49.3 1.70 35.5 Bw1 15-35 3.0 28.9 17.6 53.5 1.71 37.4 Bw2 35-88 5.3 27.0 13.5 59.5 1.73 40.02 Bss1 88-113 8.3 29.0 8.8 62.2 1.74 42.7 Bss2 113-150 7.0 30.0 4.0 66.0 1.76 45.1 BCk 150-160 12.0 40.0 4.6 54.6 1.76 31.9 Mandel et. al.(2005)
  17. 17. soils Horizon Depth pH EC (dSm-1) CEC cmol/kg BS O.C CaC03 % P2 (Pediments) Typic Haplusteps Ap 0-17 8.26 0.20 55.5 90.5 0.54 10.00 Bw1 17-34 8.26 0.25 61.0 96.2 0.48 11.50 Bw2 34-45 8.30 0.25 48.0 98.5 0.40 12.00 Cr 45-55 Weathered besalt P4 ( Narrow Valley) Typic Haplusterts Ap 0-15 8.16 0.20 55.0 90.4 0.64 8.50 Bw1 15-35 8.24 0.20 56.0 91.4 0.61 9.25 Bw2 35-88 8.39 0.20 56.0 93.5 0.52 10.00 Bss1 88-113 8.40 0.20 58.0 95.3 0.41 10.50 Bss2 113-150 8.74 0.22 58.5 96.1 0.40 12.75 BCk 150-160 8.80 0.25 52.5 96.1 0.33 16.25 Mandel et.al.(2005) Table 2 : Chemical properties of representative pedons of catenary area of central India
  18. 18. LAND USE PLANNING  In the present study soils of these area grouped under Typic Haplustepts and Vertic Haplustepts were the better soils than Typic Haplusterts so called Black cotton soil, soils for production sustainability of cotton yield under rainfed and climatic aberration, which should be intensively used for cotton genotype improvement research to improve the economic condition of cotton growing farming communities in India. Mandel et.al.(2005)
  19. 19. Horizon Depth Soil colour Structure S G T Consistence D M W effevesc ence Roots S Q Boundr y Pedon 1 Typic Haplusterts AP1 0-18 10YR/ 3/2 m 2 sbk sh fr sp es f c c s Ap2 18-33 10YR/ 3/2 m 2 sbk h fi sp es f c g s AB 33-55 10YR/ 3/2 m 2 sbk h fi sp es f f g w Bss1 55-80 10YR/ 3/2 m 2 sbk h fi vsvp es vf f g Bss2 80-130 10 YR 3/1 m 2 sbk h fi vsvp ev vf f Pedon 2 Typic Ustorthents A 0-15 10YR 3/2 m 2 sbk sh fr ssps ev f c c s C 15-40 10 YR 6/4 m 2 sbk ev Pedon 3 Typic Haplusteps Ap 0-20 10YR/ 3/2 m 2 sbk sh fi ssps e f f c s Bw 20-34 10YR/ 3/2 m 2 sbk sh fi ssps es f f a w C 34-55 10YR/ 5/4 m 2 sbk sh fi ev Table 3 : Morphological characteristics of representative pedons of soils of Vidarbha region Gabhane et al.(2006)
  20. 20. Pedon Horizon Depth Partical size distribution(%) PH O.C dS/m CaCo3 % CEC Sand Silt Clay Pedon 1 Typic Haplusterts P1 Ap1 0-18 5.0 34.4 64.6 7.57 6.7 10 53.1 Ap2 18-33 7.2 25.6 67.2 7.80 6.0 10 56.3 AB 33-35 5.2 26.0 68.0 7.75 5.3 12 54.2 Bss1 55-88 3.0 24.4 71.0 7.75 4.0 15 56.4 Bss2 88-130 1.8 24.8 73.4 7.71 3.7 16 57.3 Pedon 2 Typic Ustorthents P2 A 0-15 42.0 23.6 34.4 7.30 3.9 23 51,2 Pedon 3 Typic Haplusteps P3 AP 0-20 10.8 27.6 61.6 7.71 6.8 18 54.1 Bw 20-34 16.2 25.8 58.0 7.82 3.2 19 54.2 Table 4 Physical and chemical characteristics of representative pedons of soils of Vidarbha region Gabhane et al.(2006)
  21. 21. Table 5 : Land resource development plan of Micro-watershed in Vidarbha region Gabhane et.al.(2006) Present use Slope % Land capability Recommendation Agro-horticulture 0-1 IIe - Double crop 1-3 IIe - Single crop(S.D) 1-3 IIIes & IVes MPTS / silviculture Single crop(L.D) 1-3 IIe Short duration kharif+rabi Barren/Fallow 3-5 VIes Afforestation/Horticulture scrub 3-5 VIes Silvipasture(fuel &fodder ) Present use & soil Recommendation Double crop Vegetable Moderately dense forest Afforestation Moderately deep to deep well drained, calcarious ,clay Kharif- sorghum & Cotton Rabi-wheat & gram Shallow to shallow, well drained, loamy to clay Sorghum & Cistrus spp. Scrubland MPTS & Afforestation
  22. 22. Land Use Planning Several agroforestry system have been recommend for degraded land in watershed Area. Silvipasture and silviculture recomded for degraded area which will helps in fuel and fodder production to improve soil fertility . Plantation of multipal tree species(MPTS) recommeded for additional benefits. This land resourse development plan will help in efficient managament of the land based on soil site suitability to obtain the potential yield on sustainable basis.
