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Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake

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Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Quality of Sunflower Grown on Inceptisol

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Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake

  1. 1. 10/29/2016 1
  2. 2. Seminar on Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Quality of Sunflower Grown on Inceptisol Seminar incharge Dr. P. H. Vaidya Research Guide Dr. B.S. Indulkar Presented by Waghmare S.S.10/29/2016 2
  3. 3.  To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth parameters of sunflower.  To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur application on nutrient availability and nutrient uptake of sunflower.  To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur application on grain and straw yield of sunflower.  To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on quality viz. protein content and oil content of sunflower. 3
  4. 4.  Sunflower ( Helianthus annus L.) is a one of the most popular member of family compositae/Asteraceae. native of sunflower is Southern Mexico.  Sunflower introduced in India 1965 as an edible oilseed crop sunflower seed oil content is 48-53% ,protein content of seed is 14-19%.  India is the largest producer of oilseed in the world in terms of output and in terms of area. Sunflower is a all season crop, ranks third next to groundnut and soybean in the total production of oilseed in the world. 10/29/2016 4
  5. 5.  Nitrogen is the important part of chlorophyll and all protein it is responsible for dark green colour of leaves, vigorous growth, tillering, leaf production and enlargement of leaf surface.  Plant deficient in nitrogen are leaves become a yellowish in colour this yellowish colour appears on older leaves that is lower leaves.  Nitrogen fertilization is one of the important factor stopping a sunflower yield. Split application is most common and widely accepted practices for all crops, the basic approach is to apply nitrogen to sunflower in two or more split to coincide with peak period of nitrogen requirement of crop. 10/29/2016 5
  6. 6.  Sulphur is also needed by crop in large amount compare to ‘P’ and in some crop even more than ‘P’ sulphur requirement per tonne yield production can be taken 3-4 kg for cereals, 8kg for legume crop, 12 kg for oilseed crops.  Among the crops oilseed are more responsive to sulphur, each unit of fertilizer sulphur increase grain yield. Sulphur increases oil content of oilseed by 8.5% in mustard, 5.1% in groundnut and 3.6% in sunflower.  Sulphur is the part of amino acid (cystine and methionine) hence essential for protein production. Sulphur is involved in formation of chlorophyll, activation of enzymes, vitamins, formation of glycosides.  Oilseed crop deficient in sulphur produce low yield with less quality and less oil content in seed. 10/29/2016 6
  7. 7.  N is biologically combined with C, H, O, and S to create amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are used in forming protoplasm, the site for cell division and thus for plant growth and development.  Since all plant enzymes are made of proteins, N is needed for all of the enzymatic reactions in a plant.  N is a major part of the chlorophyll molecule and is therefore necessary for photosynthesis.  N is a necessary component of several vitamins.  N improves the quality and quantity of dry matter in leafy vegetables and protein in grain crops. 7
