Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake
Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield, Nutrient
and Quality of Sunflower Grown on Inceptisol
Dr. P. H. Vaidya
Dr. B.S. Indulkar
Waghmare S.S.10/29/2016 2
To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth parameters of
To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur application on nutrient
availability and nutrient uptake of sunflower.
To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur application on grain and
straw yield of sunflower.
To study the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on quality viz. protein
content and oil content of sunflower.
Sunflower ( Helianthus annus L.) is a one of the most
popular member of family compositae/Asteraceae. native of
sunflower is Southern Mexico.
Sunflower introduced in India 1965 as an edible oilseed crop
sunflower seed oil content is 48-53% ,protein content of
seed is 14-19%.
India is the largest producer of oilseed in the world in terms
of output and in terms of area. Sunflower is a all season
crop, ranks third next to groundnut and soybean in the total
production of oilseed in the world.
Nitrogen is the important part of chlorophyll and all protein it is
responsible for dark green colour of leaves, vigorous growth,
tillering, leaf production and enlargement of leaf surface.
Plant deficient in nitrogen are leaves become a yellowish in
colour this yellowish colour appears on older leaves that is lower
Nitrogen fertilization is one of the important factor stopping a
sunflower yield. Split application is most common and widely
accepted practices for all crops, the basic approach is to apply
nitrogen to sunflower in two or more split to coincide with peak
period of nitrogen requirement of crop.
Sulphur is also needed by crop in large amount compare to ‘P’
and in some crop even more than ‘P’ sulphur requirement per
tonne yield production can be taken 3-4 kg for cereals, 8kg for
legume crop, 12 kg for oilseed crops.
Among the crops oilseed are more responsive to sulphur, each
unit of fertilizer sulphur increase grain yield. Sulphur increases
oil content of oilseed by 8.5% in mustard, 5.1% in groundnut
and 3.6% in sunflower.
Sulphur is the part of amino acid (cystine and methionine) hence
essential for protein production. Sulphur is involved in formation
of chlorophyll, activation of enzymes, vitamins, formation of
Oilseed crop deficient in sulphur produce low yield with less
quality and less oil content in seed.
N is biologically combined with C, H, O, and S to create amino
acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are
used in forming protoplasm, the site for cell division and thus for
plant growth and development.
Since all plant enzymes are made of proteins, N is needed for all
of the enzymatic reactions in a plant.
N is a major part of the chlorophyll molecule and is therefore
necessary for photosynthesis.
N is a necessary component of several vitamins.
N improves the quality and quantity of dry matter in leafy
vegetables and protein in grain crops.
Stunted growth may occur because of reduction in cell division.
Pale green to light yellow colour (chlorosis) appearing first on older
leaves, usually starting at the tips.
Depending on the severity of deficiency, the chlorosis could result in
the death and/or dropping of the older leaves. This is caused by the
translocation of N from the older to the younger tissues.
Reduced N lowers the protein content of seeds and vegetative parts. In
severe cases, flowering is greatly reduced.
N deficiency causes early maturity in some crops,which results in a
significant reduction in yield and quality.
Function of sulphur
Activate a number of protealytic enzyme such as papinases
Increase root growth and oil content in oil seeds
Formation of amino acids, cystine, and methionine and chlorophyll.
Synthesis of proteins.
Increase uptake of N, P, K nutrients.
Promote nodules formation on root of leguminous plant and thereby
promoting N fixation.
Stimulate seed formation.
Formation of chlorophyll.
Deficiency symptoms of S in Sunflower plants
Leaves become light green colour.
Chlorosis in young leaves.
Shoot growth is restricted.
Stems are stiff, woody and thinner in diameter.
Sulphur deficiency can seriously affect the yield and
Growth rate is retarded and maturity is delayed.
Material S Content (%)
Ammonium sulphate 24
Potassium sulphate 18
Iron pyrites 22-24
Elemental sulphur 85-100
Magnesium sulphate 13
Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that-
Application of Nitrogen increases protein content of seed, oil
content of seed, seed yield & oil yield of sunflower.
Sulphur plays an important role in increasing growth, yield and
oil content of sunflower.
Among different levels of nitrogen & sulphur, resulted in highest
seed yield, growth, oil yield, oil content and protein content in