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ATMA GNANAM (Tamil)

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Tavayogi Thangarasan Adigal's book Atma Gnanam (Tamil)

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ATMA GNANAM (Tamil)

  1. 1. Mj;k"hdk;kiepajs k_f j ;amof Fxjyaaf
  2. 2. Mj; k "hdk; wha:ygjf j lf1. Md;kht[ k ; mjd; Mw;wYk;2. ,iwtd; vd;gtd; ahh;>3. Mj;k "hdk:4. $Ptd;5. "hd thH;t[6. "hdk; bgWk; tHpKiwfs;7. Md;k mwpt[ bgw8. ghpRj;j kdk;9. me;jf;fhuzk;10. kdpj Md;kh11. czh;r;rp - czh;t[ - kdk;12. kdk; vd;Dk; khaNl;Rkf;fUtp13. nahfk;14. bka;g;bghUs:15. $Pthj;kh guhkhj;kh16. Md;kPf thH;t[  2
  3. 3. 17. jj;Jt tpsf;fk;18. g";rg{j;fs;19. mq gukhq kw;Wk; caph;njhw;wk;20.xspa[ k ; btg;gKk;21.g";rg{jKk; mjd; jj;JtKk;22.g";rg{j;fs;23.g";r g{j;fspd; bray;ghLfs;24.jd;khj;jpiufs:25.gpug";r ghpzhkk;26.caph;fspd; njhw;wk;27.kuzk;28.kdpj clYk; mjd;bray;ghLfSk;29.,d;g[ w ;W thH cly; eyk; ngqjy;30.Jwt[ thH;f;if31.tp";"hd nehf;fpy; gpug";rk;  3
  4. 4. Mj; k "hdk;,e;j cyfpy; thGk; midj;J caph;fSk; xd;nwxd;iwj;jhd; ikakhf bfhz;L Mdhy; mJv;nf ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W bjupahky; njoj; njoXahky; miyfpd;wd.mJjhd; ,d;gk; ,d;gk; ,d;gk;.Mk; ,d;gkhd thH;f;if. nkYk; nkYk;kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; njo bghd; bghUs;nghd;wtw;iw nrh;g;gjd; nehf;fk; me;j ,d;gk;epiyahdjhf cz;ikahdjhf ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;vd;gjw;fhfj;jhd;.,J cz;ikapy; v;nf ,Uf;fpwJ> mij vg;gomiltJ> bgWtJ> vd;gij tpsf;Ftnj ,e;jfl;Liuapd; nehf;fk;.,jw;F Kjy; mog;gilahd njit bghd;bghUs; gzk; brhj;J kf;fs; my;y.mwpt[ xd;W jhd;.mwpt[ mjpYk; bjspe;j mwpt[ vd;w xd;nwxd;W nghJk; ,e;j cz;ikahd ,d;gj;ijmila ,d;g[w;W thH.   4
  5. 5. ,e;j cz;ikahd ,d;gk; ek;kplk; jhd;,Uf;fpwJ/ ,e;j cyfpy; ntW v;Fk; ,y;iyvd;w mwpt[ xd;nw nghJk;.ehk; ahh; vd;gij bjhpe;Jbfhz;lhny nghJk;,e;j cz;ikahd ,d;gj;ij mila.ek;ikg;gw;wp bjhptJ vd;why; cz;ikapy; ehk;ahh;>;/ Md;kh vd;why; vd;d>/ mwpt[ my;yJ"hdk; vd;why; vd;d>/ Mj;k "hdk;vd;why; vd;d>/ kdk; bjspe;j kdk; kdj;jpd;,af;fk;/ ,iwtd; vd;gtd; ahh;>;/ mqgukhq/ g";rg{jKk; mjd; jj;JtKk;,af;fKk;/ cly;/ caph;/ cyfk; kw;Wk;gpug";rk; nghd;w ,itfs; vg;go njhd;wpd/vg;go ,a;FfpwJ vd;w mwpt[/ cly; cWg;g[fs;Fwpj;j mwpt[ / cly; ,af;fk; / cly; eyk;gw;wpa mwpt[/ cly;/ kdk;/ g";rg{j jj;Jt;fs;gw;wpa bjspt[ ,itfisg;gw;wpa xl;Lbkhj;jmwpnt "hdk; my;yJ Mj;k "hdk; vdg;gLk;.,e;j Mj;k"hdj;jhy; fpilg;gnj cz;ikahd,d;g thH;f;if.1. Md;kht[ k ; mjd; Mw;wYk;vz;zpyh nfho mz;l;fs; nguz;l;fs;,g;gpug";rk; njhd;Wtjw;F y fhuzkhf   5
  6. 6. tps;FtJ mog;gilahf ,Ug;gJ xUmqrf;jp. mijna rpj;jh;fs; "hdpfs; gukhqvd;W brhy;fpwhh;fs;.gukhq vd;;gJ gphpf;f Koahj mq vd;gJbghUs;. me;jg; gukhqnt gue;J tphpe;Jfp;lf;fpd;w mz;l nguz;l;fis ,af;fpf;bfhz;oUf;fpd;wJ. mijna gukhj;kh vd;wdh;.mnj y mqtpd; Mw;wny xt;bthU$Ptuhrpfspd; ,af;f;fSf;Fk; fhuzkhftps;Ftjhy; $Pthj;kh vd;wdh;.Mfnt Md;kh vd;gJ msg;gwpa Mw;wy;kpf;fJ. me;j Mw;wy; ek;kplk; cs;sJ/ mJcUtkw;wJ/ mjd; rf;jpia Mw;wiyczh;e;jth;fs; kl;Lnk gy;ntW mw;g[j;fs;epfH;j;j Koa[k;. ek;kplk; cs;s kfj;Jtk;tha;e;j Mw;wy; kpf;f Md;khtpd; rf;jpiaczh;e;J mij ekf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jpf;bfhs;tJjhd; Mj;k"hdkhFk;.Mdhy; ehk; ek;kplk; cs;s Md;khtpd;Mw;wiyg; g[hpe;J bfhs;shky; ek;kplk; cs;sMw;wiy vg;go btspf;bfhzh;tJ vg;go,af;FtJ vdj;bjhpe;J bfhs;shky;thH:f;ifapy; gytpj my;yy;fSf;FMshfpnwhk;. ,g;gog;gl;l my;yy;fspypUe;J   6
  7. 7. tpLjiy bgw Kad;W btw;wp fz;lth;fs;jhd;"hdpfSk; rpj;jh;fSk;.2. ,iwtd; vd;gtd; ahh;>vz;zpyh nfho mz;l nguz;l;fspd; ,af;fk;nfhlhd nfho mqf;fs; mqf;fspd;bjhFg;ghd $Ptuhrpfs; midj;jpYk; cs;S;k;g[wKk; nkYk; btspa[k; mJtjpy;caph;rf;jpahf tps;Fk; nguhw;wny ,iwtd;.,ij ts;sy;yhh; bgUkhd; brhy;Yk;nghJ Fyt[ nguz;lg;gFjpnahh; mde;j nfho nfhofSk; M;fh;nf epytpa gpz;lg; gFjpfs; KGJk; epfH;e;j gw;gy bghUs; jpuSk; tpyFwhJ mfj;Jk; g[wj;Jk; nkyplj;Jk; bka;awp thde;jk; tps;f myFwhJ xHpahJ mJtjpy; tps;Fk; mUl; bghU";nrhjp vd; munrvd;W brhy;fpwhh;.   7
  8. 8. 3. Mj;k "hdk::,e;j khbgUk; ,af;f rf;jpahd ,iwtd; kdk;vd;Dk; khaf;fUtpahy; gpwe;jJ Kjy;,wf;fpd;w tiu ekJ clk;ig ,af;fpf;bfhz;oUf;fpwhh;. ,e;j ,af;f rf;jp ekJclypy; vg;gor; bray;gLfpwJ vd mwpe;Jmnj ,af;f rf;jpia ehk; czh;e;J me;jrf;jpia ek;Kila cliya[k; capiua[k;ngzg;gad;gLj;Jk; tHptiffis bjhpe;Jbfhs;tnj Mj;k "hdk;.Mj;k "hdk; bgw;why; ek;Kila thH;f;ifapy;Jd;g;fs; vy;yhtw;iwa[k; epth;j;jp bra;Jbfhz;L btw;wp fz;L epk;kjpahf thHyhk;.Kjypy; Mj;kh vd;why; vd;d/ gpd; "hdk;Kotpy;; Mj;k "hdk; vd;why; vd;d vd;Wghh;g;nghk;. 3.1 Mj;kh Mj;kh vd;why; ek;Kila cliy capiu ,af;Ffpd;w vspjpy; g[hpe;J bfhs;sKoahj Nl;rkf; fUtp vd;W brhy;yyhk;. caph; ,y;iynay; cly; ,Uf;fhJ/ cliy itj;Jj;jhd; caph; cz;lh ,y;iyah vd;gij mwpa Koa[k;. Mfnt caph; cly;   8
  9. 9. ,uz;ila[k; ,izj;J itf;fpd;w xg;gw;w fUtpna Mj;kh vdg;gLtJ. 3.2 "hdk; mqf;fs; njhd;wp mqf;fspd; ,izg;g[ ,af;f;fshy; mz;l nguz;lkhfp gpug";rkhfp cyfhfp caph;fs; gyt[khfp/ vj;jidnahnfho rPtuhrpfspy; ehDk; xUtd; vd;fpw bjspt[ bgWtnj "hdkhFk;. Koitg; gpoj;Jf; bfhz;Lnghdhy; bjhlf;fj;ij mwpayhk;. bjhlf;fj;ijg; gpoj;jhy; Koita[k; mwpayhk;. Mf gpwg;gpd; bjhlf;fj;ija[k; Koita[k; mwptnj “"hdk;”;. ,ijna jhd; mfj;jpah; TWk;nghJ kfj;jhd uf!;aklh "hdkhh;f;fk; ,z;fpanjhh;me;ju;fkhd Nl;rk Vfhe;j Nl;rbkd;w fijiaf; nfS Fz;Ftpa Mjp me;jf; Fwpia ed;wha; - brs rh 113. nkw;fz;l ghly; yk; Mjp me;jf;Fwp bjhptJjhd; "hdk; vd;gij mwpayhk;.  9
  10. 10. "hdk; vd;whny mwpjy; mwptpd; bjspe;j epiy vd;W brhy;yyhk;. ,d;bdhU tif tpsf;fk; "hyj;ij mwpjy; vd;Wk; brhy;yyhk;. clypd; cs;ns caph;; rf;jpahdJ RHd;W ,a;Fk;nghJ me;je;j clypd; mqf;TWfSf;F Vw;g caphpd; rpwg;ghw;wyhf vGk; tpist[fns czh;r;rpfs;. ,e;j czh;r;rpfisj; Ja;j;J capuhdJ bgUk; cz;ikj; bjspt[ jhd; mwpt[ my;yJ "hdk; vdg;gLk;. Md;kh vd;gJ gukhj;khtpd; Mw;wy;. mwpt[ vd;gJ Md;khtpd; ,af;fr; rpwg;g[. $Pt Md;khnth jd; epiy kwe;J $k;g[yd;fspy; bray;fSf;F Ml;gl;L g[yd;fspd; fth;r;rpapy; rpf;fp ka;Ffpd;w kaf;f epiyna khia vdg;gLtJ/ jd;Dila jttypikahy; g[yd;fth;r;rpapy; ,Ue;J kPz;;L khiaia tpl;L tpyfp mwpit Md;khtpy; yapf;fr; bra;J mnjhL xd;whfp gpize;J yakhfpd;w epiyapy; ,Uf;fpd;wnghJjhd; me;j epiya[k; gpwHhky; ,Uf;Fk; nghJjhd; "hdk; vd;fpw tpHpg;g[ epiyapy; Md;kh vd;gJ ,af;f Mw;wyhft[k; cly; Md;khtpw;F fUtpahft[k; ,Uf;fpd;w epiya[k; czug;gLk;.  10
  11. 11. Md;k mwptpd; bjspnt "hdk;. mJ mwk; jtk; vd;fpw Kaw;rpa[s;sth;fl;nf fpilf;Fk;. jtg;gapw;rp jj;Jt;fspd; tpsf;f;fis mwpe;jth;fSf;nf mJ rhj;jpak;. mth;fs; kl;Lk;jhd; kw;wth;f;F bjhl;Lf;fhl;oa[k; tpsf;fpa[k;; Tw Koa[k;/ "hdj;ij mspf;f ,aYk;. 3.3 "hdnk flt[ s ; “mfu Kjy vGj;bjy;yhk; Mjpgftd; Kjw;nw cyF”. vd;w ts;Sth; Fwpg;gpd;go cyfj;J caph;fs; Kjy; ,e;j cyfk; njhd;Wtjw;F yfh;j;jhthd gfthd; tiu ‘m’ vd;w xypahy; njhd;wpd. Mfnt mJnt Kjy; xypahd ‘m’ vd;gjhFk;. gpuhzpfs; Kjy; kdpjd; ,ae;jpuk; tiu thiaj;jpwf;fpd;w bjhl;Ffpd;w xyp ‘m’ vd;gjhFk;. Mfntjhd; ts;Stg;bgUkhd; nkw;fz;l Fwspd; yk; ‘m’ fuj;ij Kjd;ikg;gLj;jpdhh;. ,e;j cyfj;jpy; cs;s caph;fs; vy;yhnk mwpt[ rPtd;fshf cs;sd. Mdhy; kdpjd; vd;w rPtDf;F kl;Lnk rpwg;gwpt[ cz;L. ,e;j rpwg;gwptpd; yk; bjspe;j  11
