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- 1. S H A N O N C O L E , J A I M I E L I T T R E L L , M A X G L I C K M A N M T E 5 3 3 N E I K O G I L G E N Differentiating Instruction
- 2. Trend 1: Technology Can be used for both math and science Technology is a great way to engage students during a lesson. Lessons that would normally be tedious, such as math or science, can be more exciting with the use of virtual field trips and streaming video ("ehow: Pros and Cons Technology in the Classroom", n.d.). By streaming video’s students can sometimes get a different perspective or learn a new way of understanding a concept. Also, it provides instant feedback. This gives students an idea of what they know and what they need to work on immediately. Furthermore, this provides the teacher with more instructional time since she won’t have to assess for knowledge constantly.
- 3. Technologies Instructional Issues While technology can increase student engagement it does have its fall backs with diverse learners. Technology is always changing and it is difficult for most schools to afford the new equipment, making it not accessible to all students. In addition to this, when students are granted time to use technology in the classroom it can create a distraction. The use of technology gives students an opportunity to divert there attention from their assignment with social media. Furthermore, some students may have a difficult time using technology due to physical disabilities or language barriers. Also, if an assignment is to be completed at home it could cause problems because not all families have the technology available to provide their children in order for them to finish it at home.
- 4. Trend 2: Group Work Can be used for both math and science. Group work can be used to motive students to want to be more involved in the learning process. Students are given the opportunity to practice their social skills and are given a chance to take control of their own learning. Working in groups provides more opportunity for practice, offers an increased variety of activities, and promotes student creativity ("Best Of Bilash: Improving Second Language Education", 2009).
- 5. Group Work Instructional Issues While group work can be fun and informative it can also give diverse learners a negative learning experience. Due to language barriers or learning disabilities some students may have a more difficult time communicating with their team mates, making it uncomfortable for them. Also, some groups may contain a gifted student who takes on most of the group work, not allowing the rest of the group to benefit from the learning experience. This example can also make some students lazy and teach them to expect others to do their work for them. These types of examples make for an unfair instructional environment.
- 6. Trend 3: Learning Centers Learning centers are helpful in the classroom by dividing the room into: Subjects Academic Levels Themes Engage students through different methods: Observation Exploration Experimentation Collaboration www.thelearningcottage.info
- 7. Learning Centers: Math and Science Math: Can use small groups to reinforce concepts taught Practice concepts Problem solving Science: Hands-on activities in small groups/ individually Experimentation and exploration Collaboration with small teams for in depth learning
- 8. Positives Instructional Issues Improves classrooms and provides time management Instructors can give time to individuals and small groups to enhance learning Students are motivated with fun short activities for many learning types Students learn collaboration and teamwork Classrooms can be small with limited space Centers can be expensive for instructors Additional training may be needed for instructors Centers create noise and movement in the classroom which can cause disruption and a lack of focus Learning Centers
- 9. Math Science Laboratories can be used to illustrate and facilitate learning in applied mathematics. Hands on instruction and real- time mathematical modeling increases information retention and investment (Fairweather, 2008) . Kinesthetic, auditory and visual aspects of applied laboratory math facilitates the learning of scholars with multiple intelligences. Laboratory time in the science fields has been shown to increase concept retention and critical thinking skills. Hands on scientific instruction allows for divergent and convergent thinking in a field that is generally thought to be ridged (Fairweather, 2008). Laboratory time models rue scientific theory, work and discovery better preparing scholars with a skill set that is necessary for success in the STEM fields. Trend 4: Hands-On Learning; Laboratories
- 10. Trend 4: Instructional Issues Laboratory procedures and skills are not easily taught and require a high-level of critical thinking and meta cognitive thought. Labs can be dangerous and require a strict behavioral management plan. In order to facilitate a high level of academic achievement in a laboratory setting student investment and prior understanding of the content is required.
