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Libraries are, as the shrines whereall the relics of the ancient saints,full of true virtue, and that withoutdelusion     ...
You are hereEstablished in 1836John MacFarlaneFirst LibrarianHarinath DeFirst IndianLibrarian
• Receives books and periodicals under the Delivery of Books I       and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954       • S...
I    • Local membershipII    • Inter Library LoanIII   • Outstation MembershipIV    • BibliographyV     • ReprographyVI   ...
245                    225                    205Rs. In Million                    185                    165             ...
P                                              Acquisition                                   E                            ...
Recommendations   PA Opinion     O&M    Preservation     Acquisition   Scope & Methods    Audit Objectives
Start-up
Audit Objectives
Acquisition
• From 2004-08, only 5-12% of books publishedI       in six Indian vernaculars were received      • In six other languages...
• Penal action against defaultingI       publishers      • Govt. of India to reformulateII      rules under Section 8 of D...
• No specific book acquisition policy I    • No user feedback      • No panel of expertsII    • In 13 of 27 cases expert s...
• Review gaps in holdingsI      • Conduct market surveys forII      price      • Consult other publicly-fundedIII     libr...
• For 900 books received, onlyI      252 reciprocated     • For 7335 books & microficheII     received, no reciprocity at ...
• Redouble effortsI     for exchange
• 11 of 64 prominent research journals received under        DB Act      • Although Rs. 30 million spent of 745 foreign I ...
Introduce electronicand online access for users, including Wi-       Fi zones
Processing
• Except four divisions, all others have adequate HR I    • Four divisions have excess HR      • Hindi division has 49014 ...
• Review and rationalize HRI      • All processes from purchase to        cataloguing      should    beII      automated  ...
• 5 foreign language divisions for holdings in 58I       languages      • Experts only in 5 languagesII      • Books in ot...
Outsource foreignlanguage skills touniversities     andother       academicinstitutions
“Classification, broadly defined, is theact of organizing the universe ofknowledge into some systematic order.It has been ...
Preservation
• Except 12 alcoves, no consolidation of other rareI       books      • No Accession register maintainedII      • No catal...
Definition of ‘rare’ to berevisitedSingle Accession Registerfor all rare materielDigitize rare materiel
• Only 9141 documents digitized in a decade I      • Although a million target set for next phase, no workII      undertak...
• Collaborate with National       Archives for National Policy       for      digitization   andI      preservation     • ...
• No guidelines on conservation processI     • No expert opinion sought      • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed fo...
• Need for immediate conservation policy I    • Greater coordination between divisions and laboratory      • Preparatory u...
Environment
• Air-conditioning switched off after working        hours - high humidity in Kolkata not neutralized I      • No power ba...
• Sanskrit books lying bundled since 1961 – dust that is I      corroding the collection      • Old newspapers kept in non...
Climate       controlshould be ensuredRegular fire responsedrills essential
What a place to be in is an old library! It seems as thoughall the souls of all the writers that have bequeathed theirlabo...
Control Systems
• Except one, no division maintainedI       record of books sent to other divisions      • No acknowledgement of receiptsI...
• Norms of stock verification not available I      • Physical verification not carried out regularlyII      • Imperial Col...
• Functional CCTV not availableI      • No frisking of visitors/baggage X-rayII      • No dedicated security for rare book...
• Annual verification plan I      • RFID tagging of holdingsII      • CCTV systemIII      • Visitor frisking & baggage X-r...
The student has his Rome, hisFlorence,    his     whole    glowingItaly, within the four walls of hislibrary. He has in hi...
Reader Services
• Low footfall in 10 reading facilities I      • No electronic cataloguing – uncataloged books issued        despite 13 te...
• No system to identify prize winning books I    • Journals not on display      • Old books displayedII    • No publicity,...
National Library, BrazilNational Library, Australia   National Diet Library, JapanNational Library, Ireland     National L...
• 58% of books requisitioned by users not returned by I      previous borrower even two years from date of issue      • De...
User Group      Target Group       In situ Services      Remote Services Research         Higher          Reading rooms,  ...
There is not such a cradle ofdemocracy upon the earth as theFree Public Library, this republic ofletters,       where     ...
Bibliographic Services
• 2002 proposal to convert 2.5 million bibliographic records        into machine readable cataloging limited to only 7% of...
• Greater synergy of activities       with    Central   ReferenceI      Library     • National Library should be       nod...
Weak internal controlsAcquisiton          Verification   Preservation   Conservation                     Outmoded Practice...
• Legislation not enforced/enforceable I    • Transparent & Competitive Bidding      • No exchange programs with libraries...