  12. 12. epiybgw;w bjspe;njhnu “"hdpfs;” vd miHf;fg;gLth;. Jhprw;w J}a mwpt[ tothd ,aw;ifapd; ey;y rf;jpfis epidj;J czh;e;J bjspt[ milahtpl;lhy; xUtd; vj;jid fw;wpUe;Jk; gad; ,y;iy. cyfpnyna kpfg;bghpa fy;tp xd;W cz;L vd;why; mJnt “"hdf; fy;tp”. "hdnk flt[s;. Mj;k "hdk; mile;njhnu flt[s; Mthh;. ,aw;ifapy; ciufpd;w nguhw;wiyna ,iwtd; vd miHf;fpwhh;fs;. Mfnt ,aw;ifna ,iwtd;. mtd; ghj;fis tz;Ftnj rpwg;gwpt[ MFk;. mJnt "hdkhh;f;fj;jpd; jpwt[nfhy; vd;gij kwthjPh;fs;.Mj;k "hdk; vd;whny kdpjidmjw;Fj;jFjpahf;Fk; rpwg;gwpt[ vd;gJ bghUs;.rpwg;gwpt[ vd;d vd;fpw tpsf;fj;ijg; bgWtnj"hdk; MFk;. "hdpahf ntzL;k;/ "hdk;bgwntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf thH;f;ifiathH;f;ifj; Jizia mh;g;gzk;bra;aj;njitapy;iy.,d;iwa kdpjd; thH;f;ifna ,ae;jpukak;/,d;iwa cyfk; tp";"hd cyfk;/ njitfs;kpFe;J ,ae;jpurhjd;fs; El;gkhd fUtpfs;   12
  13. 13. thH;f;iff;F njitahd bghUl;fspd;mjpfhpg;g[ ,it kpFe;J bfhz;nl nghfpd;wd.,g;gog;gl;l ,f;fhyj;jpy; vy;nyhUk; "hdk;bgw Koa[kh vd;gJ vy;nyhh; kdjpYk;vGfpd;w kiyg;ghd nfs;tp/kiyg;g[j; njit ,y;iy. vy;nyhUk; "hdk;bgwKoa[k;. j;fs; j;fspd; flikfisflika[zh;nthL bra;J kfpH;nthL,y;ywj;ija[k; brk;ikahf elj;jp ed;kf;fisg;bgw;W xGf;fj;jpYk; mwj;jpYk; rpwe;jth;fshfgapw;Wtpj;J mjd; yk; FLk;gk; Ch; ehLcyfk; vd;w mstpy; mikjpahft[[k;,d;gkhft[k; thHyhk;.bjspe;j ePhpny ePhpd; MHj;jpny ,Uf;fpd;wfw;fis fhz;gJ nghy btspr;rj;jpnybghUs;fisf; fhz;gJ nghy xUtpahghhpahdtDf;F jd;Dila bghUistpw;gid tpiyeph;zak; bra;tJ vspJ.fhuzk; bfhs;Kjy; tpiy bjhpe;jtd; tpw;gidtpiyia vspjhf eph;zak; bra;thd;.mijg;nghynt Mirapdhy; FLk;gKk;vz;z;fshy clYk; mwbewpahy; rKjhaKk;jj;Jt "hd tpsf;fj;jhy; "hdKk; rkhjhdthH;t[k; ek;ik Mf;ft[k; fhf;ft[k;cjt[fpd;wd.   13
  14. 14. Mfnt ek;Kila thH;f;ifapy; ve;j mst["hdk; ,lk;bgWfpwnjh me;j msnt ekf;Fr;rpwg;ghd thH;t[ ,d;g[w;W thH;fpd;w epiyMH;e;j mikjp fpilf;Fk;.Mj;k "hdk; vd;gJ Rlh;tpl;L gpufhrpf;Fk;tpsf;F/ ,Uz;l thH;f;iff;F tHpfhl;o.Mfnt xt;bthUtUk; Mj;k "hdk; bgwKayntz;Lk;. ,ayhjth;fs; "hdpfs;tHpiag; gpd;gw;wp elf;f ntz;Lk;. J}akdj;jhy; jhd; Mj;k "hdk; milaKoa[k;;vd;W typa[Wj;jpdh;. ehk; "hdk; bgw;whh;tHpiag; gpd;gw;wp mtu; mwpit jd;kakhfitj;Jf; bfhz;L ehk; Kiwahft[k;rpwg;ghft[k; thHyhk;.vdnt Mj;k "hdk; kl;Lnk thH;tpw;Fcah;t[k; ,d;gKk; mspf;Fk;. Mj;k "hdj;ijMz;-bgz; ,UghyUk; milayhk;. mjpy;ve;jj; jila[k; ,y;iy/ ekf;F ntz;oaJvy;yhk;1. jplkhd kdk; (A STRONG WILL POWER)2. MH;e;j ek;gpf;if (DEEP FAITH)3. mfj;jPrd; kPJ ghpg{uz ek;gpf;if itj;Jmtdplk; ruziljy; (TOTAL SURRENDER)4. ey;y vz;z;fs; - vy;nyhUk; ed;whfthHntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk;; (GOOD THOUGHTS)   14
  15. 15. ehk; vg;nghJk; ekJ vz;zj;ij ghpRj;jkhfitj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. ghpRj;j kdk;ntz;Lkhdhy; ek; kdjpd; bray;ghLfisxG;F gLj;j ntz;Lk;. mjw;F Kjypy; $Ptd;my;yJ kdpjd; vg;go caph; vLf;fpwJ vd;gijg[hpe;J bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.4. $Ptd;clypd; cs;ns caph;; rf;jpahdJ btl;lbtspapny cs;s Mw;wy;fis gpuhztha[tpd;yk; r;Rf; fhw;why; clypd; cs;ns ,Gj;Jnfhof;fzf;fhd ekJ cly; mqf;fSf;FMw;wiyf; bfhLj;J cliy ,af;f itf;fpwJ.,g;gog;gl;l mqj;jpus;fshshd,g;gpug";rj;jpy; ,Ue;J kdpj $Ptd; cw;gj;jpMfpwJ.Mjpapny ,g;gpug";rg; gilg;g[f;F ykhdJ,uz;L rf;jpjhd;. mijj;jhd; rptrf;jpvd;fpnwhk;. ,Jnt gukhqthFk;. mnj nghykdpj $Ptd; cUthtjw;F ,uz;L y mqf;fs;fhuzkhf tps;Ffpd;wd. rptk; vd;fpd;w Mz;Rf;fpyg;g[Gt[k; rf;jp vd;fpw bgz;Rnuhzpjg;g[Gt[k; ,uz;od; fyg;gpdhy; $Ptd;cw;gj;jpahfpwJ.   15
  16. 16. ,g;go ,af;Ffpd;w me;j rf;jpiaj;jhd;RUf;fkhf caph;; rf;jp my;yJ $Ptd;;vd;fpnwhk;. ,e;j ,uz;Lk; mjhtJ clYkcapUk; nrh;e;J bray;gLfpd;w xUbghUisj;jhd; $PPtd]; vd;fpnwhk;.cyfpy; cs;s xt;bthUtUk; jdJ $Ptdpd;r h p j ; j p u j ; i j f ; f z ; L b fh z ; l h y ; ; c y f p y ; v y ; y h k ;,d;gk;jhd;. ,t;t[yfpy; vJt[k; ey;yJk;,y;iy. ez;gd; giftd; fpilahJ. xt;bthUMd;kht[k; jd; Ra J}a mwpit mwpe;Jtpl;lhy; vy;yhk; rkk;/ vy;yhk; ,d;gkak;MFk;. mJnt Mj;k"hdk; bgWtJ/,d;wpikahjJ.$Ptdpd; gpwg;gpw;Fk; ,wg;gpw;Fk; ,ilnaeilbgWk; bjhlh;gaznk thH;f;ifahFk;.thHj;bjhpe;J thH:gth;fshd "hdpfis ek;gpmth;fisg; gpd;gw;wpa[k; thH;tnj "hd thH;t[my;yJ "hd thH;f;ifahFk;. mJnt ,d;gthH;f;ifahFk;/5. "hd thH;t[thH;f;if vd;gJ d;W mikg;gpnybray;gLfpwJ.   16
  17. 17. 1. ,aw;if/2.rKjhak;/3. ,d;g Jd;g;fs;.,k;d;Wk; kdpjd; thH;f;ifiaeph;zapf;fpd;wd. Mfnt ,k;d;WgFjpfisa[k; bjspthf Muha;e;J mwptpnyKGik bgw;W thH;tnj "hd thH;t[/ ,J jhd;,d;g thH;t[/kdk; jd;trkhf ,Ue;J Ml;og; gilj;jjhy;kdpjd; vd;W bgah; te;jJ. kdJ + jd;vd;gJ jhd; kdpjd;. mnjnghy; ehd; vd;wMztk; nknyh;fp ,Ue;jtid eu + mfk;(eumfk;) bfhz;ljhy; eud; vd;Wk; bgah;cz;lhapw;W. ,d;bdhd;W eufk; vd;W Vd;bgah; cz;lhapw;W vd;why; ehd; vdJ vd;kf;fs; vd;bghUs; vd; M!;jp vd;W FWfpatl;lj;jpw;Fs; rpf;Fz;L mtDila mwpthdJbray;gLk;nghJ fhkk; Fnuhjk; nfhgk; nkhfk;kjk; khr;rh;ak; lk;gk; <h;ir nghd;w jPaFz;fspd;; tpistha; gy;ntW Jd;g;fSf;FMshf nehpLk;. ,ijna eufk; vd;gJ. jPik+mfk; jPikahd mfj;jhy; vGk;bjhy;iyfisna eufk; vd;W Twpdhh;.Mfnt Kjypy; J}a;ikahd kdj;ij mfj;ijg;bgWtnj "hdk; bgWk; tHpKiwahFk;.   17
  18. 18. 6. "hdk; bgWk; tHpKiwfs;Md;k mwpt[ bgwntz;Lk;.ghpRj;jkhd,jaj;ijg; my;yJ kdj;ijg; kdpjd;bgw;wpUg;gnj "hdk; bgWtjw;F Kjy; jFjpMFk;/ kdij ghpgf;Ftk; bra;tjd; yk;"hdj;ijg; bgw Koa[k;/kdija[k; cliya[k;nahfj;jpd; yk; gf;Ftg;gLj;JtJ "hdk; bgwcfe;j tHpahFk;/thH;f;ifapy; jpdrhp ehk; ekJ kdj;ij xUKf;fpakhd fUtpahff; bfhz;L ey;yJ bfl;lJ,uz;Lf;Fnk cgnahfg; gLj;jp tUfpnwhk;.kdk; ,a;fhky; vija[k; bray;gLj;j KoahJ.gytpjkhd rf;jpfs; gpug";rj;jpy;gutpf;fplf;fpd;wd. mjpy; Mf;fg{h;tkhdrf;jpfSk; mHpt[ rf;jpfSk; Mfhaj;jpy; Rw;wpf;bfhz;nl ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; rpy rf;jpfs;kpfgykhf ,a;Fk;/ rpy rf;jpfs; gytPdkhf,a;Fk;/ ey;y rf;jp miyfs; gykhf,a;Fk;nghJ ehk; vLj;j fhhpak; btw;wpbgWk;. ekJ thH;tpy; btw;wp njhy;tpfs; ,e;jey;y bfl;l rf;jpfspd; Mf;fpukpg;gpdhy;jhd;eilbgWfpwJ vd;fpw cz;ikia czuntz;Lk;. ,jpy; rpy ekJ vz;z;fspYk;/ rpybtspapy; Vw;gLk; rf;jpfspd; Mjpf;fj;jhYk;eilbgWk;. ekf;F mg;ghw;gl;l rf;jpapy;   18
  19. 19. rpf;fpf;bfhs;Sk;nghJ ehk; mjpypUe;JkPsKoahJ. ,e;j jPa rf;jpapypUe;JKGikahf tpLgl Md;k mwpt[ bgwntz;Lk;.7. Md;k mwpt[ bgw 1. ehk; vg;nghJk; vy;nyhiua[k; md;g[ld; nerpj;J re;njhrj;Jld; kdk; tpl;Lg;ngrp gHfp tuntz;Lk;. 2. kdjhy; Tl xUtUf;Fk; jP;F bra;af;TlhJ. 3. ekJ guk vjphpf;Fk; Tl bfLjy; Vw;gLj;jf;TlhJ. ey;yijna bra; vdt[k; mtUf;Fk; ey;y vz;zj;ijf; bfhL vdt[k; ,iwtid ehk; ntz;of;bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. 4. ve;jf;fhyj;jpYk; ve;j rkaj;jpYk; ahh; ek;ik fhzte;jhYk;; ehk; mtiu md;g[ld; tuntw;W cgrhpf;f ntz;Lk;. md;ghf ngrp mDg;g ntz;Lk;/ 5. ve;jf; fhuzj;ijf; bfhz;Lk; ahh; kPJk; nfhgg;gLtnjh jfhj thh;j;ijfshy; ittnjh TlhJ. 6. ntiyf;fhuh;fs; bghpath;fs; ekf;F nfhgk; cz;lhf;Fk;go ngRgth;fs; ahuhf ,Ue;jhYk; md;g[ld; ngrntz;Lk;. kdjpy; mth;fSf;F ey;y   19