  23. 23. Table 6 : Morphological characteristics of representive pedons of ORS, Latur. Horizons Depth (cm) Boundary Matrix Colour Texture Structure Consistency Effervescen ce Pedon 1 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 7 ( Typic Haplusterts) AP 0-18 cs 10YR 3/1 c m2 sbk h, fr, ss, sp e BW1 18-48 cs 10YR 3/2 c m2 sbk h, fr, ss, sp e BW2 48-64 di 10YR 3/2 c m2 sbk h, ss, sp e BSS1 64-84 cs 10YR 3/2 c m2 sbk h, ss, sp e CM 84-126 - 10YR 5/3 c m2 sbk s, ns, np e Pedon 2 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 14 ( Typic Haplustepts) AP 0 -16 cs 10YR 3/2 c m1 sbk h, fr, vs, vp e BW1 16-35 cs 10YR 3/3 c m2abk h, fi, vs, vp e BW2 35-55 cs 10YR 3/3 c m2 abk h, fi, vs, vp e BW3 55-69 Di 10YR 3/1 c m2 abk h, fi, vs, vp e C 69-94 - 2.5YR 3/6 sl abk - Nill Pedon 3 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 16 ( Typic Ustorthents) AP 0-15 Cs 10YR 3/3 sic m2 abk s, ns, np Nill AC 15-28 Cs 10YR 3/4 sic m2 abk s, ns, np Nill M 28-50 - - gr ns, np Nill Shinde (2013)
  24. 24. TABLE 7 : PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF representative pedons OF ORS, LATUR. Horizo ns Depth (cm) Coarse fragme nt (%) BD (Mg m- 3) HC (cm hr- 1) Particle size analysis (%) Moisture retention (%) AWC (%) PAWC (mm) Sand Silt Clay 33 kPa 1500 kPa Pedon 1 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 7 ( Typic Haplusterts) AP 0-18 4.29 1.3 1.4 3.9 31.93 64.17 43.9 27.7 16.2 222.80 BW1 18-48 4.93 1.4 2.8 0.11 38.77 61.12 42.6 24.4 16.2 BW2 48-64 3.18 1.5 2.29 0.38 33.72 65.90 44.3 23.9 20.4 BSS1 64-84 5.48 1.6 9.6 0.57 30.35 69.08 36.7 18.2 18.5 CM 84-126 40.29 - - 9.60 27.96 62.44 40.9 23.8 18.1 Pedon 2 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 14 ( Typic Haplustepts) AP 0 -16 1.72 1.2 1.4 0.2 36.53 63.27 37.9 28.4 9.5 155.27 BW1 16-35 3.94 1.4 1.8 0.39 40.98 58.63 42.1 29.9 12.2 BW2 35-55 2.21 1.4 2.4 0.57 35.17 64.26 46.4 32.9 13.5 BW3 55-69 4.07 1.3 9.0 0.85 34.06 65.09 43.9 25.7 18.2 C 69-94 36.00 - - 2.2 31.83 65.97 44.7 34.2 10.5 Pedon 3 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 16 ( Typic Ustorthents) AP 0-15 14.26 1.45 9.8 6.08 51.00 42.92 19.2 11.4 7.8 66.22AC 15-28 24.13 1.48 20.2 11.19 54.81 34.00 20.6 15.3 5.3 M 28-50 68.34 - - 27.53 35.12 37.35 16.9 8.8 12 Shinde (2013)
  25. 25. Table 8. Chemical characteristics of soils of ORS, Latur. Horizo ns Depth (cm) pH EC (dSm-1) OC (%) CaCO3 (%) CEC (cmol( P+)kg- 1) Cations (cmol(P+)kg-1) Base saturat ion (%)Ca++ Mg++ Na+ K+ Sum of Cations (cmol(P+ )kg-1) Pedon 1 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 7 ( Typic Haplusterts) AP 0-18 8.1 0.21 0.93 8.4 60.28 47.2 7.6 1.73 1.24 57.77 95.83 BW1 18-48 7.2 0.20 0.78 9.2 58.38 49.6 6.4 1.73 0.93 56.66 97.83 BW2 48-64 7.9 0.18 0.70 9.1 60.14 45.6 10.4 139 0.98 58.57 97.38 BSS1 64-84 7.1 0.18 0.74 10.1 66.30 46.0 15.0 1.41 0.91 63.33 95.52 CM 84-126 7.9 0.19 0.12 9.8 56.38 50.8 1.2 1.56 0.73 54.29 96.29 Pedon 2 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No14 ( Typic Haplustepts) AP 0 -16 8.0 0.22 0.78 7.0 60.20 39.6 16 1.20 1.44 58.24 96.74 BW1 16-35 7.8 