Diabetes mellitus basics

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basic physiology on diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus basics

  1. 1. A metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
  2. 2. SYMPTOMS ANS SIGNS The diabetic syndrome is due to insulin deficiency combined with +ve actions Of hormones antagonist to insulin ( Glucagon, GH, Adrenal glucocorticoids ) Diabetes mellitus is characterized by : •polyuria •Polydipsia •weight loss in spite of polyphagia (increased appetite) •Hyperglycemia •Glycosuria •Ketosis •Acidosis and •coma.
  3. 3. There are two general types of diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes OR insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) caused by lack of insulin secretion. Type II diabetes OR non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) caused by decreased sensitivity of target tissues to the metabolic effect of insulin This reduced sensitivity to insulin is often called insulin resistance
  4. 4. Cause : lack of insulin due to  destruction of β cells  surgical removal of pancreas  congenital absence of pancreas  genetical cause  auto-immune disorder  viral infections  chemicals and drugs
  5. 5. Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can come on quickly and may include:  polydipsia  polyphagia  polyuria  weight loss  fatigue  blurred vision
  6. 6. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is a lifelong commitment to: Taking insulin Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight Eating healthy foods Monitoring blood sugar
  7. 7. Cause : Genetics Obesity – insulin resistance, Sedentary lifestyle Age – almost half of new cases are in people over the age of 55
  8. 8. Signs and symptoms :  polydipsia  polyphagia  polyuria  fatigue  blurred vision  achanthosis nigricans – dark patches on skin  slow healing of wounds
  9. 9. Treatment for type 2 diabetes requires a lifelong commitment to: Blood sugar monitoring Healthy eating Regular exercise Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy
  10. 10. Insulin resistance is part of a cascade of disorders that is often called the "metabolic syndrome." Some of the features of the metabolic syndrome include: (1) obesity, especially accumulation of abdominal fat; (2) insulin resistance; (3) fasting hyperglycaemia; (4) lipid abnormalities such as increased blood triglycerides and decreased blood high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and (5) hypertension.
  11. 11. The decrease in insulin sensitivity with menopause suggests that estrogen generally protects against insulin resistance in women. loss of estrogen function, through changes in estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a male patient.
  12. 12. Cell Biology of Insulin Response Normal Cell
  13. 13. Cell Biology of Insulin Response Type 1 Diabetes
  14. 14. Cell Biology of Insulin Response Type 2 Diabetes
  15. 15. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy  may be treated with insulin if necessary  dangerous to mother and foetus if left untreated
  16. 16. Mitochondrial diabetes mellitus Mitochondrial diabetes and deafness is a rare form of diabetes maternally transmitted Insulin resistant diabetes mellitus Rare insulin resistant states exist in which hundreds or even thousands of units of insulin may be ineffective. They are often associated with lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and acanthosis nigricans.
  17. 17. BOTH SEVERE HYPERGLYCAEMIA & SEVERE HYPOGLYCAEMIA CAN CAUSE DIABETIC COMA
  18. 18. Diabetes is a silent epidemic and according to WHO there are246 million people in the world living with diabetes. This is almost 6% of the world's adult population. Diabetes causes 6 deaths every minute and Diabetes is predicted to become the seventh leading cause of death in the world by the year 2030. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, amputation and kidney failure.

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