Recommendations   PA Opinion     O&M    Preservation     Acquisition   Scope & Methods    Audit Objectives
National Library, Paris   National Library, Berlin
National Library, Kuala LumpurNational Library, Brazil     National Library, SingaporeBiblioteca Nacional, Chile   Nationa...
I received the fundamentals of my education in school, but that wasnot enough. My real education, the superstructure, the ...
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India
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Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India

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Case Study of Performance Audit of National Library, Kolkata, India

  1. 1. Libraries are, as the shrines whereall the relics of the ancient saints,full of true virtue, and that withoutdelusion or imposture, arepreserved and reposed.— Libraries, Francis BACON (1561-1626)
  2. 2. You are hereEstablished in 1836John MacFarlaneFirst LibrarianHarinath DeFirst IndianLibrarian
  3. 3. • Receives books and periodicals under the Delivery of Books I and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954 • Separate Indian vernacular divisions for 15 languages, Pali & II Prakrit • Arabic, Persian, East Asian, Germanic, RomanceIII languages, Slavonic, West Asian and African collections • Physical, chemical, reprographic conservation & digitizationIV • Collection of approx. 2.50 million books, 88000 maps, 3000 V manuscripts, etc. • Reading rooms with 814 readers capacityVI • Total shelf space of 45 kmVII • Area of Belvedere Campus 30 acresVIII • Total area in buildings of approx. 63,000 sq. metresIX
  4. 4. I • Local membershipII • Inter Library LoanIII • Outstation MembershipIV • BibliographyV • ReprographyVI • ChildrenVII • Training & Guidance
  5. 5. 245 225 205Rs. In Million 185 165 145 125 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Allocated 143 153 170 198.5 201.8 256.7 Expended 129 151.7 167.8 191 189.8 231.7 http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Audit_Report/Government_Wise/union_audit/recent_reports/u nion_performance/2010_2011/Civil_%20Performance_Audits/Report_no_3/chap1.pdf
  6. 6. P Acquisition E Conservation R F Reference O Books State Archives R User Services MManuscripts Modernization ANewspapers N C Journals ELithographs O&M A HR U Finances D Estate I Thttp://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Our_Products/Audit_Report/Government_Wise/union_audit/recent_reports/union_performance/2010_2011/Civil_%20Performance_Audits/Report_no_3/chap1.pdf
  7. 7. Recommendations PA Opinion O&M Preservation Acquisition Scope & Methods Audit Objectives
  8. 8. Start-up
  9. 9. Audit Objectives
  10. 10. Acquisition
  11. 11. • From 2004-08, only 5-12% of books publishedI in six Indian vernaculars were received • In six other languages 20-26% only receivedII • No enforcement of DB ActIII • Penalties not imposedIV • UK & Australia: Legal deposit linked toV Copyright Act • Fines in South Africa, US & Canada plus jailVI terms
  12. 12. • Penal action against defaultingI publishers • Govt. of India to reformulateII rules under Section 8 of DB Act • Create and update database ofIII books published in India
  13. 13. • No specific book acquisition policy I • No user feedback • No panel of expertsII • In 13 of 27 cases expert selector not on panel • Expert visited only once to select 336 books • Purchase from vendors limited mostly (72%) toIII Kolkata-based vendors only • Less price discount of 5% obtained from vendorsIV • Delhi University Library obtains 15% price discount • British Library categorizes holding as ‘selective’, etc.V – ex. music acquisitions based on regional traditions
  14. 14. • Review gaps in holdingsI • Conduct market surveys forII price • Consult other publicly-fundedIII libraries for price discounts
  15. 15. • For 900 books received, onlyI 252 reciprocated • For 7335 books & microficheII received, no reciprocity at all
  16. 16. • Redouble effortsI for exchange
  17. 17. • 11 of 64 prominent research journals received under DB Act • Although Rs. 30 million spent of 745 foreign I journals, subscription list never updated nor relevance reviewed • Vendors not selected by competitive biddingII • No journal usage data available • Library does not monitor price rise owing to foreign exchange rate fluctuationIII • Despite 13 terminals in reading room, no online access or CD/DVD access available • IIT, Kharagpur, has e-access to over 7,000 journals withIV a Rs. 3 million budget
  18. 18. Introduce electronicand online access for users, including Wi- Fi zones
  19. 19. Processing
  20. 20. • Except four divisions, all others have adequate HR I • Four divisions have excess HR • Hindi division has 49014 unprocessed books in arrears • Despite processing software, shelf cards generatedII manually • E-data not shared between divisionsIII • Users deprived of 300,000 books • Other Kolkata-based publicly-funded libraries such asIV RKM & ISI have automated full process
  21. 21. • Review and rationalize HRI • All processes from purchase to cataloguing should beII automated • Effective steps to clear backlogIII of unprocessed books