  8. 8.  Stunted growth may occur because of reduction in cell division.  Pale green to light yellow colour (chlorosis) appearing first on older leaves, usually starting at the tips.  Depending on the severity of deficiency, the chlorosis could result in the death and/or dropping of the older leaves. This is caused by the translocation of N from the older to the younger tissues.  Reduced N lowers the protein content of seeds and vegetative parts. In severe cases, flowering is greatly reduced.  N deficiency causes early maturity in some crops,which results in a significant reduction in yield and quality. 8
  9. 9. 10/29/2016 9
  10. 10. Function of sulphur  Activate a number of protealytic enzyme such as papinases  Increase root growth and oil content in oil seeds  Formation of amino acids, cystine, and methionine and chlorophyll.  Synthesis of proteins.  Increase uptake of N, P, K nutrients.  Promote nodules formation on root of leguminous plant and thereby promoting N fixation.  Stimulate seed formation.  Formation of chlorophyll. 10
  11. 11. Deficiency symptoms of S in Sunflower plants Leaves become light green colour. Chlorosis in young leaves. Shoot growth is restricted. Stems are stiff, woody and thinner in diameter. Sulphur deficiency can seriously affect the yield and quality. Growth rate is retarded and maturity is delayed. 11
  12. 12. Material S Content (%) Ammonium sulphate 24 SSP 16 Potassium sulphate 18 Gypsum 18 Iron pyrites 22-24 Elemental sulphur 85-100 Magnesium sulphate 13 12
  13. 13. 13 Sulphur level (kg/ha) Plant height (cm) Dry matter (t/ha) Achenes/capitulum Test weight (g) Achene yield (t/ha) Oil yield (t/ha) 30 110.24 6.59 336.4 58.17 2.24 0.88 60 112.70 7.40 355.7 60.06 2.42 1.00 SE± 0.93 0.080 1.85 0.37 0.06 0.009 CD(p=0.05) 2.70 0.243 5.35 1.08 0.17 0.025 13 Assam Agriculture university, Assam . Gaurav Kaushik et. al 2009
  14. 14. Treatment Plant height (cm) Leaf area index Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) 40 106.4 0.50 6.5 80 112.0 0.82 6.89 120 115.9 0.96 7.20 SE m± 1.14 0.04 0.103 CD (p=0.05) 3.31 0.11 0.298 Sulphur levels (kg/ha) 30 110.24 0.68 6.59 60 112.70 0.84 7.40 SE m± 0.93 0.03 0.084 CD (p=0.05) 2.7 0.09 0.243 14 S.K.University, Kashmir Faisul-ur-Rasool (2010)
  15. 15. Nitrogen level (kg/ha) Plant height (cm) Dry matter (t/ha) Achenes/capitulum Test weight (g) Achene yield (t/ha) Oil yield (t/ha) 40 106.4 6.15 318.4 57.6 2.03 0.83 80 112.2 6.89 356.5 59.9 2.43 0.97 120 115.9 7.20 363.3 60.0 2.55 1.02 SE± 1.14 0.103 2.27 0.46 0.06 0.01 CD(p=0.05) 3.31 0.298 6.56 1.33 0.18 0.03 15 Assam Agriculture university, Assam . Gaurav Kaushik et. al 2009
  16. 16. Treatments Plant Height (cm) Dry matter accumulation (g plantˉ¹ ) Stem girth (cm) Head diameter (cm) Number of filled seeds head ˉ¹ Seed yield (kg ha ˉ¹) Stalk yield (kg ha ˉ¹ ) NITROGEN Kg ha ˉ¹ 60 160.8 97.9 9.63 16.83 654.0 1663 3638 90 171.9 107.3 10.39 19.13 738.7 1930 3897 120 181.1 113.3 10.85 20.67 783.0 2108 4072 SE m± 0.9 0.4 0.14 0.22 1.1 10 7 CD at 5% 2.9 1.3 0.43 0.66 3.2 29 21 SULPHUR (Kg haˉ¹) 0 163.1 100.5 9.87 17.43 680.3 1732 3696 15 172.2 106.7 10.33 18.93 728.3 1921 3882 30 178.5 111.4 10.67 20.27 767.0 2048 4028 SE m ± 0.9 0.4 0.14 0.22 1.1 10 7 CD at 5 % 2.9 1.3 0.43 0.66 3.2 29 21 N x S Interaction SE m ± 1.7 0.7 0.24 0.38 1.8 17 12 CD at 5 % 5.0 2.2 NS NS 5.5 50 36 10/29/2016 16ANGRAU ,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad. Pavani et. al (2012)