  20. 20. vz;zj;ijf; bfhLf;Fk;go ,iwtid gpuhh;j;jpf;f ntz;Lk;.ghpRj;jkhd ,jaj;ijg; my;yJ kdj;ijg;kdpjd; bgw;wpUg;gnj "hdk; bgWtjw;F Kjy;jFjp MFk;/ ,e;j ghpRj;j kdk; mwk; jtk;$gk; jpahdk; Kjypa gapw;rpapidj; bjhlh;e;Jbra;J te;jhy; jhd; bgw Koa[k;/ Kjypy; rpwe;jFUtplk; brd;W jd;id mog;gilapy; jpUj;jpmthplk; ey;yhrp bgw;W nkw;fz;lgapw;rpapidj; bjhlh;e;J bra;J tuntz;Lk;.,jw;F Kjypy; kdk; vd;why; vd;d vd;Wbjhpe;J bfhs;sntz;Lk;.8. ghpRj;j kdk;kdk; ,uz;L tifg;gLtJ. xd;W cs;kdk;,d;bdhd;W g[wkdk; (btspkdk;) 8.1 btspkdk; btspkdkhdJ gytpj Mrhghr;fSf;F cl;gl;lJ. mjDila Jizth;fshd bka; tha; fz; fhJ f;F Mfpa Ie;J g[yd;fs; jhd; ek;Kila btspkdij Ml;og;gilf;Fk;. gytpjkhd Rf;fis mDgtpf;fj; J}z;Lk;. ,jd; yk; gy   20
  21. 21. ,d;dy;fs; neUk;. !;ghpr Rfk; jPz;ly; ,d;gk; nghd;wtw;iwj; njhw;Wtpf;Fk;. njfk; kdpjidj; jtwhd ghijapy; nghfr;bra;a[k;. ,jpypUe;J tpLgl Kaw;rpf;f ntz;Lk;. tha; ngRtjw;Fk; rhg;gpLtjw;Fk; cjt[tJ. mnj rkak; bfl;ltw;iw ngRtjw;Fk; rhg;gpLtjw;Fk J}z;LtJ. fz; ,J kpfg;bghy;yhjJ. kdpjDf;F kpfkpf Kf;fpakhdJ. ,e;j fz; ghh;g;gJ vy;yhk; mDgtpf;f ntz;Lk; vd;w Miriaj; J}z;LtJk; mwpit tsh;f;f gof;f cjt[tJk; ,f;fz;fns/ MH;kdija[k; ghh;itapy; ghh;j;J kdjpy; gjpaitf;Fk; kpfKf;fpakhd mitafkhFk;. fhJ ,d;dpiriaf; nfl;gJ kw;Wk; ngRtJ gy ey;yJ bfl;lJ nghd;w tptfhu;fis nfl;f cjt[tJ. f;F thridfis mDgtpg;gJld; kdfpsh;r;rpfisa[k; Vw;glj;j ,e;j cWg;g[ bray;gLk; .  21
  22. 22. ,g;go Ik;g[yd;fs; tHpahf btspkdkhdJ murhl;rp bra;J kdpjid ey;yJ bfl;lJ ,d;gk; Jd;gk; vd;W Ml;og; gilf;Fk;. Mfnt ,e;j btspkdk; ml;fpdhy;jhd; cs;kdk; jpwf;Fk;. 8.2 cs;kdk; cs;kdkhdJ vija[k; bra;af;ToaJ. mjw;F ey;yit bfl;lit bjhpahJ. btspkdk; vd;d brhy;fpwnjh mij mg;gona bra;a[k; my;yJ epiwntw;wptpLk; rf;jp ,jw;F cz;L. cs;kdjpd; Mw;wy; mghukhdJ. ,jd; rf;jpfis vGj;jhy; mstpl;Lf;Tw KoahJ. gytpjkhd Mghr jPa vz;z;fis mfw;wp ekf;F vJ njitnah mij czh;t[g;g{h;tkhf cs; kdJf;Fj; bjhpag;gLj;jp tpl;lhy; cs;kdk; mij mg;gona epiwntw;wp tpLk; Mw;wy;gilj;jJ. Ik;g[yd;fshy; Ml;og;gilf;Fk; btspkdij mlf;Ftjw;Fjhd r;Rgapw;rp jpahdk; ke;jpu;fs; ghuhaz;fs; Kjypad bra;antz;Lk;.  22
  23. 23. Kjypy; btspkdij xUepiyg; gLj;j ntz;Lk;. ,jpy; btw;wp bgw;why; cs;kdjpy; ekJ ntz;Lnfhis brhy;tJ kpfr;Rygk;. kdjpw;Fk; Rthrj;jpw;Fk; ,ilbtsp ,y;yhj bjhlh;g[z;L. kdk; ve;j mst[ bray;gLfpwnjh me;j mst[ r;Rf; fhw;wpd; mst[k; bray;gLk;. btspkdij mlf;fr; rhd;nwhh;fs; ,uz;L cghaj;ijf; ifahz;lhh;fs;. 1. xd;W jj;Jt hPjpahf ,e;j vz;zk;; jPikahdJ vdnt ,ijj; js;sptpl ntz;Lk; vd;W jd;Dila mwpt[g;g{h;tkhd rpe;jidapy; xt;bthU jPa vz;zjija[k; xJf;fp kdij jd;Dila mwptpd; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; bfhz;L tUtJ. 2. ,d;bdhd;W r;Rf;fhw;W hPjpahf ml;fhj fhisia mlf;Ftjw;F bra;fpd;w cgak; nghy ml;fhj kdij mlf;f r;R gapw;rp bra;J r;Rf;fhw;iw mlf;fpj; jd; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; bfhz;L tUtJ. ,Jnt kdkl;fpdhy; r;R ml;Fk  23
  24. 24. r;rl;fpdhy; kdk; ml;Fk; vd;gjhFk;. 3. kdpjd; rKjhak; vd;fpd;w gpizg;gpy; mfg;gl;Lf; bfhz;Ls;shd;. mtd; md;whlk; gy;ntW tpra;fis re;jpf;f ntz;oa NH;epiyf; ifjpahfp thGfpwhd;. Mfnt mtDf;F rpe;jpj;J kdij mwpt[g;g{h;tkhfr; brYj;jp kdkl;fr; bra;tJ vspjhd fhhpakpy;iy. fhuzk; nahrpg;gjw;F fhyk; nghJtJ ,y;iy. Mfnt jw;fhy NH;epiyapy; r;Rg; gapw;rpapd; yk;jhd; kdij mlf;f ntz;oa fl;lha epiyapy; cs;shd;. kdjpd; bray; totk; Kd;ng ghu;j;njhk;. kdk; jj;Jtf;Tw;wpy; bray;gLtij ,g;nghJ ghu;g;nghk;.9. me;jf;fhuzk;-4kdk; g[j;jp mf;fhuk; rpj;jk; vd ehd;Ftifg;gLk;. xU bghUis mwpa g[yd;fshdbka; tha; fz; f;F brtp vd;git g[wj;nj,Ue;J bray;gLfpd;wd. mit jUk;tpra;fisg; gjpt[ bra;J mfk;; cs;ns ,Ue;Jbray; gLfpd;wd. mfj;nj epd;W bray;gLk;   24
  25. 25. fUtp mff;fUtpfs; my;yJ me;jf;fuzk;MFk;. 9.1 kdk; VnjDk; xU bghwpthapyhf tUk; bghwpfspd; bra;jpfis me;jg;bghUspd; kPJ epWj;jp ,J ,d;djhf ,Uf;fyhk; vd epidj;J re;njf epiyapy; ,Ug;gnj kdk; vdg;gLk;/ 9.2 g[ j ;jp mJ ,Jjhd; vd epr;rapf;Fk;. 9.3 mf;fhuk; ,e;j epr;ra czh;t[ bray;totk; bgw fUtp fuzhjpfs; Cf;Ftpf;f vGk;g[k; epfH;r;rpna mf;fhuk;/ 9.4 rpj;jk; ,e;j bray;ghLifs Kot[f;Ff; bfhz;L tUjy; rpj;jk; vd;gjhFk;.Md;khthdJ kdk; Kjypa fUtpfisf;bfhz;L czUk;nghJ mt;t[zh;t[ gw;Wjy;   25
  26. 26. epr;rapj;jy; xUg;gl;L vGjy; rpe;;jpj;jy; vdehd;F tifg;gLk;. ,dp xU bghUis ,d;dJvd epr;rapf;Fk; g[j;jp/ mjid Kd;idagHf;fk; gw;wp mjd; tpidf;F <lhf mijj;jdf;F cwthfnth gifahfnth bghJthfnthczUk;. ,g;go czh;jyhy;; ,d;gk; Jd;gk;kaf;fk; vd d;W tpj Fz;fSs; xd;whfghpzkpf;Fk;. ,t;thW ghpzkpj;J epw;Fk;g[j;jpia Md;kh ,J Jd;gk; ,J ,d;gk; ,J,uz;Lkpy;yhjJ vd mwpe;J gpd; mf;Fzk;njhd;Wfpd;w fhuzj;jhy; ehd; ,d;g[w;nwd;Jd;g[w;wnd; ka;fpndd; vd czUk;.,t;t[zh;t[fs;; fhl;rpfs; MFk;. g[wj;nja[s;s;fz;qf; fpdpabjhU bghUisf; fz;L ,d;g[Wk;nghJ Kd;dh; ,J njhd;whfhl;rpa[k; ,d;dbjdczUk; khdrf;fhl;rpa[k; ,J ,d;d ,d;gk;vd;Dk; jd;; czh;t[ fhl;rpa[k; xd;wd;gpd;xd;whf fhuz fhhpa Kiwapy; fly; miynghy;Md;khtpd; czh;tpy; te;J njhd;Wk;.,g;goahf Md;kjj;Jtk; 24-k; Md;kht[f;Fj;J}atotpy; neu; bjhlh;g[ld; bray; gLfpd;wd.rpj;jh;fs; kdij ghpgf;Ftk; bra;tjd; yk;"hdj;ijg; bgwKoa[k; vd;W czh;e;J bjhpe;Jmjw;F m#;lh;f nahfk; vd;W vl;L tifahdgapw;rpfis tFj;Jf; bfhLj;Js;shh;fs;.   26
  27. 27. xUtd; j;f Mguzk; bra;a ntz;Lbkd;why;ciyapy; ,l;L fha;r;rp j;fj;ij jfLfshf;fpfk;gpfshf;fp gf;Ftkhf;fp Mguzk;bra;fpd;whnd. mJnghy kdija[k; cliya[k;nahfj;jpd; yk; gf;Ftg;gLj;jp "hdk; bgwcfe;j tHpfisf; ifahz;lhh;fs;. kf;fSf;Fk;gy;ntWtpjkhd nahf E }y ; f s ; yk;vGjpitj;Js;shh;fs;.Mfnt jFe;j gapw;rpapd; yk; g[yd;fisbtsp tptfhu;fspy; nghftpl;L Mjpf;fk;brYj;jtplhky; g[yd;fis bty;tjw;Fg;gapw;rp; Kiwfis fz;Lgpoj;jhh;fs;;. mjd;yk; Rthrk; jhdhff; fl;Lg;gLk;. Rthrk;fl;Lg;gLk;nghJ kdRk; fl;Lg;gLk;. kdk;fl;Lg;ghl;oy; ,Uf;fpd;wth;fns rpwe;jnahfpfs;.mij mfj;jpah; TWk;nghJ kdkJ brk;ikahdhy; ke;jpuk; brgpf;fntz;lhk; kdkJ brk;ikahdhy; thrpia epWj;j ntz;lhk; kdkJ brk;ikahdhy; thrpia cah;j;j ntz;lhk; kdkJ brk;ikahdhy; ke;jpuk; brk;ikahnknkw;fz;l ghly; yk; kdj;jpwk;bfhz;lth;fSf;F vJt[k; ve;j gapw;rpa[k;njitapy;iy vd;W TWtjpypUe;J kdij   27
  28. 28. brk;ikahf itj;J thH gHfpf;bfhs;sntz;Lk;. vJt[k; gHf;fkhfp gpd;g[ tHf;fkhfkhWfpwJ. Mfnt ey;y tHf;fkhfey;yth;fshf thH KaYnthk;.10. kdpj Md;kh,iwtd; cyfpy; gy $Ptuhrpfisg; gilj;jhh;.84 yl;rk;; $Ptuhrpfs; vd;W TWth; rhd;nwhh;.Mdhy; ehk; mwpe;jJ vd;dnth xU E}W,UE}W vd;whny mjpfk;. ,jpny kdpjdpd;gilg;g[ kpft[k; mhpa xd;W. mwpt[KGikaile;j xd;W vd;W brhy;fpd;wdh;"hdpfs;.7 tifgpwg;g[ 4tifj;njhw;wk; 84 yl;rk;$Ptuhrpfs; midj;Jnk Md;khf;fs;Tl;lk;jhd;. Mdhy; ,tw;wpy; kdpjDf;Fkl;Lnk rpwg;gwpt[ cz;L. mijj;jhd; MwhtJmwpt[ vd;W Md;nwhh;fs; TWfpd;wdh;.kdpjdhy; kl;Lnk jhd; ahh; vd;W mwpa[k;rpwg;ghw;wy; ,Ug;gjhy; kdpjd; kdpjdhfpg[dpjdhfp gpd; flt[s; Mfpd;w nguhw;wiyg;bgwKofpwJ. mjdhy; kdpjd;kpfr;rpwe;jtdhfg; nghw;wg; gLfpwhd;.fhuzfhhpa;fisf; fz;lwpa[k; Mw;wy; kdpjmwpt[f;F kl;Lnk cz;L.   28