0.20 0.69 6.4 56.34 39.6 12.4 1.33 1.25 54.58 96.87 BW2 35-55 7.9 0.20 0.57 6.4 58.70 40.8 12 1.91 0.88 55.59 94.70 BW3 55-69 8.0 0.20 0.51 6.9 59.60 41.6 14 1.37 0.80 57.77 96.92 C 69-94 8.0 0.20 0.42 6.7 59.40 42.4 12 1.93 0.78 57.11 96.14 Pedon 3 Oilseeds Research Station, Latur. Plot No 16 ( Typic Ustorthents) AP 0-15 7.3 0.23 0.86 3.0 41.63 30.8 7.21 0.58 1.28 40.66 97.64 AC 15-28 7.0 0.16 0.86 6.4 39.24 29.6 17.2 0.67 1.17 38.64 98.47 M 28-50 7.8 0.20 0.39 5.8 42.30 29.2 10.4 0.99 0.75 41.34 97.73 Shinde (2013)
  26. 26. Fig. Soil site suitability of soils of oilseed research station, Latur for soybean crop on the basis of FAO (1983). The soils are shallow to moderately deep, very dark grey to brown, Granular to angular blocky structure, clay to silty, clay texture as per  FAO (1983) Vertisol soil –highly suitable (S1),Inceptisols & Entisol Shinde (2013)
  27. 27. Shinde (2013) Land Use Planning For ORS, Latur The soils of Typic Ustorthent (P3) are currently not suitable (N1) for cultivation; Typic Haplustept (P2) and Typic Haplusterts (P1) were moderately suitable (S2) for soybean. According to the criteria suggested by FAO 1983, the suitability based on optimum yield basis the soils of Typic storthent (P3) are marginally suitable (S3), Typic aplustept (P2) are moderately suitable (S2) and Typic Haplusterts (P1) were highly suitable (S1) for soybean crop
  28. 28. Status of Micronutrients and Nutrient in Wardha District Katkar et al.(2013)
  29. 29. Nutrients Per cent samples Nutrient Indices Low Medium High Zn 57.6 40.5 2.1 1.45(Low) Fe 28.4 59.4 12.1 1.83(Medium) Cu 0.5 11.6 87.9 2.87(High) Mn 1.6 28.4 70.0 2.68(High) B 22.0 68.4 10.0 1.88(Medium) Mo 00 94.0 6.0 2.06(Medium) Table 9 :Status of Micronutrients and Nutrient indices in Wardha District Katkar et al.(2013)
  30. 30. The deficiency if available Zn (57.6%), Fe (28.4%), and B (22%) was found increasing in the soil of Wardha district, which needs immediate attention to ensure balanced nutrient of crop and to sustain the agricultural productivity. Land Use Planning Katkar et al.(2013)
  31. 31. Satellite image, Physiographic map and Location map of Tungi Watershed In Latur District Sayambar (2015) Satellite data of Tungi watershed IRS-III. Physiograpgic map of Tungi watershed Profile location map
  32. 32. OVER VIEW OF SOIL PROFILES Typic Ustorthents Typic Haplustepts Typic Haplusterts Sayambar (2015)
  33. 33. Table 10 : Morphological characteristics of Representative Pedons Tungi watershed in Latur District Horizon Depth (Cm) Course Fragme nt(%) Bounda ry Matrix Colour Texture Structur e Consistan cy Pores Roots Efferv eces Pedon 1 Borphal, Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Ustorthents). Ap 0-21 7.03 cs 10 YR 3/2 c m1 sbk s, fr, ss, sp vff, mf, m vfm, fm, ev M 21-40 17.70 - 10 YR 6/2 s m1gr s, fr, ns, np cf, fm ff, cfc 2ev Pedon 2 Tungi Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Haplustepts). Ap 0-20 8.83 cs 10 YR 3/2 sic m2 sbk s, vs, vp vfm,fm vfm, fm ev Bw1 20-34 12.50 cs 10 YR 3/1 sic m2 sbk h, vs, vp vfm,fm vfm,fm,cm ev Bw2 34-43 