  17. 17. Treatments Plant height (cm) Dry matter accumulation Nitrogen (kg/ha) S₀ S₁₅ S₃₀ S₀ S₁₅ S₃₀ N₆₀ 154.2 158.0 170.1 92.6 96.7 104.5 N₉₀ 160.0 976.0 179.8 100.8 108.8 112.4 N₁₂₀ 175.2 182.6 185.6 108.0 114.8 117.2 SE m ± 1.7 0.7 CD at 5 % 5.0 2.2 17 ANGRAU ,Rajendranagar,Hyderabad Pavani et. al (2012)
  18. 18. Treatment Number of filled seeds head ⁻¹ Seed yield Stalk yield Nitrogen Kg/ha S₀ S₁₅ S₃₀ S₀ S₁₅ S₃₀ S₀ S₁₅ S₃₀ N₆₀ 621 635 706 1536 1629 1824 3451 3596 3867 N₉₀ 680 752 784 1710 1977 2104 3734 3940 4017 N₁₂₀ 740 798 811 1951 2157 2216 3904 4112 4200 SE m ± 1.8 17 12 CD at 5 % 5.5 50 36 18 ANGRAU ,Rajendranagar, Hyderabad Pavani et. al (2012)
  19. 19. Sulphur levels (kg/ha) Plant height (cm) Stem girth (cm) Seed yield (kg ha-1) Test weight (g) Head diameter (cm) Oil % 0 130.80 5.03 2384 44.80 19.7 37.3 15 131.78 5.13 2452 45.50 20.1 37.3 30 132.37 5.17 2497 47.70 20.4 37.5 SEm ± 0.296 0.06 65 0.12 0.3 CD(p=0.05) 0.628 0.14 139 0.25 0.6 19 Agricultural Institute, Allahabad U .P. Satish Kumar and Singh (2005)
  20. 20. Nitrogen content (%) Nitrogen uptake (kg/ha) Treatment Leaf Stem Head Leaf Stem Head Whole plant Nitrogen level (kg/ha) 40 0.852 1.588 0.910 4.09 34.62 62.46 101.17 60 0.8975 1.759 2.109 5.46 43.81 75.25 124.22 80 1.081 1.847 2.291 7.73 54.02 98.31 164.87 SE m± 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.23 1.78 1.33 3.03 Population level 37,500 0.996 1.793 2.207 4.96 33.83 67.68 111.58 55,000 0.939 1.726 2.110 5.87 42.56 76.60 125.03 83,000 0.896 1.674 1.993 6.45 56.05 91.76 154.23 SE m± 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.23 1.78 1.33 3.03 C D at 5% 0.007 0.010 0.007 0.68 5.32 3.99 9.08 20 University of Agril.Sci. Dharwad. Hulagur and Prabhakar 1991
  21. 21. 10/29/2016 21 S levels (kg/ha) Nitrogen uptake by plant Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) Sulphur uptake by plant Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) 0 40 80 120 Mean 0 40 80 120 Mean 0 33.22 45.09 57.06 69.74 51.28 2.66 3.21 3.72 4.11 3.42 20 37.43 53.62 67.03 81.08 59.79 3.29 4.58 5.74 7.17 5.20 40 40.10 60.23 77.14 92.67 67.54 3.89 5.63 7.05 8.69 6.32 60 42.50 66.68 85.14 100.46 73.69 4.47 6.53 8.16 9.69 7.21 Mean 38.31 56.41 71.59 85.99 63.08 3.58 4.99 6.17 7.42 5.54 Source N S N x S N S N x S C D (p=0.05) 2.25 2.25 4.51 0.29 0.29 0.58 S.K.Univesity, Shalimar, Jammu Kashmir. Sayed et. al 2002
  22. 22. Treatments Seed yield kg/ha 2006 2007 2008 Treatments T₁ Control 649 715 652 T₂ - S₂₀ kg/ha 775 926 848 T₃ -S₂₀ kg/ha through SSP 759 937 860 T₄ -S₂₀ kg/ha through Gypsum 878 984 913 T₅ -S₂₀ kg/ha through elemental sulphur 810 1050 976 T₆ -S₄₀ kg/ha through Ammonium sulphate 804 1066 1014 T₇ -S₄₀ kg/ha through SSP 870 1123 1054 T₈ -S₄₀ kg/ha through Gypsum 915 1248 1172 T₉ -S₄₀ kg/ha through elemental sulphur 849 1141 1061 SE m± 44.84 80.25 69.37 CD at 5% 134.44 240.60 207.97 Agricultural Research Station ,Junagadh. 22 Vala et. al 2006