  29. 29. mjdhny jhd; cly; ,af;fk; vd;w fhhpaj;jpw;Fg[yd; ,af;fk; fhuzk;/ g[yd; ,af;fj;jpw;Fvd;w fhhpaj;jpw;F fhuzk; vz;zk;/ ,g;goxt;bthd;iwa[k; fz;lwpa[k; Mw;wy; kdpjMd;kht[f;F cz;L. mjdhy;jhd; g[yd;fs;Ie;ija[k; fle;J mjw;F nky; brd;W xt;bthUepfH;r;rpf;Fk;/ njhw;wj;jpw;Fk; fhuzk; vd;dfhhpak; vJ vd;W fz;L gpof;Fk; Mw;wy;Md;khtpw;F cz;L/ g[yd;fs; fl;Lg;ghLeP;fpa Md;kh J}a Md;khthf khWfpwJ.me;j J}a Md;khthy;jhd; gpw caph;fs;bgWfpd;w Jd;g;ifs ,d;g;fis mtw;wpd;czh;r;rpfspd; mst[fis fzpj;J ,w;fpcjt[k; fUiza[s;sk; bgwKofpwJ.kdpjdpd; cly; fUtpfSf;Fj; njitahfJizahf gytpjkhd Ma[j;fs;,ae;jpu;fisf; fz;L gpoj;J gad;gLj;j jFjpbgw;wJk; kdpj Md;khjhd;. jd; ,dk; njhd;wptHptHpahf gl;l mDgt;fspd; gpujpgypg;ghfkdpj thH;f;ifia tskhf;Fk; Mw;wYk; ,njkdpj Md;khtpw;F cz;L.gynfho caphpd;fs; thGfpd;w ,e;j g{kpnacyfk;. ,e;j cyfj;ijg; nghd;W vj;jidnahcyfk; vj;jidnah nfhs:fs; mz;lnguz;l;fs; bfhz;l gpug";rkhf cs;sJ.,e;jg; gpug";rj;jpy; kdpjd; vd;gtd; rpW mq   29
  30. 30. nghd;wtd; jhd;/ nghpaf;f kz;lyj;jpy; kdpjMd;kh mqnghd;wJ. ,Ue;jhYk; kdpjMd;khjhd; ,e;j gpug";rj;ij mspf;fpwJ.nghpaf;f kz;lyj;jpd; xg;gw;w rf;jpfisfz;Lgpof;fpwJ. nghpaf;f kz;lyj;jpd;mirt[fisf;Tl fzf;fpl;Lf; Tw KofpwJ.nfhs;fspd; njhw;w;fisa[k;/ mjd;r";rhuj;ija[k; el;rj;jpuf;Tl;l;fisa[k;bray;ghLfisa[k; fzf;fpl KofpwJ. nghpaf;fkz;ly ,af;fj;jpd; Mw;wy;fis vy;yhk; kdpjMd;kh fzf;fpLk; Mw;wiyg; bgw;Ws;sJvd;why; ,e;j kdpj Md;khtpw;F nghpaf;fkz;lyj;ijg; nghd;w khbgUk; Mw;wy; cs;sJvd;gij mwpa KofpwJ. me;j Mw;wy;,y;iybad;why; nghpaf;f kz;ly epfH;r;rpfismwpa KoahJ.kdpj Md;kh kfj;jhd rf;jp bgw;wJ. rpwg;g[g;bgw;wJ. mjdhy; jhd; nfhs;fspy; eilbgWk;,af;f;fisa[k; mjpy; fhqk;njhw;wf;isa[k;/ Fz;fisa[k;/ fz;lwpe;Jrpwg;ghf Md;kh thH;fpwJ. mjd; rpwg;igkdpj Md;kh kl;Lnk czh;fpwJ. mjdhy;jhd; kdpj Md;kh ,aw;ifg; gpug";rj;ijczh;e;J nghw;wp tHpgl;L mjpy; fyf;fKaw;rpf;fpwJ. kdpjd; xUtnd ,e;j,aw;ifapd; nguhw;wy; cz;ikia czh;e;jtd;;.mwptpd; tsh;r;rp ghpzhkj;jpny kdpj mwpnt   30
  31. 31. Kothd cr;rkhd Koitj;jUfpwJ. kdpjmwptpnyjhd; nghpaf;f kz;ly epfH;r;rpfismwpaKofpwJ. nghpaf;f kz;lyj;jpd;Kot[fs;Tl kdpj mwptpny r;fkkhfpwJ.mj;jifa mwpt[ clw;TW bgw;wtnd kdpjd;.mtd; jd; Md;khit czh;fpd;w J}a nguwpnt"hdk;.Md;kh jdJ jPa gjpt[fis ePf;fpg;guk;bghUis czh;e;J kPz;Lk; gpwthj tHpczh;e;J fiunawnt cliy fl;of; bfhz;lJ.mijf;fhj;Jk; tUfpwJ. g[yd;fshy; rpf;fpj;jtpj;J fl;Lz;L khia vd;fpw tpy;fpd;thapy; mfg;gl;L mwpt[ bjspt[ mw;w epiyapy;brayhw;Wk; mnj rkak; mJnt jd;Dilagl;lwpthy; bjspe;j mwpt[ bgw;W bjspe;jepiyapYk; brayhw;Wfpd;wJ.11. czh;r;rp - czh;t[ - kdk;kdpj cliy czh;r;rp vd;w bray;ghL bghpJk;gPoj;Jf; bfhz;Ls;sJ. kdpj clypy; ,uj;jk;btg;gk; fhw;W mjdjd; ghijfspy; rPuhfbray;gl;L tUfpwJ. clypYs;s mqf;fs;Tl;lj;jpw;F mJnt Mnuhf;fpaj;ijf;bfhLf;fpwJ. ,it rPuhf Kiwahfbray;glhky; ,uj;jnkh fhw;nwh btg;gnkhkhWgl;L bray;gLkhdhy; ve;j ,lj;jpy;   31
  32. 32. khWghlhfr; bray;gLfpwnjh me;j ,lj;jpy;cs;s mqf;Tl;lk; eypt[Wk;. mg;nghJ$Ptrf;jpahd capUf;Fj; Jd;gk; vd;fpwczh;itj;jUk;. ,j;jifa Jd;gj;jpy; ,Ue;JtpLgl VjhtJ xU tHpiaj;njLfpwJ. mJ xUbrayhfnth bghUshfnth NH;epiyahfnth,Uf;fyhk;/ ,e;j njlny ehl;lkhfpwJ/Kaw;rpahfpwJ/ gpd;g[ brayhf;fk; bgWfpwJ.,e;j njlypd; bjhlh;gaznk Jd;gczh;thft[k; njita[zh;thft[k;Kaw;rpahft[k; brayhft[k; ,d;gJd;gtpist[fshft[k; bjspthft[k; Kothft[k;tphpe;J bray;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thwhf clnyhLbfhz;l bjhlh;ghy; capUf;F Vw;gLk;mDgt;fspd; bjhFg;ghf kdk vd;wNl;Rkf;fUtp bray;gL:fpwJ.12. kdk; vd;Dk; khaNl;Rkf;fUtpkdjpy; cjak; MFk; xU bray;ghl;ilvz;zk; vd;W TWfpnwhk;. vz;zk; vd;gJkdjpd; xU rf;jp MFk;. btl;lbtspbtspa[yfpy; g[wg;bghUsplk; Mfh;#zk; vd;wfth;e;jpGf;Fk; <h;g;g[r; rf;jp ,Ug;gijg;nghyt[k; me;j <h;g;g[r; rf;jpia vjphpilahftpyf;fpj;js;Sk; tpfh;#z rf;jp ,Ug;gijg;nghyt[k; vz;zk; vd;gJ kdjpy; ,Uf;Fk;xUtif rf;jpahFk;. ,aw;ifapy; vy;iyaw;w   32
  33. 33. Mw;wy; ml;fpa[s;sd. ,e;j ,aw;iff;fs";rpaj;jpypUe;J kdJ vd;w fUtpahdJrpwpjst[ Mw;wiy fpufpj;J vLj;Jf; bfhs;fpwJ.mt;tpjk; fpufpj;j me;j rf;jpia kdk;jdf;Fhpajhf Mf;fpf;bfhs;fpwJ. gpwF me;jr;rf;jpia mJ vz;z;fshf btspnabrYj;JfpwJ. ,e;j rf;jp ekJ cztpd; yKk;Rthrpf;fpd;w fhw;wpd; yKk; tUfpwJ/cztpd; yk; cly; ,af;fk;eilbgWtJnghy/ mnj cztpd; yk;Nl;rkkhd ntW rf;jpfSk; cz;Lgz;zg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;j Nl;Rk rf;jpfis mJehk; vz;z;fs; vd;W brhy;Yk; totj;jpy;btspna js;SfpwJ.Mfnt kdk; vd;W brhy;yg;gLtJmwpt[s;sjy;y vd;gij mwpfpnwhk;. Mdhy;mJ mwpt[s;sJ nghy; njhd;WfpwJ. mt;tpjk;mJnjhd;Wtjw;F vd;d fhuzk; vd;why;mwpt[s;s Mj;kh mjd; gpd;dhy; ,Uf;fpwJ.cz;ikapy; Mj;kh xd;nw xd;W kl;Lk;jhd;mwpt[g; bghUshf ,Uf;fpwJ. kdk; vd;gJbtspa[yfj;ij Mj;kh gw;Wtjw;Fg; gad;gLk;fUtpahf kl;Lnk ,Uf;fpwJ.cjhuzkhf ,e;jg;g[j;jfj;ijvLj;Jf;bfhs;nthk;. g[wj;jpy; g[j;jfk; vd;wtotj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; ,e;jg;bghUis   33
  34. 34. cz;ikapy; ehk; mwpe;J bfhs;tjpy;iy.mwpe;J bfhs;s Koahj ,e;jg;bghUs; ekJkdijr;brd;W jhf;fp xU J}z;Ljiy mjhtJmiyfis cz;L gz;qfpd;wd. ,e;jJ}z;LjYf;F gjpy; jUk; tifapy; kdk;g[j;jfk; vd;w totj;ijg; bghUs;gLj;JfpwJ.,t;tpjkhf jz;zPhpy; miyfs;cz;lhtijg;nghy kdjpy; vz;z miyfs;njhd;Wfpd;wd. btspna ,Uf;fpd;w cyfk;kdjpy; miyfs; njhd;Wtjw;F fhuzkhf,Uf;fpwJ. g[j;jfj;jpd; cUtnkh ahidapd;cUtnkh kdpjdpd; cUtnkh btsp cyfj;jpy;,y;iy. mjhtJ mtw;iwg;gw;wpbtspapypUe;J tUk; J}z;LjYf;Fg; gjpyhfekJ kdjpy; Vw;gl;l tpUj;jpfisg; gw;wpkl;Lk;jhd; ehk; mwpe;jpUf;fpnwhk;. g[wj;jpy;,Ug;gJ kdjpy; ,r;rj;jpia cz;Lgz;qtjw;F fhuzkhf kl;Lnkmike;jpUf;fpwJ.,e;j cz;ikia tpsf;Ftjw;F xU Kj;Jr;rpg;gpia cjhuzkhf vLj;Jf; bfhs;nthk;.Kj;J vg;go cz;lhfpwJ vd;gJ vy;nyhUf;Fk;bjhpe;jnj. g[wj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; xl;Lz;zpahfxU fpUkp Kj;Jr;rpg;gpapd; Xl;Lf;Fs; g[Fe;Jmij cWj;JfpwJ. mjhtJ rpg;gpf;Fs;,Uf;Fk; g{r;rpia mJ epdt[f;F cl;gLj;JfpwJ.,e;j bjhe;jutpypUe;J tpLtpg;gjw;fhf rpg;gp   34
  35. 35. kpDkpDg;ghf xUtpj jputj;ij mjhtJvdhky; giria ff;fp btspg;gLj;JfpwJ. gpwFrpg;gp jdf;F cgj;jputk; tpistpj;j fpUkpiaRw;wpYk; me;j vdhky; giriag; g{rp fpUkpiao kiwj;J tpLfpwJ. ,jdhy; Kj;Jcz;lhfpwJ. ekJ mDgtj;jpy; Kj;Jcz;lhtjw;F xl;Lz;zp fpUkp fhuzkhf,Ug;gJnghy btspcyfk; ekJ mDgtj;jpw;Fmog;gilf; fhuzkhf mike;jpUf;fpwJ.rpg;gpf;Fs; fpUkp g[FtJ nghy; Ik;g[yd;fs;tHpahf g[Fe;J gpug";rk; ekf;Fg; g[yg;gLfpwJ.rpg;gp vdhky; giria btspg;gLj;JtJ nghy,e;j gpug";r braiy ehk; mwpfpnwhk;.,t;tpjk; kdjpy; eilbgWk; braiy rhjhuzkdpjdhy; xUnghJk; mwpe;J bfhs;s KoahJ.Vbddpy; mt;tpjk; mtd; bjhpe;J bfhs;sKaw;rp bra;a[k; mnjrkaj;jpy; jd; vdhky;giria btspna mDg;g[fpwhd;. gpwFjd;Dila me;j vdhky; g{r;irna ghh;f;fpwhd;.Mfnt kdk; cz;Lgz;zpa mDgtj;ijj;jtpu ntW vija[k; kdpjdhy; g[hpe;J bfhs;s,aYtjpy;iy.cz;ikahd Md;kh kdjpw;F gpd;dhy;,Uf;fpwJ. mjd; ifapy; cs;s fUtpahf kdk;,Uf;fpwJ. cz;ikahd kdpjdhfpa eP (Mj;kh)epw;Fk;nghJjhd; kdk; mwpt[ilajhfpwJ.   35