- 11. STEM Lesson Plan Outline: Learning Centers Kindergarten Double Digit Addition Learning Objective: SWBAT add double digit numbers, without regrouping, using base-ten blocks and counting by tens and ones. Behavioral Objective: SWBAT identify the tens and ones place in a double digit number and choose the appropriate base-ten and base- one blocks to represent the above number. SWBAT add base-ten and base-one blocks by counting said blocks by tens and ones, eliminating the need to add single digit numbers to double digit base-ten numbers. SWBAT represent the corresponding result in base-ten and base-one blocks and identify the tens and ones place. Learning Centers: Base-Ten and Base-One Manipulatives: Representing double digit numbers with Base-Ten and Base-One blocks. Scholars will draw circles for each number and circle groups of ten, scholars will then place the corresponding tens block on the group to represent one group of ten. The remaining numbers will be represented by Base-One blocks. Scholars will then fill in a chart identifying the tens and ones values. Drawing Base-Ten blocks (sticks) and Base-One blocks (squares) to represent a double digit number. Scholars will be given a sheet with double digit numbers, the scholars will be required to identify the tens and ones value for each number and draw the corresponding Tens-Blocks and Ones-Blocks to represent said number. Adding double digit numbers with pre-drawn Base-Tens and Base-Ones blocks. Scholars will count by tens and ones to add Base-Tens and Base-Ones blocks representing labeled double digit addition equations. Drawing and Adding Base-Ten and Base-One blocks to represent a double digit addition equation. Scholars will be given a list of double digit addition equations and they will be required to draw the corresponding Base- Ten and Base-One blocks and add the numbers by counting by tens and ones. Note: each center will be taught independently and will culminate in a mathematics block of learning centers, prior to the test for review.
- 12. References: Best of Bilash: Improving Second Language Education. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.Bilash/best%20of%20bilash/pairwork.html. eHow: Pros and Cons Technology in the Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5384898_pros-cons-technology-classroom.html. Fairweather, J. (2008) . Linking Evidence and Promising Practices in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Undergraduate Education. The National Academies National Research Council Board of Scientific Education. Retrieved from https://www.nsf.gov/attachments/117803/public/Xc--Linking_Evidence--Fairweather.pdf Rongione, D. (2014). The Disadvantages of Learning Centers. Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/disadvantages-learning-centers-17974.html

- Learning centers are designed to help the instructor divide the classroom into helpful sections according to his or her classroom’s needs. These divisions can include subjects, academic levels, or even themes. Each learning center will have its own activities and purposes. Each activity is meant to provide students with different types of learning: observation, exploration, experimentation, and collaboration (Rongione, 2014). Normally, each center has a time limit, then children rotate to a different center for another type of learning to experience.
- Learning centers can be used in both math and science classrooms. In math, instructors can use small groups to allow reinforcement of the concepts taught in class. Time in centers allows for further practice of these concepts. It also allows time for problem solving. Through problem solving in groups or individually, a child can learn to think critically about the concepts. In the science classroom, centers allow for hands-on activities and learning. Students can often explore concepts further and use small experiments when changing from center to center. Lastly, collaboration with small teams creates learning in a team setting, defining roles, and a chance for students to provide input to one another.
- There are positive aspects to learning centers. Firstly, it improves classrooms and time management by allowing multiple activities to take place at one given time. Instructors can also walk around giving individual attention to those struggling or guidance to small groups. Students stay motivated to learn because of the short fun activities and it provides interest for many different learning types. Lastly, students learn to collaborate and work as a team which are essential skills. There are also some instructional issues which may arise. Classrooms can often be small with limited space to create multiple learning centers. Center and activities can often be expensive on the instructor who is trying to make fun out of learning. Depending on the center and the resources used, additional training may be needed for the instructor. Lastly, centers create noise and movement in the classroom which can be distracting for some because it disrupts the class for a small period of time.
- According to The National Academies National Research Council Board of Science Education hands-on laboratory style learning is key to a scholar’s success in the STEM fields. Not only does lab time expose students to true-to-life STEM field work but it increases information retention through a combination of different learning styles and a basic sense of levity. Scholars are required to solve seemingly novel scientific research through a combination of convergent, fact-based thinking and “outside-the-box” divergent thinking, these duel processes increases a scholars propensity to develop critical thinking skills.
- The positives of laboratory-style learning far outweigh the negatives, though careful consideration must be taken in order to ensure a high level of academic achievement and success. Labs must be carefully planed, managed and executed in order to maintain a physically safe learning environment. Lab skills and procedures must be taught and strictly enforced prior to any experimentation which requires quite a bit of time and effort on the part of the instructor.
- The above centers will be taught in conjunction with whole and small group instruction in double digit addition. Each center will be introduced as the subject matter is taught. Prior to the exam the centers will be reviewed and implemented as a review session during a mathematics block.