  23. 23. 10/29/2016 23 S levels (kg S /ha) Stalk yield (q/ha) Seed yield (q/ha) Nitrogen levels (kg N/ha) Nitrogen levels (kg N/ha) 0 40 80 120 Mean 0 40 80 120 Mean 0 21.35 25.32 28.63 31.58 26.72 8.14 9.97 11.60 12.61 10.58 20 22.76 27.95 31.94 34.71 29.34 9.19 11.72 14.15 14.38 12.36 40 23.87 29.96 34.29 37.60 31.43 9.87 12.90 15.64 15.59 13.50 60 24.94 31.61 36.22 40.07 33.21 10.04 13.89 16.73 15.86 14.13 Mean 23.23 28.71 32.77 35.99 30.18 9.31 12.12 14.53 14.61 12.64 Source N S N x S N S N x S CD (p=0.05) 2.25 2.25 4.51 0.29 0.29 0.58 S.K.Univesity, Shalimar, Jammu Kashmir. Sayed et. al 2002
  24. 24. Sulphur levels (kg/ha) Plant height (cm) Dry matter (t/ha) Achenes /capitulum Sterility percent Test weight (g) Achenes yield (t/ha) Oil yield (t/ha) 30 110.24 6.59 336.4 6.81 58.17 2.24 0.88 60 112.70 7.40 355.7 7.48 60.06 2.42 1.00 SE m± 0.93 0.084 1.85 0.32 0.37 0.06 0.009 C D(p=0.05) 2.70 0.243 5.35 NS 1.08 0.17 0.025 24 S. K. University, Srinagar. Faisul-ul-Rasool et. al 2009-2010
  25. 25. Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) Plant height (cm) Dry matter (t/ha) Achenes /capitulum Sterility (%) Test weight (g) Achenes yield (t/ha) Oil yield (t/ha) 40 106.4 6.15 318.3 6.38 57.6 2.03 0.83 80 112.0 6.89 356.5 6.82 59.9 2.43 0.97 120 115.9 7.20 363.3 8.15 60.0 2.55 1.02 SE m± 1.14 0.103 2.27 0.39 0.46 0.46 0.01 C D (p=0.05) 33.31 0.298 6.56 1.14 1.33 0.18 0.03 25 S. K. University, Srinagar. Faisul-ul-Rasool et. al 2009-2010
  26. 26. 10/29/2016 26 Treatment Plant height (cm) Leaf area index Dry matter (t/ha) Seed yield (t/ha) Stalk yield (t/ha) Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) 40 106.4 0.50 6.15 2.o3 4.21 80 112.0 0.82 6.89 2.43 4.78 120 115.9 0.96 7.20 2.55 5.20 SE m± 1.14 0.04 0.103 0.06 0,07 CD (p=0.05) 3.31 0.11 0.298 0.18 0.21 Sulphur levels (kg/ha) 30 110.24 0.68 6.59 2.23 4.63 60 112.70 0.84 7.40 2.45 4.84 SE m± 0.93 0.03 0.084 0.05 0.06 CD (p=0.05) 2.7 0.09 0.243 0.14 0.17 S.K.University, Kashmir Faisul-ur-Rasool (2010)
  27. 27. Treatment Seed protein content (%) Oil content (%) Seed yield (q/ha) Oil yield (q/ha) Energy yield (Gega Joules /ha) Harvest index Nitrogen level kg/ha 40 19.80 35.33 15.54 5.50 33.76 0.27 60 21.39 34.03 18.41 6.28 39.50 0.28 80 23.28 32.91 18.97 6.26 40.26 0.25 SE m± 0.04 0.07 0.41 0.14 0.87 0.006 CD at 5 % 0.11 0.19 1.18 0.40 2.54 0.018 Population level 37,500 22.37 33.58 15.53 5.32 33.80 0.30 55,000 21.52 34.17 17.57 5.99 37.69 0.27 83,000 20.58 34.52 19.52 6.73 42.04 0.23 SE m± 0.04 0.07 0.41 0.14 0.87 0.006 C D at 5% 0.11 0.19 0.18 0.40 2.54 0.018 Hulagur and Prabhakar 1991Main Research Station,UAS, Dharwad.
  28. 28. Treatment Oil content (%) Oil yield (t/ha) Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) 2009 2010 2009 2010 40 40.83 40.96 0.83 0.82 80 40.03 40.00 0.97 0.98 120 39.86 39.48 1.02 1.01 SE m± 0.239 0.360 0.010 0.006 CD (p=0.05) 0.690 1.040 0.031 0.018 Sulphur levels (kg/ha) 30 39.64 39.70 0.88 0.89 60 40.84 40.66 1.00 0.98 SE m± 0.195 0.294 0.009 0.005 CD (p=0.05) 0.560 0.850 0.025 0.015 28 S.K.University, Kashmir Faisul-ur-Rasool (2010)
  29. 29. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that-  Application of Nitrogen increases protein content of seed, oil content of seed, seed yield & oil yield of sunflower.  Sulphur plays an important role in increasing growth, yield and oil content of sunflower.  Among different levels of nitrogen & sulphur, resulted in highest seed yield, growth, oil yield, oil content and protein content in sunflower. 29
  30. 30. 10/29/2016 30 THANK YOU

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