12.04 di 10 YR 3/1 sic m2 sbk h, vs, vp vff,fm ff, cf ev Ck 43-64 17.38 di 10 YR 6/2 sic m1 sbk s, ss, sp vff,fm ff, cf ev Sm 64-115 4.79 - 10 YR 4/1 s m1 sbk fr, ns, np cm ff, cf ev Pedon 4 Haregoan Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Haplusterts). Ap 0-18 4.46 cs 10 YR 3/1 sic m1 sbk sh, vs, vp sh vf, mf,cf e Bw1 18-42 5.87 cs 10 YR 2.5/1 sic m2 sbk h, vs, vp vf, mff vf, mf,cf e Bss1 42-66 2.85 cs 10 YR 2.5/1 sic m3 abk h, vs, vp vf, mff fm, cf e Bss2 66-90 4.90 cs 10 YR 2.5/1 sic m3 abk h, vs, vp vf, mff fm, cf e Bss3 90-150 - - 10 YR 2.5/1 sic - h, vs, vp vf, mff fm, cf e Sayambar (2015)
  34. 34. Table : 11 Physical characteristics of representative pedons of Tungi watershed in Latur District Horizons Depth (cm) Coars e fragm ent (%) BD (Mg m-3) HC (cm hr-1) Partical size analysis (%) Moisture retention (%) AWC (%) PAWC (mm) Sand Silt Clay 33 kPa 1500 kPa Pedon 1 Borphal, Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Ustorthents). Ap 0-21 07.03 1.60 10.60 20.96 48.87 30.17 24.6 11.9 12.7 62.67 M 21-40 17.70 1.30 17.10 31.33 45.78 22.89 18.4 10.3 8.1 Pedon 2 Tungi Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Haplustepts). Ap 0-20 08.83 1.50 6.30 1.50 39.76 58.74 42.1 23.3 18.8 154.22Bw1 20-34 12.50 1.60 30.00 1.70 39.97 58.33 42.2 24.4 17.9 Bw2 34-43 12.04 1.60 7.00 6.47 33.34 60.19 40.1 21.0 19.1 Ck 43-64 17.38 1.45 22.40 8.01 46.37 45.62 26.4 16.4 10.0 Sm 64-115 04.79 1.55 22.30 10.12 42.45 47.43 20.7 15.4 05.3 Pedon 4 Haregoan Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Haplusterts). Ap 0-18 04.46 1.70 3.40 8.70 29.30 62.00 36.7 19.6 17.1 278.56 Bw1 18-42 05.87 1.73 3.3 8.60 26.62 64.78 43.1 28.4 14.7 Bss1 42-66 02.85 1.77 3.30 9.03 44.05 64.98 43.9 22.7 21.2 Bss2 66-90 04.90 1.80 3.80 8.90 22.80 68.30 45.7 28.3 17.4 Bss3 90-150 04.300 1.70 3.70 7.50 21.50 71.00 46.7 23.4 23.3 Sayambar (2015)
  35. 35. Table 12: Chemical characteristic of representative pedons of Tungi watershed in Latur district Horiz ons Dept h (cm) pH EC (dSm- 1) OC (%) CaC O3 (%) CEC (cmol(P+) kg-1) Cations (cmol(P+)kg-1) Base saturati on (%) Ca+ + Mg+ + K+ Na+ Sum of Cations (cmol(P+) kg-1) Pedon 1 Borphal, Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Ustorthents). Ap Ap 8.07 0.18 0.42 19.6 33.51 18.0 08.8 1.09 2.19 30.08 89.79 M M 8.07 0.13 0.19 20.4 27.50 17.6 06.8 0.26 2.28 26.94 97.96 Pedon 2 Tungi Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Haplustepts). Ap Ap 8.00 0.13 0.58 20.0 56.20 34.0 14.0 0.62 2.08 50.70 90.21 Bw1 Bw1 8.27 0.12 0.40 26.9 50.92 32.8 12.8 0.52 2.32 48.44 95.12 Bw2 Bw2 8.38 0.50 0.07 27.0 48.90 32.4 10.4 0.49 1.92 45.21 92.45 Ck Ck 8.40 0.18 0.07 37.0 41.34 24.8 09.6 0.28 3.29 37.97 91.84 Sm Sm 8.31 0.13 0.04 36.9 48.20 19.4 22.2 0.25 4.19 46.04 95.51 Pedon 4 Haregoan Tal- Ausa, Dist- Latur (Typic Haplusterts). Ap Ap 8.37 0.17 0.78 8.8 59.52 43.2 11.2 0.98 1.92 57.30 96.27 Bw1 Bw1 8.50 0.12 0.46 11.4 63.52 37.6 18.0 0.73 3.24 59.57 93.78 Bss1 Bss1 8.30 0.21 0.54 9.8 59.52 36.0 18.4 0.73 2.44 57.57 96.72 Bss2 Bss2 7.00 0.19 0.31 6.7 62.74 35.0 20.8 0.70 2.97 59.47 94.78 Bss3 Bss3 7.00 0.22 0.29 6.6 61.71 34.7 21.3 0.63 3.00 59.63 95.76 Sayambar (2015)