  22. 22. • 5 foreign language divisions for holdings in 58I languages • Experts only in 5 languagesII • Books in other languages not processed forIII shelves • Unprocessed books loaned to usersIV • No experts or outsourcing of foreign languageV skills resorted to
  23. 23. Outsource foreignlanguage skills touniversities andother academicinstitutions
  24. 24. “Classification, broadly defined, is theact of organizing the universe ofknowledge into some systematic order.It has been considered the mostfundamental activity of the humanmind.”— "Cataloguing and Classification: AnIntroduction“ - Lois Mai Chan. Universityof Kentucky, USA
  25. 25. Preservation
  26. 26. • Except 12 alcoves, no consolidation of other rareI books • No Accession register maintainedII • No catalogues available for rare inventoryIII • Movement Register for documents sent to other Division do not have return dates recorded onIV them • Users unaware of rare collectionsV • Magna Carta at British Library digitized byVI Microsoft
  27. 27. Definition of ‘rare’ to berevisitedSingle Accession Registerfor all rare materielDigitize rare materiel
  28. 28. • Only 9141 documents digitized in a decade I • Although a million target set for next phase, no workII undertaken since early-2006 • 7000 unbound/damaged books not fit for flatbed scannersIII • Less than a per cent of old newspapers and journalsIV digitized • National Library of Norway digitized more than 300,000 photographs, 150,000 hours of radio broadcasts, 1,000,000V newspapers and 25,000 books in a decade • British Library and Microsoft digitized over 25,000,000VI pages spread over 100,000 books
  29. 29. • Collaborate with National Archives for National Policy for digitization andI preservation • Hire I-T personnelII
  30. 30. • No guidelines on conservation processI • No expert opinion sought • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed for suitability before useII • No guidelines on conservation process • No expert opinion soughtIII • Binding materiel not chemically analyzed for suitability before use • 155 books from a famous collection suffered damage owing to substandard/unsuitable binding chemicalsIV • Supervisory ‘preparatory’ unit not worked for over 15 years • Corrosive flour and copper sulphate used as glue • Available freezer dryer machines for disinfecting never used owing toV no available HR • No relation between field of training and deployment for trained HRVI
  31. 31. • Need for immediate conservation policy I • Greater coordination between divisions and laboratory • Preparatory unit be reconstitutedII • Outsource binding in situ to professional binding firms • Establish in-house training divisionIII • Introduce more technical know-how • Sponsor university training on preservation inIV association with universities
  32. 32. Environment
  33. 33. • Air-conditioning switched off after working hours - high humidity in Kolkata not neutralized I • No power back up available for air conditioningII • No monitoring of temperature by maintenance engineers of CPWDIII • No termite survey done after 2003IV
  34. 34. • Sanskrit books lying bundled since 1961 – dust that is I corroding the collection • Old newspapers kept in non-AC godown in centralII business district • 64 of 83 fire extinguishers have no residual shelf lifeIII • National Library of Sri Lanka and British Library haveIV 24-hour temperature control • National Library of Sri Lanka also holds courses inV preservation and advises other repositories
  35. 35. Climate controlshould be ensuredRegular fire responsedrills essential
  36. 36. What a place to be in is an old library! It seems as thoughall the souls of all the writers that have bequeathed theirlabors to these Bodleians were reposing here as in somedormitory, or middle state. I do not want to handle, toprofane the leaves, their winding-sheets. I could as soondislodge a shade. I seem to inhale learning, walking amidtheir foliage; and the odor of their old moth-scentedcoverings is fragrant as the first bloom of the scientialapples which grew amid the happy orchard.— Essays of Elia. Oxford in the Vacation,Charles LAMB (1775-1834)
  37. 37. Control Systems
  38. 38. • Except one, no division maintainedI record of books sent to other divisions • No acknowledgement of receiptsII • Several months taken forIII unbundling, sorting & accession • Shelf shortage – books dumped inIV various locations
  39. 39. • Norms of stock verification not available I • Physical verification not carried out regularlyII • Imperial Collection shows significant differences fromIII various sources • Verification done in 2 of 39 divisionsIV • No census of books - some not returned even after 20V years • Books issued on verbal instructions of librarianVI
  40. 40. • Functional CCTV not availableI • No frisking of visitors/baggage X-rayII • No dedicated security for rare booksIII division • No boundary wall demarcating library andIV non-library areas • Easy access to campus over boundary wallV
  41. 41. • Annual verification plan I • RFID tagging of holdingsII • CCTV systemIII • Visitor frisking & baggage X-rayIV • Automated monitoring of movement of booksV • British Library has CCTV with pan, tilt and zoomVI