  36. 36. mg;nghJjhd; kdJf;F mwpe;J bfhs;Sk;jpwika[z;lhfpwJ. Mj;kh kdijf;iftpl;LtpLk;nghJ mJ J}s;Jshfr;rpjwpg;ngha; xd;Wnk ,y;yhky; btWikmile;J tpLfpwJ.,g;nghJ kdk; vd;d vd;gijg; g[hpe;Jbfhz;Oh;fs;. rpj;jk; kdk; vy;yhk; xU,Ug;gplkhFk;. mjpy; vGfpd;w miyfSf;Fk;RHpfSf;Fnk tpUj;jp vd;w bgah;. ,e;jt p U j ; j p a p d ; y n k e k ; kh y ; m w p a g ; g L k ; c y f k ;ekf;F gpug";rkhf tps;FfpwJ.Md;kh kdk; vd;w epiyapy; tpUj;jp vd;wmiyfshYk; RHpfshYk; ,d;g;fisa[k;Jd;g;fisa[k; mDgtpj;J mjpnyna MH;e;Jyapj;J jdJ gpwtp nehf;fj;ij kwe;J khacyfpy; thGk;nghJ mof;foczh;r;rptrg;gLfpwJ. mj;jifaczh;r;rptrg;gLk; Md;khjhd; nguhir rpdk;gw;W ghy;fth;r;rp cah;t[ jhH;t[ t";rk;nghd;wmWtif Fz;fshf khw;wk; bgWfp;wJ.Md;kh ,g;gog;gl;l Fz;fspd; vGfpd;wvGr;rpapd; fhuzkhf kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk;gHpr;bray;fs; bra;J jdf;Fk; gpwh;f;Fk;Jd;gj;ij cz;lhf;FfpwJ. Mfnt gpug";rkhiaapy; Md;kh cHd;W jtpg;gij jtph;j;J   36
  37. 37. khia kaf;fj;jpypUe;J tpLgl rpj;jh;fs;cz;lhf;fpa gapw;rpna nahfh my;yJ nahfk;vd;gjhFk;.13. nahfk;nahfj;jpw;F Kf;fpakhf gad;gLk; fUtpnakdkhFk;. ,e;j kdkhdJ J}a;ikahf,Uf;fntz;Lk;/ kdk; khR kUtw;w J}a;ikapy;,Uf;Fk; nghJ bjspthf ,Uf;Fk;. ePhpy; ePhpd;mokl;lj;ijf; fhz;gJnghy bjspe;j kdj;jhy;cz;ikg; bghUisf; fhz Koa[k;. me;j khRgoe;j Jha;ikaw;w kdijg; gz;gLj;Jk;bewpna nahfk;.kdkhdJ mwpthfp Md;k czh;itg; bgw;WtpHpg;gpy; jd; yk; eho xL;Fk;nghJ jd;idbka;bghUshfnt czh;e;J bfhs;fpd;w ,e;jKGik ngw;wpid miltjw;Fj; njit nahfk;;vd;w clw;gapw;rpna MFk;.14. bka;g;bghUs:btl;lbtspjhd; cz;ikahd bka;g;bghUs;.mg;bghUspny ehDk; ,Uf;fpnwd; vd;Wczh;e;J btl;l btspapny njhd;wpacaphpd;fs; mj;jida[k; vd; cld;   37
  38. 38. gpwe;njhh;fns vd;w mf czh;t[ gpwe;J ve;jcaphpd;fSf;Fk; Jd;gk; mspf;ff;TlhJ.Jd;gg;gLfpd;w caph;fs; kPJ fUiz fhl;o,d;gj;Jld; thGk; thH;f;ifjhd; tPLngWMFk;. ,ij mila[k; $Ptd;jhd;Md;khthFk;.btl;lbtsp bgUbtspahfpabka;g;bghUisna thdk; vd;Wk; thd; vd;Wk;TWth;. tPL ngW bgw;wth;fis (thd;+ mth;)thdth; vd;W TWth;/ njth; vd;Wk; TWth;.(jhd; + mth); jd;id mtuhff; fz;lfhuzj;jhy; jhdth; jiytd; vd;Wk; TWth;.jdJ gue;j mwpthy; vg;bghGJk; btl;l btspbka;bghUSld; ,izj;J rjhfhyk; epyt[k;braYkhf ,Uf;fpd;wth;fSf;F mth;fspd;cs;sj;jpd; epiy Rth;f;fk; (Rth; + mfk;). Rth;vd;why; nghpd;gk;.fLe;jtj;jpd; yk; Md;khthdJ jd;dpiytpsf;fk; bgWfpwJ/ mg;go tpsf;fk; bgWfpd;wJ}a epiyiaj;jhd; "hdk; vd;fpd;wdh;. ,e;jKGik ngw;iwna rhd;nwhh;fs; tPLngWvd;Wk; TWfpd;wdh;. tPL vd;why; ,lk; my;yJMjhuk; vd;W bgah;. fhuzk; ,y;yhky; fhhpak;gpwg;;gjpy;iy. Mjhuk; ,y;yhky; Mnjak;gpwg;gjpy;iy. ve;j njhw;wj;jpw;Fk; xU Mjhuk;   38
  39. 39. ,Ue;njahfntz;Lk;. mJnghy; Md;khtpw;Fk;Xh; Mjhuk; ,Ue;jhfntz;Lk;. mjw;F Mjhuk;(vJ) ,lk; Mf cs;sJ vd Muha;e;jhy;Kothf ekf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; tpil ve;jMjhuKk; ,y;yhj xU bghUnsvy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Mjhukhft[k; ,lkhft[k;,Ug;gJ czug;bgWk;. cjhuzkhfnfhapy;nky; fyrk; ,Uf;fpwJ. fyrj;jpw;Fnfhapy; nfhg[uk; Mjhukhf cs;sJ/nfhg[uj;jpw;F g{kp Mjhukhf cs;sJ. g{kpf;Fbtl;lbtsp ,lkhf cs;sJ. btl;lbtspf;FMjhuk; ,Uf;fpwjh> ,y;iy. mjd; moKoiaf;fhzKoahJ vd;gij tpsf;fnt mfj;jpaUk; ghug;gh moKoa[e; njog;nghd gjpthd khyaD; fhzh bud;W neug;gh ntj Kiuj;jpl;l bra;jp ePs; g[tpapy; ahth;f;Fk; ciuj;jpl;l bra;jp brsrh -118btl;lbtspia msf;f ,ayhJ vd;gijtpsf;fnt jpUkhy; gd;wp mtjhuk; vLj;Jrptd; ghjj;ijf;fhzr; brd;whh; vd;t[k; gpuk;khmd;dg;gl;rp totk; bfhz;L rptd;Ko fhznkny brd;whh; vdt[k fij yk;brhd;dhh;fs;. btl;lbtsp vd;why;mjw;bfd;W Mjhuk; ,y;iy. Mfnt mJKjyhfpwJ. mjpypUe;Jjhd;njhw;wg;bghUs;   39
  40. 40. njhd;wpapUf;f ntz;Lk;. vdnt btl;lbtspna MjpahdJ/ mjw;F ntW Mjhuk;,y;yhjjhy; mJnt mehjpahdJ. btl;lbtspvd;fpw tPl;od; ,af;f rf;jpahy; mfk;njhd;wpmfj;jhy; ,d;gk; njhd;wp; gpd;du; nghpd;gcs;sj;ijg; bgw;wth;fns Rth;fnyhf thrpfs;vd;gjhFk;.btl;lbtspjhd; bka;g;bghUs; vd;gjw;F bka;g;bghUs; fz;L tps;Fk; bka; "hdpf;F fw;g;fs; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; fhzhkw; fz;L fUj;njhL ,Ug;nghh;f;F tPzhir VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; epj;jpiu bfl;L epidnthL ,Ug;nghh;f;F Kj;jpiu VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; je;jpukhd jye;jd;dpy; epw; nghhf;F ke;jpuk; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; Kj;jkpH; fw;W Ka;Fk; bka; "hdpf;F rj;j;fs; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; cr;rpf;F nky; brd;W cah;btsp fhz;nghh;f;F ,r;rpg;gp;F VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; ntfhky; bte;J btspapidf; fhz;nghh;f;F nkhfhe;jk; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; rhfhky; jhz;o jdptHp nghnthh;f;F Vfhe;jk; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; Mde;jk; bgh;fp mwpnthL ,Ug;nghh;f;F J}de;jhd; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha;   40
  41. 41. rpj;jpuf; Tlj;ij jpdk; jpdk; fz;nlhh;f;F gj;jpuk; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; jd;id mwpe;J jiytidr; nrh;e;njhh;f;Fg; gpd;dhir VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; brj;jhiug; nghyj; jphpa[k; bka; "hdpf;F ifj;jhsk; VJf;fo> Fjk;gha; Fjk;igr;rpj;jh;gpwg;gpd; Mjpiaa[k; Koita[k; mwpe;j"hdpfSf;F vJt[nk njitapy;iy vd;gijtpsf;fnt Fjk;igr;rpj;jh; nkw;fz;l ghly;yk; tpsf;fp TWtijf; fhzyhk;.cz;ikahd bghUspd; tpsf;fj;ij Md;khmwpa[k;nghJjhd; ek;Kila kaf;fkhd khiaek;ik tpl;L tpyFfpwJ. mg;nghJjhd;bghUshf ,Uf;Fk; xd;iw bghUshff; fUJk;bka;a[zh;t[k; Vw;gLfpd;wJ.,g;nghJ bka;g;bghUs; vd;why; vd;dvd;gjw;F tpsf;fk; fpilj;Js;sJ.15. $Pthj;kh guhkhj;khv;nfnah btl;lbtspapy; njhd;wpaguhkhj;khtpy; njhd;wpaJjhd;; $Pthj;kh/gukhj;khtpw;F Mjhuk; ,y;iy. mijnats;syhh;   41
  42. 42. jha; tapw;wpy; gpwthJ jhnd Kisj;jtu;f;F bjz;ldpl;nld; vd;W brhy;yovd;w ghly; yk; bjhl;Lfhl;oaij mwpayhk;.$Pthj;khtpw;F gukhj;kh Mjhuk;.gukhj;khtpw;F vd;d Mw;wy; cz;nlh mnjMw;wy; $Pthj;khtpYk; cz;L. gukhj;kh Xh;,aw;if. mnjnghy gukhj;khtpy; njhd;wpa$Pthj;kht[k; ,aw;ifapd; TW. gukhj;khtpy;msg;gwpa Mw;wy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. mnjnghy$Pthj;khtpYk; cz;L. ,e;j $Pthj;khtpd;mg{h;t rf;jpia gad;gLj;Jtnj Mj;k "hdk;MFk;. ,ij mwpahky; ,f thH;f;ifapy; rpf;fpkhiaf;F Ml;gl;L ekJ Md;khit gyJd;gj;jpw;F Mshf;Ffpnwhk;/ mjdhy;jhd; Md;khit Jd;g[Wj;jy; TlhJ. Md;khittijf;ff;TlhJ/Mdhy; Md;kh gyJd;g;fSf;F mshfpd;wJ.mJ vg;go vd;why; 1. flt[isj;njo mila Kad;Wk; mtdhy; flt[isf;fhz Koahj epiy. 2. thH;tpy; tWikbaDk; gw;whf;Fiw   42
  43. 43. 3. bra;fpd;wbray;fspd; tpist[fisg;gw;wp mwpahik. mwpe;Jk; myl;rpak; bra;fpd;w epiy/ mtkjpj;J mjdhy; Jd;gk; mDgtpf;Fk; epiy. 4. Md;khtpd; kfj;Jtk; g[hpahky; gpwh; kPJ mr;rKk; gif Jd;g[Wj;jy; nghd;wtw;why; my;yYWk; epiy/nkw;fz;l Fiwfs; xd;nwhblhd;W ,ize;JthH;f;ifapy; gytpj rpf;fy;fSf;F Mshfpmtw;iw yFthfj; jPh;f;f Koahky; jtpj;J jhd;Jd;g[w;W gpwiuj; Jd;g[Wj;jpa[k; thH;fpwhd;.,g;gog;gl;l rpf;fyhd ,f;fl;lhd NH;epiytUfpwnghJ kdpjd; bjhpe;njh bjhpahknyh,e;j ,f;fl;oypUe;J tpLjiy bgwntz;Lk;vd Kay;fpwhd;. xt;bthU $Pthj;khtplKk;Fiw eP;fp KGik bgwntz;Lk; vd;w Mh;tk;jJk;gpf;bfhz;oUf;fpwJ. mjd; tpist[rpe;jid Xl;lk; gpwf;fpwJ/ rpe;jpf;fpwhd;/Kaw;rp bra;fpwhd;/ Kaw;rpapd; tpist[bray;fspy; ,w;fp Xuhst[ czut[k;bra;fpwhd;. mtd; braYf;nfw;w tpist[fisf;fhz;fpwhd;. Mj;k "hdk; ,g;nghJ mtDf;Fg[yg;gl Muk;gpf;fpwJ.kdpjdpd; beLe;J}ug; gazj;jpy; gyrpe;jidthjpfs; rPh;jpUj;jthjpfs; ty;Ydh;fs; rpj;jh;   43