  36. 36. LAND USE/LAND COVER CLASSES OF TUNGI WATERSHED Land Use Class Area ha %TGA Single Crop : Kharif Rabi 15905.97 1103.00 64.21 04.45 Double Crop 6077.06 24.23 Build up area 588.92 2.38 Scrub land : Dense Open 347.17 126.37 1.40 1.32 Water Body 423.11 1.71 Total 24771.90 100 Sayambar (2015) Land use Cover map of Tungi Watershed
  37. 37. Table 13 : Irrigability classes of Tungi watershed Map unit Description Area Hectors (ha) % of TGA 1 Lands of this class are capable of producing sustained and relatively high yield. This soil has few or no limitation of depth, topography and drainage. 7264.69 29.32 2ds Lands of that class has moderate limitation for sustained use under irrigation. These soil have moderate limitation of depth and slope, 12583.7 6 50.79 3ds Lands of that class have severe limitation for sustained use under irrigation like, depth, slope, coarse fragments and slight limitations of texture. 87.50 0.35 4d Lands of these class having very severe limitations of soil depth, and slope. 4086.53 16.49 Habitation 423.11 1.71 Waterbody 326.30 1.32 Total 24771.9 1 100 Sayambar (2015) Land irrigabillity classification of Tungi watershed
  38. 38. TABLE 14 : PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES OF TUNGI WATERSHED, LATUR Map unit Area Hectors % of TGA Good 7264.69 29.33 Average 12671.26 51.16 Poor 221.47 0.89 Extremely Poor 3865.06 15.60 Habitation 326.30 1.32 Waterbody 423.11 1.17 Total 24771.91 100 Sayambar (2015) Land productivity map of Tungi watershed
  39. 39. TABLE 16: SOYBEAN SUITABILITY CLASSES IN TUNGI WATERSHED Soil suitability class Area Ha % TGA Highly suitable (S1) 8565.39 34.57 Moderate suitable (S2) 11998.62 48.44 marginally suitable(S3) 3458.30 13.96 Habitation 326.30 1.32 Waterbody 423.11 1.71 Sayambar (2015) Soil site suitability map
  40. 40. Land Use Planning Based on Morphological Physical and Chemical properties of soil and soil site suitability Typic Ustorthant (Entisols) soils should be under shallow rooted and short duration crop where as Typic Haplustepts and Typic Haplusterts ( Inseptisols and Vertisols soils of these watershed should be under both short and long duration as well as Shallow and deep rooted crop for sustainable production Sayambar (2015)
  41. 41. Adkine (2016) Location map of soil profile and water sample in Krishna valley Sodicity map of the Krishna valley Study area and drainage map Location map, sodicity map, study area & drainage map of Krishna valley Marathwada Rigion
  42. 42. Horizons Depth (cm) Boundary Matrix colour Texture Structure Consistency Effervescences D T Dry Moist Wet Pedon-1 Khanapur Ta. Washi Dist. Osmanabad (Loamy, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Typic Ustorthents) Ap 0-20 c s 10YR3/3 sil m1sbk s fr sssp -- Ac 20-29 a s 10YR3/3 l m1sbk l fr sssp -- Cr 29-50 10YR7/4 Weathered basalt Pedon-2 Shekapur Ta. Bhoom Dist. Osmanabad (Fine, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Vertic Haplustepts) Ap 0-27 c s 10YR3/1 sic m1sbk s fr sssp