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Targeted Vegetation Plantings to Enhance Function in Stormwater Management Facilities

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According to a StatsCan survey published in November, as of 2016, there were over 15,000 stormwater management facilities that were in place and operated by municipal governments.

Over two-thirds of these SWM facilities were built after 1999.

As new facilities are designed and come online, and as these existing facilities continue to age, we feel it’s important that we understand how they perform over time in terms of water quality treatment.

We are looking for opportunities to enhance function in stormwater management facilities, whether they are existing or planned facilities, through the use of targeted vegetation plantings given the local hydrologic and hydraulic conditions.

Published in: Engineering
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Targeted Vegetation Plantings to Enhance Function in Stormwater Management Facilities

  1. 1. Existing Stormwater Management Facilities Source: 15,000 Municipal Stormwater Management Facilities 2/3 Constructed after 1999
  2. 2. TARGETED VEGETATION PLANTINGS To Enhance Function in Stormwater Management Facilities TRIECA CONFERENCE - MARCH 21, 2019 Nick Mocan, M.Sc., P.Eng. | Crozier & Associates Consulting Engineers Dr. Kevin Stevens | Wilfrid Laurier University
  3. 3. The Project RESEARCH OVERVIEW METHODOLOGY SCIENTIFIC BASIS PRELIMINARY RESULTS RECOMMENDATIONS
  4. 4. Dr. Kevin Stevens The Team Nick Mocan, M.Sc., P.Eng. Engage Grant
  5. 5. The Site SAMPLING  Wet Pond  Vegetation Survey  Hydraulic Monitoring  Water Quality Sampling ANALYSIS  Removal Efficiencies  Key Observations  Recommendations  Subdivision  Coldwater Creek  CVC Watershed LOCATION SWM
  6. 6. The Source Urban Runoff Agricultural Runoff Wastewater Treatment Plants Three main ways phosphorus enters watersheds:
  7. 7. The Impacts
  8. 8. The Impacts 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Root/Shoot Ratio P mg/L Source: Adapted from Kim & Li, 2016.
  9. 9. The Science Directly uptake nutrients Provide a haven for microbes Re-oxygenate soils (all seasons) O2 O2 O2
  10. 10. The Science 20 40 60 80 100 86% 94% 81% 20 40 60 80 100 29% 74% 91% 20 40 60 80 100 94% 78% 96% % Removal Ammonia % Removal Dissolved Organic Compounds % Removal Suspended Solids Scirpus Validus (Bulrush) Phragmites Communis (Common Reed) Typha Latifola (Cattail) Source: Gersberg et al. 1986
  11. 11. The Science Permanent pool Active storage level Emergent Free-floating Floating-leaved Submerged
  12. 12. The Methodology Vegetation Survey Hydraulic Monitoring Water Quality Sampling  Identification using Michigan Flora  Vegetation sampled Fall 2018  Water depth: HOBO water level data logger (up to Dec 18)  Water samples collected at inlet & outlet  pH, salinity, conductivity, K, NH3, NO3-, NO2−, N2, TP, O4P-3, Cl-, TSS ANALYSES: YSI Professional Plus Multiparameter Meter, Hach SR3900 Spectrophotometer, Gravimetric: Total Suspended Solids
  13. 13. Alismataceae Apiaceae Asteraceae Alisma subchordatum Daucus carota Erigeron strigosus Euthamia graminifolia Eutrochium maculatum Lactuca sp. Solidago canadensis Symphyotrichum ericoides Symphyotrichum lateriflorum Symphyotrichum novae-angliae Cornaceae Cyperaceae Fabaceae Cornus stolonifera Eleocharis obtusa Scirpus atrovirens Shoenoplectus tabernaemontani Securigera varia Trifolium hybridum Juncaceae Lythraceae Poaceae Juncus tenuis Lythrum salicaria Echinochloa muricata Leersia oryzoides Panicum capillare Setaria viridis Phragmites australis Polygonaceae Rosaceae Salicaceae Typhaceae Persicaria hydropiper Polygonum tenue Rumex crispus Spirea alba Salix sp. Typha latifolia The Species 7 Introduced Species 13 Families 28 Species
  14. 14. The Monitoring Q m3/s Precip mm Sample Date 0 10 20 300 1 2 3 Precip mm Q m3/s Logger removed OCT ‘18 NOV ‘18 DEC ‘18 JAN ‘19 FEB ‘19 MAR ‘19
  15. 15. The Phosphorus Total Phosphorus Concentration, μg/L P04 3- 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 OCT 31 NOV 02 NOV 26 DEC 18 JAN 08 FEB 04 FEB 24 MAR 11 μg/L 85% Outflow Inflow 45% 70% 32% -8% 5% -65% 2.9%
  16. 16. The TSS Total Suspended Solids Concentration, mg/L 0 5 10 15 20 25 OCT 31 NOV 02 NOV 26 DEC 18 JAN 08 FEB 04 FEB 24 MAR 11 mg/L Outflow Inflow 74% 56%40% -301% -301% -64% -10% -181%
  17. 17. The Results Vegetation Survey Hydraulic Monitoring Water Quality Sampling  Plant Diversity  Phosphorus: seasonal effectsSpecies richness higher than anticipated due to “volunteer” species  Water Depth Year round functioning of SWM  Total Suspended Solids: seasonal effects
  18. 18. The Enhancements Cold tolerant species
  19. 19. The Enhancements Sediment Oxygenation
  20. 20. The Future RESEARCH Climate change Winter rainfall Chloride levels MONITORING Rainfall gauges Continuous chemistry Multiple seasons SITES Wetlands Varied climates Aging facilities PARTNERS NSERC Private-sector Municipal / Conservation QUESTION S ?

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