  44. 44. bgUkf;fs; nghd;nwhh;fs; gyE}y;fs; vGjpa[k;nghjidfs; Twpa[k; kdpjd; FiwghLfisKGikahf ePf;f Koatpy;iy/ fhuzk; kdpjd;rKjhak; vd;fpw r;fypg; gpizg;gpy; thH;e;JbfhzL ,Ug;gjhy; jhd; FiwghLfs;vy;yhhplKk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. fhuzk; mtdpd;njit gHf;fk; mwptpd; tsh;r;rp re;jh;g;gNH;epiyfs; ,tid Fiw cs;stdhfMf;FfpwJ. ,tw;wpy; mwptpy; rpwe;jrpyh;kl;Lk; rpe;jpf;fpwhh;fs.; fhuz fhhpa;fisgFj;J czUfpwhh;fs;. mjdhy; jd; mstpy;gapw;rp bgw;W jd;Dila Fiwia ePf;fpf;bfhs;fpwhh;fs;. ,iwtidf; fhzntz;Lk; vd;wMh;tj;jpy; jd; mwptpd; tpsf;fj;jhy;Fiwiag;nghf;fpf; bfhz;lth;fs; rpyh;.,tw;iw czh;e;njhuhy; czh;j;jg;bgWfpwhh;fs;gyh;. ,g;go gyh; czh;e;Jk; cgnjrk;bgw;whYk; mth;fspy; gyngh; jh;fs; bgw;wtpsf;f;fSf;F Vw;g gHf;fj;ijkhw;wpf;bfhs;Sk; mst[ Jzpt[ bgWtjpy;iy.xt;bthU kdpjDk; xd;iw kwe;JtpLfpwhd;.xt;bthU braYk; Md;khtpy;gjpg;gpf;fgg;LfpwJ. Mfnt ehk; gHpr;brhy;,Hpthd bray; nghd;w gjpt[fis Rj;jg;gLj;jpJ}a;ikahf;fp guk;bghUnshL ,uz;lwf;fyf;fnt ek; cly; xU fUtpahfr;bray;gLfpwJ vd;gij kwe;J cz;ikfis   44
  45. 45. czuhky; ,fthH;t[ khiaapy; cHd;W bfhz;L,Uf;fnwhk;. Md;kh mwpt[ Kjph;e;Jrpe;jidapy;; bjspt[ bgWk;nghJ jhd;bjspe;jth; Rl;of;fhl;o czh;j;Jk; nghJ jhd;mwpt[ tpHpg;g[ epiy milfpwJ.mijna ts;syhh;“grpj;jpU” “jdpj;jpU” “tpHpj;jpU” vd;WTWfpwhh;.“grpj;jpU” vd;why; vg;bghGJk;"hdg;grpnahL ,U vd;gjhFk;.“jdpj;jpU” vd;gJ khiaapy; g[yd;fisbrYj;jhky; jdpj;jpUvd;gjhFk;/“tpHpj;jpU” vd;gJ Md;kh khRglhky;tpHpg;nghL ,Ug;gJ vd;gjhFk;. ,e;j mwptpd;tpHpg;g[ epiy jhd; Md;kPf thH;thFk;.16. Md;kPf thH;t[kdpjdpd; thH;f;if fPH;fz;l epiyfspy;,a;FfpwJ 1. ,d;gk; Jd;gk; vd;fpw thH;t[ epiy. 2. ,aw;if tpjpj;j CH;tpid ,iwepiy/   45
  46. 46. 3. rKjha mikg;g[ ePjp mwbewp. 4. murh;fk;.nkw;fz;l epiyfspy; kdpj Md;khthdJ gl;Lbjsptila[k; bjspt[jhd; thH;itca;tpf;fty;yJ. Jd;g;fis fise;J,d;gj;ijf; ju ty;yJ.nkw;fz;l; e pi y f s p y btw;wp fhzntrhd;nwhh;fs; ey;y E}y;fis vGjp rpwg;ghfthH tHp tiffisr; Twpr; brd;whh;fs;.mtw;wpy; fij thapyhff; TWfpd;w E}y;fs;gftj;fPij nghd;wJ/ fw;gidahff;TWk;fijfs; rpy ,uhkhazk; nghd;w fhtpa;fs;.,j;jifa E}y;fis gog;gjpd; yKk; thH;f;if;mDgt;fspd; yKk; gapd;W mwbewpgpwHhJ rj;jpak; jh;kk; ePjp vd;fpd;w xG;FKiwapy; cWjpahd gHf;fj;ij filgpoj;JthH;e;jhy; kdpjDila thH;t[ rpwg;ghft[k;,d;gkhft[k; mikjpahft[k; mika[k;. ,JntMd;kPf gazj;jpw;F jpwt[nfhyhf mika[k;.,e;j cah; bewpna Md;kPf thH;t[ vd;WTwyhk;.Md;khtpd; epiyawpe;J mjd; ,ay;iga[k;czh;e;J vz;zk; brhy; bray; ,tw;why;mwbewp gpwHhJ thH;e;J tUtJ Md;kPfthH;thFk;. ,g;go mwbewp nghw;wp xGfp   46
  47. 47. thH;tjhy; Md;kh J}a;ik bgw;W KGikmilfpwJ. ,J xU rpwg;ghd Md;kPfg; gazk;vd;W Twyhk;. jd;Dila mwptpd; bjspthy;,g;go thH;f;if nkw;bfhs;tjhy; ,tw;iwxUtif Md;k "hdk; vd;W bfhs;syhk;.Md;kPf thH;t[ jhd; Md;k "hdj;ij jUk;/,jw;F jdpkdpj xGf;fk; kpf kpf Kf;fpak;/jdpkdpj xGf;fk; Md;k "hdj;jhy; kl;Lnkbgw Koa[nk jtpu kw;w bray;ghLfshy; bgwKoahJ. jdpkdpj xGf;fnk xg;gw;wxGf;fkhd rKjhakhf khw cjt[k; vd;gjpy;Iakpy;iy. mwtHp gpwHhJ thGk; bka;"hdtpsf;fj;jpd; ynk jdpkdpj xGf;fk; tsUk;.cyf kf;fs; eyk;ngz Koa[k;.bka;"hd tpsf;fk; vd;fpw Md;k mwptpd;bjspnt "hdk;. mJ mwk; jtk; vd;fpwKaw;rpa[s;sth;fl;nf fpilf;Fk;. jtg;gapw;rpjj;Jt;fspd; tpsf;f;fis mwpe;jth;fSf;nfmJ rhj;jpak;. mth;fs; kl;Lk;jhd; kw;wth;f;Fbjhl;Lf;fhl;oa[k; t p s f; f p a [ k ; ; Tw Koa[k;/"hdj;ij mspf;f ,aYk;.17. jj;Jt tpsf;fk;mz;l btspapy; cz;lhd Mw;wYf;F Vw;g ekJclyhdJ 24 jj;Jt;fnshL To bray;gLfpwJ/   47
  48. 48. 18. gr";g{j;fs; epyk; ePh; beUg;g[ fhw;W Mfhak; Mfpa Ie;J g{j;fspd; Tl;Lf;fyitahy; cz;lhdnj kdpj cly;. nkw;fz;l Ik;g{jk; xt;bthd;wpw;Fk; totk; Fzk; epwk; vGj;J cz;L vd;W "hdpfs; Twpa[s;sdh;. mJ gpd;tUkhW cs;sJ.g{jk; tot[ epwk; vGj; Fzk; bjhHpy; Fwp bja;tk fiy J ;kz; ehw bghd; y fodk; jh;fy; tr;rpfu mad; epth;j;j nfhz ik k; p k;ePh; gpiw btz;i t jd;ik ghjk; jhki jpUkhy gpujp#;i k bra;jy; u ; ljP Kf; brk;i u btk;i xd;W Rthjpf tpj;ij nfhz k k tpjpj;j k; k; y;fhw; mWnfh fUg; a gue;J rhpj;jy; mWg[s; knfrd; rhe;jpW zk; g[ spMfha tl;l g[ifi Q btspah ,lk; mKj rjhrpt rhe;jpak; k; k jy; bfhLj;j gpe;J k; fPij y;   48
  49. 49. 19. mq gukhq kw;Wk; caph;njhw;wk;Ie;J g{j;fs; xt;bthd;Wf;Fk; vl;L tpjkhdFzhk;r;fs"; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; Nl;rkFz;fs; vd;fpw jd;khj;jpiu cz;L. mJntrg;jk; !;ghprk; +gk; urk; fe;jk; vdg;gLk;,ijna Xir CW xsp Rit kzk; vd;Wk;TWthu;fs;. ,e;j Ik;g{j;fs; vg;go clypy;bjhHpy;g[hpfpd;wd vd;W Muha[k; nghJ gukhqvd;fpw Mjpapy; njhd;wpa rptrf;jpapd;jd;dpaf;f RHw;rpapdhy; mz;l nguz;l;fs;cUthapd vd;gJ bjupatUk;. ,e;jg;gukhqvd;gJ Vnjh ,d;W tp";"hdpfs;fz;Lgpoj;jjy;y. ,J vd;nwh "hdpfshy; myrpMuhag;gl;lit. mqf;fs; gw;wp itnrrpfrpj;jhe;jk; KGf;f KGf;f TWfpwJ. me;jVLfs; ,d;W ,y;iy. fhyj;jhy; mHpe;Jtpl;ld.mq vd;gJ jj;Jt "hdj;jpy; Kot[f;FKothd xU cz;ikiaf; TWtJ. ,e;jgpug";rk; my;yJ cyfj;jpd; bjhlf;fj;jpidmwpa Kaw;rpj;jhy; Kjypy; Koit ehk; bjhpe;Jbfhs;s ntz;Lk;. Kot[ v;nfnah m;nfjhd;bjhlf;fKk; Muk;gkhFk;. v;nfh btl;lbtspapypUe;J xU E}y; bjh;Fkhdhy; mjd;Koitg;gpoj;Jf; bfhz;L Vwpdhy; mjd;   49
  50. 50. bjhlf;fj;ij mwpayhk;. mJnghygpug";rj;jpw;F mHptpida[k; Muk;gj;ija[k;mwpa d;W epiyahd mst[ nfhiyf;fz;lhh;fs;. xU t!;Jt[f;F mHpt[ vd;gJgFjpfshfg; gphpj;jy;. ,jw;F nky; gphpf;fKoahj epiytiu mHpj;Jf; bfhz;nlnghdhy;Kotpy; mqf;fspy; brd;W Koa[k;.,t;tqf;fs;jhd; cyfpd; xLf;fk;.,tw;wpypUe;Jjhd; cyfk; cw;gj;jpahfpwJ.g[yd;fis btd;W jd;Dila Th;ikahdMw;wyhy; gphpf;f Koahj gukqtpy; ,Ue;Jmz;l nguz;l;fs; njhd;wpaij mjd;mqj;jpwid Ma;e;jth;fs; mwpe;jth;fs;fjputd; xypapy; kpd;Dfpd;wd vd;why; mjw;Fvd;d fhuzk>; thdtpy; Fsph;e;J mHfhffhl;rp jUfpwJ vd;why; vd;d fhuzk>; vd;WMuha;e;jdh;. mjd; tpist[ rpd;d";rpWJfs;fs; ,Ue;jhf ntz;Lk; vd;W fz;ldh;.xU bghUis Jz;oj;Jf; bfhz;nl brd;why;filrpapy; mjd; epiy gw;wp rpj;jh;fs;Ma;e;jdh;. mqtpy; mqtpid Mjpgpuhid mqtpy; mqtpid Mapuk; Twpl;L mqtpy; mqtpid mqf ty;yhh;f;F mqtpy; mqtpid mqfYkhnk - jpUyh;   50
  51. 51. mqitj; Jisj;J VH;fliy g[fl;o -xsitahh;nkw;fz;l ghly; yk; rpj;jh;fs; mqitg;gw;wp vd;nwh Twpa[s;sij mwpayhk;.mqbfhs;iffis ntj fhyj;jpw;F Kd;gpUe;jmE g{jpkhd;fs; rhd;nwhh;fs; fp.K.500Mz;LfSf;F Kd;ng Twpa[s;sdh;.,tw;iwbay;yhk; ekJ Mfk E}y;fspy;fhzyhk;. jkpHwp"h;fs; rpj;jh;fspd;Ma;t[j;jpwdhdJ gpug";rj;jpd; iyKLf;Ffisbay;yhk; myrp Ma;t[f; fskhf;fpmjida[k; RUl;o jdJ ff;fj;jpy;itj;Js;sdh;. rpj;jh;fs; mth;fisg; ghuhl;lekf;F ehtpy;iy.20. xspa[ k ; btg;gKk;fz;qf;F vl;lhj Jfs;fs; cU gz;g[ Kjypa,ay;g[fs; ,y;yhjd. ,j;Jfs;fs; Mw;wiynkw;bfhz;L jd; khj;jpiufs; vd;Dk;Jfs;fshf khWfpd;wd. gy jd;khj;jpiufs;x d ; W T o x U g u k h q t h f j ; j pu s ; f p d ; w d . ,e;jjd;khj;jpiufs; tpiutha;j; Jog;gjhy; xspa[k;btg;gKk; njhd;Wfpd;wd. bghUs;fspy;tpisa[k; ,uhrhad tpist[fisa[k; rpj;jh;fs;jd; bfhs;ifapy; tpsf;fpa[s;sdh;.   51