  42. 42. The student has his Rome, hisFlorence, his whole glowingItaly, within the four walls of hislibrary. He has in his books the ruinsof an antique world and the glories ofa modern one.— Henry Wadsworth Longfellow(1807-1882)
  43. 43. Reader Services
  44. 44. • Low footfall in 10 reading facilities I • No electronic cataloguing – uncataloged books issued despite 13 terminals being available but withoutII networking • No value added services, eg. Courier delivery for usersIII at their homes • No foreign language expert in 53 languagesIV • Divisions without an assistant – even part-time ones notV available – users remained unserved
  45. 45. • No system to identify prize winning books I • Journals not on display • Old books displayedII • No publicity, conferences, seminars, etc. • Books requisitioned but not found in stacksIII • Reading rooms closed before scheduled time • User feedback not consideredIV • British Library segregates users and offers matchingV services
  46. 46. National Library, BrazilNational Library, Australia National Diet Library, JapanNational Library, Ireland National Library, Venezuela
  47. 47. • 58% of books requisitioned by users not returned by I previous borrower even two years from date of issue • Despite available VIRTUA application, OPAC globalII standard not implemented • No remote services on web siteIII • In situ personal search for titles only recourse for usersIV • National Libraries in Australia, France, Egypt, Finland andV Japan OPAC-enabled • Ask a Librarian in US Library of CongressVI
  48. 48. User Group Target Group In situ Services Remote Services Research Higher Reading rooms, Online library catalogs, Education, bookshop, subject resources Governments, publishing Writers servicesBusiness Biz R&D, hi-tech Advisory services, Document supply, industries, conferences, science & technology media, science corporate services information services, parks reprographicsEducation Teachers, Exhibitions, school Online education pages students, lifelong tours, bookshop on web site, curriculum learners, resources, online bookshopLibrary & Other libraries, Training, visits, Bibliographic services,Information information exhibitions, tours library catalogs, societies documents supply, librarianship service, virtual reference libraryPublic Exhibitions, event Web resources, online s, tours, bookshop bookshop
  49. 49. There is not such a cradle ofdemocracy upon the earth as theFree Public Library, this republic ofletters, where neitherrank, office, nor wealth receives theslightest consideration — AndrewCarnegie
  50. 50. Bibliographic Services
  51. 51. • 2002 proposal to convert 2.5 million bibliographic records into machine readable cataloging limited to only 7% of I holdings up to 2008 • Duplicative effort in conversion as US Library of Congress already retro converted these documentsII • Even records uploaded are not validated • Indian National Bibliography (INB) of Central Reference Library (CRL) not completed even on the same campusIII owing to books not sent to them by National Library • Duplicate cataloging by INB and Library divisionIV • Separate cataloging vendors for INB and National Library • National Library paid Rs. 1.30 million more than CRL forV the same job
  52. 52. • Greater synergy of activities with Central ReferenceI Library • National Library should be nodal agency for allII bibliographic activity in India
  53. 53. Weak internal controlsAcquisiton Verification Preservation Conservation Outmoded Practices Digitization Cataloguing O&M Fire Security
  54. 54. • Legislation not enforced/enforceable I • Transparent & Competitive Bidding • No exchange programs with librariesII • No online journal subscriptions • No rationalization of processing HRIII • Large backlog of accession • Rare manuscripts not digitizedIV • No online digitized holdings • Inadequate I-T HRV • No conservation policy • No coordination between functional divisionsVI • Inadequate climate control, fire control and CCTV • Inadequate stock verificationVII • No bar coded holdings
  55. 55. Recommendations PA Opinion O&M Preservation Acquisition Scope & Methods Audit Objectives
  56. 56. National Library, Paris National Library, Berlin
  57. 57. National Library, Kuala LumpurNational Library, Brazil National Library, SingaporeBiblioteca Nacional, Chile National Diet Library, Tokyo
  58. 58. I received the fundamentals of my education in school, but that wasnot enough. My real education, the superstructure, the details, thetrue architecture, I got out of the public library. For animpoverished child whose family could not afford to buy books, thelibrary was the open door to wonder and achievement, and I cannever be sufficiently grateful that I had the wit to charge throughthat door and make the most of it. Now, when I read constantlyabout the way in which library funds are being cut and cut, I canonly think that the door is closing and that American society hasfound one more way to destroy itself.— Issac Asimov: I, Asimov. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

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