§113.6. Social Studies, Grade 4.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) History. The student understands the similarities and
differences of Native-American groups in Texas and the
Western Hemisphere before European exploration. The
student is expected to:
(A) identify Native-American groups in Texas and the
Western Hemisphere before European exploration and
describe the regions in which they lived; and
(B) compare the ways of life of Native-American groups in
Texas and the Western Hemisphere before European
Men wore breechcloths women The Tonkawas lived in
wore short skirts. scattered villages in central
Both wore long earrings, and Texas.
necklaces of shells, bones and Shelters were made of brush
Both parted hair in middle, the Ate just about anything
men tied beaver fur around including; spiders, ant eggs,
their braids. worms, lizards, and rotten
Didn’t name their babies until A special treat was cooked fish
they were several years old. that was left out in the open for
Method of discipline was to 8 days with swarms of insects
throw water on an offender. on them.
Darker skin, short, stocky, and Tepee- Made of buffalo hides
thick through the chest sewn together and painted
Men had short hair on the right with designs. Placed over a
side and long on the left. number of poles to form a
Women had long hair usually cone.
Both tattooed and painted
Men wore only a breechcloth
and moccasins, Women wore a CUSTOMS
deerskin dress and moccasins. The Kiowa woman made the
Food family tepee.
Buffalo, antelope, jackrabbits, The men decorated the
prairie dogs, coyotes and finished tepees, painting them
wolves. to match a warrior’s shield.
Painted and tattooed much of Lived in grass huts.
their visible part of their Each hut had one circular room
bodies. about fifteen to thirty feet in
Men and women wore long diameter.
hair, either loose or in braids. Two families lived in one hut.
Men wore breechcloths and Smaller huts were used as
moccasins resting, working and storage
Women wore deerskin skirts places.
and moccasins CUSTOMS
FOOD When deciding to marry the
Corn was their favorite. suitor left a gift of venison at
Beans, melons, pumpkins, the door of a girls home. If the
tobacco, and squash, wild parents took the offering the
berries, nuts, figs and honey. marriage was granted and the
groom lived with the brides
Appeared in Spanish records around 1500-
1700 C.E., then disappeared.
Nothing remains of their language to tell
where they came from or where they went.
In 1700s, the Apache cut off the Jumano trade
routes, when they advanced south.
Some may have joined the Apache
Jumano Indians disappeaed long before
white settlers arrived.
THERE WERE TWO JUMANO GROUPS IN TEXAS.
ONE GROUP FARMED ON THE RIO GRANDE,
SOUTH OF EL PASO.
THEY LIVED IN TEPEES AND HAD ADOBE
HOUSES ALONG THE RIO GRAND.
CORN The horizontal stripes on their
DRIED SQUASHES faces made the Jumano easy to
recognize as they approached
their trading partners.
MESQUITE BEANS Through trade, they also
CLOTH supplied Spanish goods and
TURQUOISE horses to other tribes.
SALT FOR HIDES
AND OTHER BISON
They established the Ysleta del Sur, “little island of
the south”, which is a suburb of El Paso.
Rio Grande cut a new channel in 1830, making Ysleta
del Sur an Island.
Ysleta del Sur became part of the United States
under the terms of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War.
The Tigua have been living in the region of Texas for
over 300 years.
Today, there is a tribal center at Ysleta has
shops that sell Tigua crafts, and dancers
Men wear colorful jackets trimmed in calico
Women wear costumes adopted during the
TRIBE LOCATION POPULATION LANGUAGE FAMILY
TONKAWA Plains of central and 1690 –1600 Tonkawan
south central Texas 1990 – 20
KIOWA TX Panhandle, north of 1905– 1,195 Kiowa-Tanoan
Amarillo 1990-- 468
WITCHITA Along Brazos River near 1818– 800 Caddoan
present-day Waco, TX 1990-- 87
APACHES West-central Texas 1690– 500 Athapascan
plains 1990-- 7
COMANCHES Texas Panhandle south 1700– 20,000 Shoshonean
to western TX 1990– 1,478
TIGUA Present day El Paso, TX 1630—18,400 Kiowa-Tanoan
JUMANOS Rio Grande Valley from 1582– 10,000 Apache, Spanish, or
El Paso downstream to 1900– 0 Caddoan
the Mexican Rio Conchos
What part of Texas
did the Witchita
Near present Near present Near present
day Waco day Dallas day Houston
What was the ;main
source of food,
shelter , and tools for
the Comanche tribe?
Deer Buffalos Horses
How was the
population of the
tribes effected after
the Europeans came?
Went Up Went down
What was a favored
treat by the Tonkawa
Cooked fish that
Buffalo was left out for 8 Roasted corn
In 1900 which
Jumano Apache Tigua