  52. 52. ,Uf;fpy; ,Uf;fk; vz;zpyh nfho ,Uf;fpd;w yj;Js; m;nf ,Uf;Fk; mUf;fDk; nrhkDk; Muoy; tPr cUf;fpa nuhkk; xsp tpLe;jhnd - jpUke;jpuk; -21nkw;fz;l ghl;od; bghUs; nfhof;fzf;fhdmqf;fspy; mjd; yj;Js;ns ,Uf;fpd;wxspa[k; btg;gKk; mHy;fis tPRfpd;wd vd;WTWtijf; fhzyhk;.xspa[k; btg;gKk; mqj;jd;ik bfhz;litvd;W rpj;jh;fs; Twpdhh;. mz;lk; vd;whnyKl;il totk; vd;gJ bghUs;. vg;gog{kpahdJ jd;dpiy RHw;rpahy; tl;l totk;bgw;Ws;snjh mnjnghy g{kpapy; gpwf;Fk;midj;Jk; tl;l totKld; njhw;wk;cz;lhfpwJ/ tpij Kisf;Fk;nghJ tl;ltotk;/ gwit Kl;il tl;l totk;/ g{kpapy;tpGk; kiHj;Jsp tl;l totk; nahdpapy; fUtl;l totk;/ ,g;goahf njhw;wk; cz;lhtijf;fhzyhk;. ,g;goahf mz;lj;jpy; cs;snfhlhd nfho nfhs;fs; mj;jida[k; tl;ltotkhfnt tps;Ffpd;wd. ,tw;wpd;,ay;g[fs; mjdjd; kpd;fhe;j <h;g;g[miyfSf;nfw;g cz;lhd vGr;rpapd;   52
  53. 53. ntWghLfshy; fzf;fpl Koahj nfhof;fzf;fhd ntWghLfis bfhz;Ls;sJ.,itfs; jk;nkhL jhKk; gpwpJkhf fye;Jmqf;fshft[k; mqj;jpushft[k; bghUshft[k;Mfpd;wd. ,g;gog;gl;l mqj;jpus;fspd;fyitfs; bfhz;lJjhd; $Ptuhrpfs; mz;lk;gpug";rk; midj:Jk; MFk;.rpj;jh;fs; j;fspd; nahf ty;yikahy; cyfpd;gilg;g[f;Fk; fhj;jYf;Fk; mHptpw;Fk;cz;lhd fhuz fhhpa;fis fz;L bjspe;Jfhuz fhhpa;fs; vy;yhk; mqthf cs;sJvd;W Twpdhh;fs;. mqf;fs; vy;yhcaph;fspSk; vy;yh cyf;fspSk; vy;yhcyfpaw;bghUs;fspYk; epiwe;J,Uf;fpwgoahy; v;Fk; mqf;fs; jhd; epiwe;Jcs;sd vd;W fz;ldh;.21. g";rg{jKk; mjd; jj;JtKk;gukhqtpdhy; g";rg{jk; cz;lhdJ. mjd;fyg;ghy; $Ptuhrpfs; cz;lhapw;W. $Ptuhrpfnsg";rg{j fyg;gpd; Mw;wiyf;bfhz;ljhFk;.me;jg; g";rg{j Mw;wy; vg;go kdpj rhPuj;jpy;bray;gLfpwJ vd;gijg; ghh;g;nghk;.   53
  54. 54. kdpjdhd $Ptdplk; mDgtKk; rpe;jida[k;To mwpt[g; bgUf;fk; Vw;gl;L jd; fhuzepiyeho Muha[k; nghJ guepiy ehoMuha[k;nghJ me;epiy czh;e;j kdpjdhy;jj;Jt tpsf;fk; Vw;gl;lJ.,t;t[yfnk Ik;bgUk; g{j mqf;fshy; MdJ.,e;j Ik;g{j mqf;fspy; cs;s xt;bthUmqtpY[k; 96 jj;Jt;fs; mike;Js;sd. ,e;j96 jj;Jt;fns kdpj rhPuj;jpy;bray;gLfpd;wd. 21.1.2 jj;Jt;fs; 96 1. Kjy; jj;Jtk; - 30 2. ,uz;lhk; jj;Jtk; - 30 3. d;whk; jj;Jtk; - 36 ------ Mf 96 ------ 21.1.1 Kjy; jj;Jtk; tpguk; - 30 1. g{jk; - 5 2. bghwp - 5 3. g[yd; - 5 4. fd;nke;jphpak; - 5   54
  55. 55. 5. fd;k tprak; - 5 6. fuzk; - 4 7. mwpt[ - 1 ------ Mf 30 mjd; tpguk; tUkhW. g{jk;-5 1. gpUjptp - kz; 2. mg;g[ - ePh; 3. nja[ - mf;dp 4. tha[ - fhw;W 5. Mfhak; - btsp bghwp-5 1. brtp 2. njhy; 3. fz; 4. ehf;F 5. f;F g[yd;-5 1. rj;jk; - nfl;fg;gLtJ (brtpf;F caph;f;TW)  55
  56. 56. 2. !;ghprk; - bjhL czh;t[ mwptJ (clk;g[f;F caphf;;TW) 3. cUtk; - fhz;gJ (fz;qf;F caph;TW) 4. ,urk; - mWRit mwptJ (ehf;Ff;F caph;f;TW) 5. fe;jk; - thrid mwpt[ (f;Ff;F caphf;;TW) fd;nke;jphpak;-5 1. tha; 2. if 3. fhy; 4. mghdk; 5. Fwp fd;k tprak;-5; 1. ngRjy; - thf;Ff;F caph;f;TW 2. flj;jy; - fhYf;F caph;f;TW 3. bfhLj;jy; th;fy; - iff;F caph;f;TW 4. tpLjy; - vUtha; caph;f;TW  56
  57. 57. 5. kfpH;jy; - Fwpf;F caph;f;TW fuzk;-4 1. kdk; - xd;iw ,izg;gJ 2. g[j;jp - mjid tprhhpg;gJ 3. mf;fhuk; - mjidf; bfhz;L nky; vGk;g[tJ 4. rpj;jk; - mjidr; bra;J Kog;gJ mwpt[-1 1. mwpt[ - jd;idf; fz;L kfpH;e;jpUj;jy; 21.1.2 ,uz;lhk; jj;Jtk; - 30 1. eho - 10 2. tha[ - 10 3. ra;fs; - 5 4. nfhrk; - 5 ------ Mf 30 ------ 1. eho - 10  57
  58. 58. 2. tha[ - 10 mitahtd 1. gpuhzd; 2. mghdd; 3. tpahdd; 4. cjhdd; 5. rkhdd; 6. ehfd; 7. Th;kd; 8. fphpfud; 9. njtjj;jd; 10. jd";brad; 1. gpuhzd; - g[Ut kj;jpapy; njhd;wp rpj;jpu ehoapy; g[Fe;J yhjhuj;ij mile;J bjhg;g[s; gpd; f;Fj; jhdj;jpy; Kl;o ,lfiy gpd;fiyfspy; Xo fghyj;ijr; Rw;wp f;F Jthuj;jpy; btsptUk; Rthrk; 12 m;Fyk; ePz;L btspte;J ehd;F  58
  59. 59. m;Fyk; fHpe;j 8 m;Fyk; cs;ns brd;W kPz;Lk; g[wg;gl;l ,lj;jpypUe;J Rthrk; Jt;FfpwJ. ,g;gor; bray;gLk; Rthrk; ehHpif xd;Wf;F 360 Rthrk; ,ut[ gfy; 60 ehHpiff;F 21600 Rthrk; kdpj clypy; bray;gLfpwJ. Fwpg;g[ 24 epkprk; bfhz;lJ - 1 ehHpif  59
  60. 60. ,e;j Rthrk; 21600-f;F tpguk; 1. yhjhuj;jpy; Rthrk; - 600 2. Rthjpl;lhdj;jpy; Rthrk; - 6000 3. kzp g{ufj;jpy; Rthrk; - 6000 4. mdhjfj;jpy; Rthrk; - 6000 5. tpRj;jpapy; Rthrk; - 1000 6. Mf;fpidapy; Rthrk; - 1000 7. rf!;;uhfhuj;jpy;; Rthrk; - 1000 ------- 21600 Rthrk; -------- ehs; xd;Wf;F 21600 Rthrk; ,a;fp ,jpy; 7200 Rthrk; fHd;W 14400 Rthrk; cs;ns brd;W kdpj cliy brayhf;fg; gLj;JfpwJ. 2. mghdd; - Fjj;ija[k; Fa;aj;ija[k; gw;wp epd;W kyryhjpfis fHpg;gJ. 3. tpahdd; - njhypny epd;W ghpr;fis mwptpg;gJ. 4. cjhdd; - grpia cz;lhf;fp cz;l czit cztpd; rf;jpia  60
  61. 61. mjhtJ rhuj;ij 72000 eho euk;g[fspy; brYj;jp rhPuj;ij tsh;g;gJ. 5. rkhdd; - vy;yh tha[ita[k; VWjy; ,w;Fjy; ,y;yhky; rkdhff; bfhz;L ,a;FtJ. 6. ehfd; - tpf;fYk; ff;fYk; cz;lhf;FtJ. 7. Th;kd; - fz;zpny epd;W ,ikg;gJ. 8. fphpfud; - g[Utkj;jpiag; gw;wp epd;W Jk;ky; mGtpj;jy; bra;tJ. 9. njtjj;jd; - tpHpj;jpUf;Fk;nghJ XLtpj;jYk; cyht[jYk; a[j;jk; gz;qtpj;jy; bra;tJ. 10. jd";brad; - gpuhzd; clk;ig tpl:Lg;nghdYk; jhd; gphpahky; epd;W clk;ig ,a;fr; bra;J tphptpj;jYk; bra;J d;W ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF fghyj;ijg; gpse;J Xog;nghtJ.  61
  62. 62. 3. ra;fs;; - 5 1. mkh;thrak; 2. gfph;thrak; 3. rythrak; 4. kythrak; 5. Rf;fpy thrak; 1. mkh;thrak; - cz;l czt[ rhuk; mkUkplk; 2. gfph;thrak; - md;d rhuk; gfph;e;J bfhLf;Fkplk; 3. rythrak; - ePh; ,w;Fk; ,lk; 4. kythrak; - kyf;FHp ,w;Fk; ,lk; 5. Rf;fpy thrak; - Rf;fpyk;; gphpa[k; ,lk; 4. nfhrk; -5 1. md;dka nfhrk; 2. gpuhzka nfhrk; 3. kndhka nfhrk;  62
  63. 63. 4. tp";"hdka nfhrk; 5. Mde;jka nfhrk; 1. md;dka nfhrk; - Jynjfkhfpa clk;g[ 2. gpuhzka nfhrk; - gpuhzDk; fd;nke;jphpaKk; To epw;gJ 3. kndhka nfhrk; - kdKk; "hnde;jphpaKk; To epw;gJ 4. tp";"hdka nfhrk; - g[j;jpa[k; "hnde;jphpaKk; To epw;gJ 5. Mde;jka nfhrk; - gpuhztha[k; RGj;jpa[k; To epw;gJ  63
  64. 64. 21.1.3 d;whk; jj;Jtk; - 36 1. Mjhuk; - 6 2. kz;lyk; - 3 3. kyk; - 3 4. njhrk; - 3 5. Vlid - 3 6. Fzk; - 3 7. ,uf;fk; - 8 8. tpid - 2 9. mtj;ij - 5 ----------- Mf 36 ----------- 1. Mjhuk; -6 1. yhjhuk; 2. Rthjpl;lhdk; 3. kzpg{ufk;/ 4. mdhfjk;/ 5. tpRj;jp/ 6. Mf;i" 1. yhjhuk; 1. ,Uf;Fkplk; vUtha; ehw;rJuj;Jf;Fs;ns ehspjH; Kf;nfhz  64
  65. 65. totkhf ,Uf;Fk; vGj;J X;fhuk;. epwk; khzpf;f epwk;. njtij fzgjp. 2. Rthjpl;lhdk; ,Uf;Fkplk; vUtha;f;Fk; nkny ,uz;L tpuw;fil mst[k; bjhg;g[Sf;Ff; fPnHa[k;. ehw;nfhzk;/ MW ,jH; vGj;J e/ fhuk;/ brk;bghd; epwk;. njtij gilg;g[ gpuk;kh 3. kzpg{ufk; - ,Uf;Fkplk; bjhg;g[H; gpiwnfhzkhdJ. ,jd; eLnt epw;Fk; vGj;J kh fhuk;. gj;J ,jH; kufj epwk;/ njtij tp#;q. 4. mdhfjk; - ,Uf;Fkplk; ,Ujak; Kf;nfhzkhdJ. ,jd; eLnt ,Uf;Fk; vGj;J rp/ fhuk; gd;dpuz;L  65
  66. 66. ,jH; !;gof epwk;/ njtij cUj;jpud;. 5. tpRj;jp - ,Uf;Fkplk;; fz;lk; (fGj;J). mWnfhzk; 16 ,jH; nfhnkjf epwk; vGj;J t/ fhuk; njtij knfRtud;. 6. Mf;i" - ,Uf;Fkplk; g[Ut kj;jp tl;lkhapUg;gJ 3 ,jH; !;gof epwk; vGj;J a/ fhuk;. nkw;fz;l tpguj;jpd; yk; Mjhuk; Mwpnya[k; MW vGj;J Xk; ekr;rptha MW Mjhuk; MWtPlhft[k;/ ,jH;fisf; Tl;odhy; 51 ml;ruk; vd;gJk; fz;Lbfhs;s ntz;Lk;. 2. kz;lyk; -3 1. mf;dp kz;lyk; 2. Mjpj;j kz;lyk; 3. re;jpu kz;lyk;  66
  67. 67. 1. mf;dp kz;lyk; - ,J yhjhuk; MFk; 2. Mjpj;j kz;lyk; - ,Uja !;jhdk; MFk; 3. re;jpu kz;lyk; - rf!;uhfhu jskhFk;. 3. kyk;-3 1. Mztk; 2. fhkpak; 3. khia 1. Mztk; - clk;ig ehd; vd;W ,Ug;gJ. 2. fhkpak; - fz;ltw;wpy; kdk; Mirg;gLtJ. 3. khia - jdf;F tUtij mwpahky; ,Ug;gJ.  67
  68. 68. 4. njhrk; -3 1. thjk; 2. gpj;jk; 3. rpnyhj;jkk; 1. thjk; - tha[tpd; bray; tpist[ 2. gpj;jk; - mf;fpdpapd; tpist[ 3. rpnyhj;jkk; - fgj;jpd; tpist[ 5. Vlid -3 1. mh;j;j Vlid/ 2. g[j;jpu Vlid/ 3. cyf Vlid 1. mh;j;j Vlid - jputpaj;ij njo Mirg;gly; 2. g[j;jpu Vlid - g[j;jpu njo Mirg;gly;  68