es Bw1 27-50 c s 10YR2.5/1 sic m1sbk s fr sssp es Bw2 50-64 c s 10YR3/1 sic m2sbk s fr sssp es Cr 64-80 10YR7/2 sil m 2 gr Weathered basalt Pedon-3 Sirsav Ta. Bhoom Dist. Osmanabad (Fine, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Calcic Haplusterts) AP 0-20 c s 10YR3/1 c m2sbk sh fr vsvp es Bw1 20-33 c s 10YR2.5/1 c m3abk vh fi vsvp es Bss1 33-60 c s 10YR2.5/1 c m3abk vh fi vsvp ev Bss2 60-87 c s 10YR3/2 c m2abk h fi vsvp ev Ck1 87-120 c s 10YR4/3 c m1abk s fr sssp ev Ck2 120-150 10YR4/4 c m1sbk s fr sssp ev Table 18 : Morphological characteristics of representative pedons of soils of Krishna valley, Marathwada region of Maharashtra Adkine 2016
  43. 43. Horizon s Depth (cm) Coarse Fragme nt (%) B D (Mg m- 3) HC (cm hr- 1) Particle size analysis (%) Moisture retention (%) AWC (%) PAWC (mm) Sand Silt clay 33 kPa 1500 kPa Pedon-1 Khanapur Ta. Washi Dist. Osmanabad (Loamy, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Typic Ustorthents) Ap 0-20 8.14 1.74 14.12 28.40 51.60 20.00 26.64 16.64 10.00 91.5 Ac 20-29 9.75 1.77 15.84 38.90 36.10 25.00 27.06 16.87 10.19 Cr 29-50 36.36 2.03 20.28 52.00 28.00 20.00 24.52 14.77 9.75 Pedon-2 Shekapur Ta. Bhoom Dist. Osmanabad (Fine, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Vertic Haplustepts) Ap 0-27 10.25 1.52 14.16 12.21 43.35 44.44 38.02 23.42 14.60 150 Bw1 27-50 10.41 1.55 15.71 13.81 44.08 42.11 37.36 23.11 14.25 Bw2 50-64 13.15 1.58 17.35 15.31 42.47 42.22 25.69 18.20 7.49 Cr 64-80 26.66 1.67 24.62 14.56 64.67 20.77 22.31 16.73 5.58 Pedon-3 Sirsav Ta. Bhoom Dist. Osmanabad (Fine, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Calcic Haplusterts) AP 0-20 10.00 1.53 3.92 9.87 40.14 49.99 37.15 23.92 13.23 252.5 Bw1 20-33 11.11 1.62 3.29 9.26 37.97 52.77 39.52 24.30 15.22 Bss1 33-60 16.00 1.72 1.78 8.54 35.91 55.55 42.56 24.79 17.77 Bss2 60-87 21.73 1.84 0.73 8.65 31.69 59.66 47.83 27.07 20.76 Ck1 87-120 13.33 1.70 0.61 8.76 27.36 63.88 52.65 29.35 23.30 Ck2 120-150 17.64 1.71 0.82 8.70 30.52 60.77 49.14 27.46 21.68 Table-19 : Physical characteristics of representative pedons soils of Krishna valley in Marathwada region, Maharashtra Adkine 2016
  44. 44. Horizons Depth (cm) pH EC (dSm-1) O.C. (%) CaCO3 (%) CEC [cmol (p+) kg-1] Cations [cmol (p+) kg-1] B.S. (%) ESP (%) Ca++ Mg++ Na+ K+ Pedon-1 Khanapur Ta. Washi Dist. Osmanabad (Loamy, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Typic Ustorthents) Ap 0-20 7.22 0.18 0.33 4.81 33.98 14.8 12.8 1.55 0.18 86.31 4.56 Ac 20-29 7.31 0.21 0.27 4.05 30.16 19.2 07.2 1.38 0.18 92.70 4.57 Cr 29-50 7.49 0.09 0.11 3.70 28.50 16.0 10.0 1.46 0.15 96.87 5.12 Pedon-2 Shekapur Ta. Bhoom Dist. Osmanabad (Fine, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Vertic Haplustepts) Ap 0-27 7.46 0.17 0.77 14.72 57.41 39.6 14.0 1.55 0.85 97.54 2.69 Bw1 27-50 7.10 0.18 0.81 14.07 60.00 35.6 19.6 1.81 0.51 95.86 3.01 Bw2 50-64 7.38 0.20 0.32 14.14 54.82 33.6 18.8 1.90 0.49 99.94 3.46 Cr 64-80 7.47 0.21 0.24 21.73 41.85 19.6 16.4 1.62 0.36 91.62 3.87 Pedon-3 Sirsav Ta. Bhoom Dist. Osmanabad (Fine, Smectitic, Isohyperthermic, Calcic Haplusterts) AP 0-20 7.63 0.14 0.50 12.76 72.11 38.0 27.6 1.62 0.43 93.81 2.24 Bw1 20-33 7.68 0.22 0.44 14.60 78.18 31.6 32.4 3.19 0.38 86.42 4.08 Bss1 33-60 8.03 0.28 0.58 16.87 67.26 33.2 25.2 4.32 0.33 93.74 6.42 Bss2 60-87 8.13 0.58 0.42 10.12 64.63 32.0 22.4 5.27 0.36 92.88 8.15 Ck1 87-120 8.21 0.33 0.37 10.49 58.54 32.4 11.2 4.66 0.31 82.96 7.96 Ck2 120-150 8.27 0.60 0.29 12.53 56.86 28.0 12.0 6.39 0.38 82.25 11.23 Table-20 Chemical characteristics of representative pedons soils of Krishna valley in Marathwada region of Maharashtra Adkine 2016
  45. 45. Suitability based on actual yield Soil Pedons Sorghum Pigeon pea Cotton Soybean Pedon 1 S3 S3 S3 S2 Pedon 2 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 3 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 4 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 5 S2 S3 S3 S2 Pedon 6 S2 S3 S3 S2 Pedon 7 S1 S1 S1 S1 Pedon 8 S2 S3 S3 S2 Pedon 9 S2 S3 S3 S2 Pedon 10 S2 S3 S3 S2 Pedon 11 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 12 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 13 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 14 S2 S2 S2 S2 Pedon 15 S3 S3 S3 S3 Table- 22 Soil site suitability of commanlly grown crop in Krishna vally Osmanabad District Adkine 2016
  46. 46. Adkine 2016 Soil site suitability map of sorghum as per criteria by FAO(1983) Soil site suitability map of cotton as per criteria by FAO(1983)
  47. 47. Adkine 2016 Soil site suitability map of soybean as per criteria by FAO(1983) Soil site suitability map of soybean per criteria by FAO(1983)
  48. 48. LAND USE PLANNING AND CONTROL MEASURES  From above results however concluded that the productivity of commonly grown crop in Krishna Valley in Marathwada Regions of Maharashtra is vary with soil to soil. This may be attributed to limitation of the soil depth, clay content, PAWC and cation exchange capacity in Typic Ustorthents where as High amount of CaCO3 in Calcic Haplusterts and ESP and EMP in Sodic Haplusterts. Therefore its needs to adopt the cropping pattern as per soil site suitability and also use proper control measures for increasing the productivity of these soils. Adkine 2016
  49. 49. CONCLUSIONS  The soils were very shallow to very deep in depth, black to very pale brown in colour, silty clay loam to clayey in texture, granular to angular blocky in structure. The soils were slightly to moderately alkaline in reaction, low to medium in organic carbon content and calcareous in nature The cation exchange capacity of soils varied from 24.56 to78.18 cmol (p+) kg-1. The calcium was the dominant cation followed by magnesium, sodium and potassium. The base saturation percent varied from 21.00 to 114.80.  Typic Ustorthents soils suitable for shallow rooted and short duration crop whereas Typic Haplusterts, Calcic Haplusterts, Sodic Haplusterts and Vertic Haplustepts soils are suitable for both short and long duration crops as well as shallow and deep rooted for sustainable crop production.
  50. 50. Thank you

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