  69. 69. 3. cyf Vlid - cyf tpra;fs; njo Mirg;gly; 6. Fzk; -3 1. ,uhl;rrk;/ 2. jhkrk;/ 3. rhj;tPfk; 1. ,uhl;rrk; - mf;fhukha; btl;lt[k; Fj;jt[k; mof;ft[khapUg;gJ 2. jhkrk; - ke;j g[j;jp cd;kj;jkha; kj;jpakha; ,Ug;gJ 3. rhj;tPfk; - mlf;fk; md;g[ tpntfk; Ik;bghwp Mf;fy; mUs; "hdk; jtk; bghiw nkd;ik tha;ik Kjypatw;iwa[ilajha; ehl;l; bfhz;oUg;gJ  69
  70. 70. 7. ,uhfk; -8 1. fhkk; 2. Fnuhjk; 3. cnyhgk; 4. nkhfk; 5. kjk; 6. khr;rhpak; 7. ,Lk;ig 8. mf;fhuk; 1. fhkk; - Mir 2. Fnuhjk; - gpzf;F 3. cnyhgk; - gpoghL 4. nkhfk; - gphpak; 5. kjk;/ - fh;tk; 6. khr;rhpak; - cjl;oy; cwt[k; cs;sj;jpy; gifa[k; itg;gJ 7. ,Lk;ig - cjhrPdk; 8. mf;fhuk; - nfhgpj;jy; 8. tpid - 2 1. ey;tpid 2. jPtpid  70
  71. 71. 1. ey;tpid - g[z;zpak; bra;jy; 2. jPtpid - ghtk; bra;jy; 9. mtj;ij - 5 1. rhf;fpuk; 2. brhg;gdk; 3. RGj;jp 4. Jhpak; 5. JhpahjPjk; 1. rhf;fpuk;- yyhlj;jhdk; (g[Utkj;jp) 2. brhg;gdk;- fz;l!;jhdk; 3. RGj;jp- ,Uja !;jhdk; 4. Jhpak;- ehgp (bjhg;g[H;) 5. JhpahjPjk; - Fwpaplk; Kg;gJ Kg;gJ Kg;gj;jWtU"; brg;g[ kjpYilf; nfhapYs; thH;gth; brg;g[ kjpYilf; nfhapy; rpije;j gpd; byhg;gpytd; tUnkhl;blLj;jhnu96 jj;Jt;fSk; ek;Kila rhPuj;jpd; vg;gobray;gLfpd;wd vd;W ghh;j;njhk;.   71
  72. 72. ,jpy; Md;kj;Jtk; vd;gJ 24.Mitahtd 1. g{j;fs; - 5 2. jd;khj;jpiufs; - 5 3. "hnde;jphpa;fs; - 5 4. fd;nke;jphpak; - 5 5. me;jf;fhuzk;- 4Mfpa ,e;j 24-k; Md;kht[f;F J}a tothf,Ue;J nenu bjhlh;g[ bfhz;L tps;Ftjhy;Md;k jj;Jtk; vdg;gl;lJ.nkw;fz;l Md;kjj;Jtj;jpd; tpsf;fj;ij vth;mwpthnuh mtnu ,t;t[yfj;jpy;thHj;bjhpe;jtu;; Mthu;.Rit xsp CW Xir ehw;wk; vDk; ,t;ite;jpd;;tif bjhpthd; fl;nl cyF vd;w ts;Sth;tha;ik bghHpapd; yk; fhzyhk;.22. g";rg{j;fs;gukhqf;fspd; gy;ntWgl;l ,af;fepfH;r;rpfns nghpaf;f kz;lyk;. mjd; Kjy;jdpepiy “tpz;” vdg;gLk;. mtw;wpd; Kjy;bfhj;J epfH;r;rpna fhw;W vdg;gLk; mit   72
  73. 73. nkhjpf; bfhs;tjhy; Vw;gLk; btg;g epfH;r;rpnabeUg;g[ vdg;gLk;. ePuftha[/ gpuhztha[/ vDk;,Utifahd fhw;W Fwpg;gpl;l mstpy;nrUk;nghJ ePh; MfpwJ. ePhpd; ,Ufpa epiynakz;/ ,t;ite;J epiyfSk; Ie;J bgsjPfk;-Ie;J gphpt[fs; Mdgoahy; mtw;iwg";rg{j;fs; vd;fpnwhk;.Ie;JbghUl;fSk; Mf;Fk; fl;lj;jpy; jPg{kpia czlhf;FfpwJ (vhpkiyf;FHk;g[).vhpkiyf;FHk;g[ rhk;gy; g{rp cnyhfj;ijcz;lhf;FfpwJ (jhJg;bghUl;fs;). cnyhfk;ePiu cz;lhf;FfpwJ (Fsph;e;j ePh; cs;slk;shpd; btspapy; ePh; Kj;Jf;fs);/ ePh; fhw;iwczlhf;fp ku;fisg; bgUf;Ffpd;wJ. .gukhqtpd; gyfl;lf; bfhj;J epfH;r;rpfis/CW/ xyp/ xsp/ Rit/ kzk;/ vd;w xt;bthUvGr;rpa[k; tpisaj;jf;f gphpt[fshfg; gphpj;JvGr;rp-fth;r;rpahf cs;s mGj;j,af;ff;fl;lj;ij “tpz;” vd;Wk;/ xypvGr;rpbgwk; ,af;fj;ij “fhw;W” vd;Wk;/ xspvGr;rpbgWk; ,af;fj;ij “beUg;g[” vd;Wk;Rit vGr;rp bgWk; ,af;fj;ij “ePh;”; vd;Wk;kzk; vGr;rp bgWk; ,af;fj;ij “kz”; vd;Wk;TWfpnwhk;. tp";"hdpfs; TWk; 103 tifahd(elements) fSk; ,t;ite;J ghpt[fspy;ml;fpa[s;sd.   73
  74. 74. kz;zpd; ,Wf;fj;jhy; gyntW cnyhf;fs;tpisfpd;wd vd;whYk; mitbay;yhk;g";rg{j;fs; vd;fpnwhk;.23. g";r g{j;fspd; bray;ghLfs;g";r g{j;fSk; xU epfH;r;rp kz;lyj;jpy; mJrpwpjhdhYk; bghpjhdhYk; ve;j tpfpjj;jpy;fye;Js;sdnth/ mjw;nfw;g ,af;f ntfj;jpYk;/tpist[fspYk; ntWghL cz;lhFk;.fhw;wpy; tpz;qk;/ btg;gj;jpy; fhw;Wk;/tpz;qk; ePhpy; btg;gk;/ fhw;W/ tpz;/ ,ita[k;/kz;zpy; ePh; btg;gk;; fhw;W tpz; Mfpaehd;Fk; mlf;fk;. ,g;go fye;J ,a;Ffpd;wd.xt;bthU g{jKk; jd;dstpy; jdpj;jdpna,a;Fk;nghJ xU jd;iknahLk; kw;bwhd;wpy;,a;Fk;nghJ me;j ,af;f kz;lyj;jpy;mike;j g";rg{jf;Tl;L/ mjd; fhyk;/ J}uk;gUkd;/ ntfk;/ ,itfl;F Vw;g btt;ntwhdrpwg;g[j;jd;iknahLk; ,a;Fk;. ,jdhy;xt;bthU epfH;r;rpa[k; ntW ntwhdjd;iknahL gynfhlhd nfhoj; njhw;w;fshfcUthfpd;wJ.tpz;zpd; jd;epiy ,af;fk; bfhs;sy; rf;jpMfpwJ. mJ fhw;wpy; ,a;Fk;nghJ xypf;Fk;rf;jpahfpd;wJ. mJ btg;gj;jpy; xsptpLk;   74
  75. 75. rf;jpahfpwJ. ePhpy; mJnt Ritahfp kz;zpy;thridahfpwJ. mGj;jk;/ xyp/ xsp/ Rit/kzk; vd;w ,af;fj;jd;ikfs; xd;nwhLxd;wpize;J xU kz;ly epfH;r;rpapy; Kiwahf,a;Fk;nghJ me;j kz;lyj;jpy; fhe;jk;/kpd;rhuk;/ btg;gk;/ fhw;W Mfpa ehy;tifahdRHy;fs; Kiwahf mjdjd; ntfj;jpy; mjdjd;ghijapy; RHd;W nkny brhy;yg;gl;l mGj;jk;Kjyhd Itif ,af;f;fspYk;g;FbgWfpd;wd., e ; j I t i f , a f ; f m j p h; t [ m i y f s ; K i w a h f j ;bjhlh;e;J eilbgWkhdhy; mjd; tpisthftpj;Jf;TWfs; tpise;J ,ize;J me;jkz;lyj;jpy; czh;r;rp vd;w ,af;fk;cUthfpd;wd. mg;nghJ me;j kz;lyk; mwpt[vd;w rpwg;gpaf;fj;jpw;F mog;gilahd “tpj;J”Mfpd;wJ.,e;j tpj;Jf; nfhs;fs;jhd; vy;yhtifahdcaphpd;fSf;Fk; mog;gilahd rpw;wiufs;(CELLS) MFk;. ,j;jifa tpjJf; nfhs;fs;vz;zpf;ifapy; bgUfpf;To bfhj;jhf mike;J,a;fp bfhs;sy;/ js;sy;/ czh;jy;/ tpj;jpLjy;/vd;w rpwg;gpaf;f;fisg; bgWk;nghjmj;bjhFg;g[ ,af;fnk “$Ptd;”; vdg;gLk;.   75
  76. 76. ,e;j tpsf;fj;jhy; gukhq vd;w xnu rf;jpxUg[wk; fhw;W/ btg;gk;/ ePh;/ epyk;/ ,itahfpJ}yf; fhl;rpfhst[k;/ ,tw;wpDnl mnjgukhqtpd; vGr;rp fth;r;rp vd;w ,af;fr;rpwg;ng klf;F epfHr;rpfshfp xyp/ xsp/ Ritkzk;/ mwpt[/ vd;Wk; Nl;rk ,af;f;fshft[k;$Ptfhe;jkhft[k; kpsh;fpd;wd.,j;jifa Nf;Fk epfH;r;rpfspy; mGj;jk;/ xyp/xsp/ Rit kzk;/ Mfpa caph; vdg;gLk;czh;jy; vd;w epfH;r;rpna mwpt[ vdg;gLk;.caph;; ,af;fj;jpd; tpisthd xU rpwg;g[epiyna mwpt[ MFk;. caph; vd;gJ gukhq.,jd; ,af;f ntWghLfs; vz;zpwe;jdvd;gjhYk; RUf;fkhf d;W gphpt[fspy;bjhpe;J bfhs;syhk;. 1. nghpaf;f kz;lyk; KGtJk; tpz; vd;w caph;j;Jfs; epiwe;j bgU;fskhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,e;epiyapy; ,J gpug";r caph;; ,Jnt kfhfhrk; (kfh +Mfhrk; ) tpz;/ 2. jpul;rp epiyfshd fhw;W/ btg;gk;/ ePh;/ epyk; Mfpa ehd;F g{j;fspYk; cs; epiw Mw;wyhf mike;J xyp/ xsp/ Rit kzk;/ vdw tpist[fshf kyh;e;J bfhz;oUf;Fk; ,af;f epfH;r;rpfspy; ,Jnt g{jhfhrk; (g{jk;+ Mfhrk;) vdg;gLk/   76
  77. 77. 3. tpj;J vd;w mog;gil mikg;igf; bfhz;L mq mLf;Fshy; mike;j clypy; ,nj tpz; czh;r;rp vd;w rpwg;ghw;wyhf kpsph;fpd;wJ. ,e;j epiyapy; mnj tpz; rpjhfhrk; (rpj;jk;+Mfhrk;) MFk;.,Jjhd; $Ptd;/ rpjhfhrk; vd;w epiynahL/g{jhfhrKk;/ kfhfhrKk;/ neh; bjhlh;g[bfhz;oUj;jyhy; xt;bthU $PtDk; gpu";rk;KGika[k; jd;ndhL ,izj;Jf;; bfhz;nl,a;Ffpd;wJ.24. jd;khj;jpiufs:nkw;fz;l g{j;fspd; Ie;jpd; Nl;Rk Fz;fnsjd;khj;jpiufshFk;/ jd;khj;jpiufs; vd;gJcUgz;g[ ,y;yhjit/ mqf;fs; xd;W Tojd;khj;jpiu Mfpd;wd. jd;khj;jpiufspypUe;nj g{j;fs; njhd;Wfpd;wdvd;W Vw;fdnt goj;njhk;. g" ; r g { j ; f s ;gpwg;g[f;Ff; fhuzk; jd;khj;jpiufs;. ,njjd;khj;jpiufs;jhd; g";rg{j;fspd; bjhlh;ghy;,e;jphpa;fis Efh;r;rpapy; bjhHpw;gLtjw;Fj;Jiz bra;tdtha[k; cs;sd. jd;khj;jpiuvd;whYk; Nf;Fk g{jk; vd;whYk; bghUs;xd;nw. ,itfs; g";r,e;jphpa ,af;f;fSf;FMw;wiyf; bfhLj;J bray;glitf;Fk jpwd;bfhz;lit. "hnde;jphpa;fshd bka;/ tha;/   77
  78. 78. fz;/ f;F/ brtp ,t;tidj;Jk; g";rg{j;fspd;bjhlhghy; mjdjd; czh;r;rpfisczuitg;gJ[k; fz;nke;jphpa;fshd; tha;/ if/fhy;/,Ltha;/ Fwp/ ,itfs; mjdjd;ntiyfisr; bra;aitg;gJ[k; ,e;jjd;khj;jpiufs; jhd;.,e;j mog;gilapy; bjhlh;e;J rpe;jpj;jhy;mqf;fs; ,ize;J tpz;/ fhw;W/ btg;gk;/ ePh;epyk; vd;w Ie;J gphpt[fSk; mtw;wpypUe;JmGj;jk;/ xyp xsp Rit kzk;/ mwpt[ vd;wMWtifahd epfH;r;rpfSk; eilbgWfpd;wdvd;gJ bjhpa[k;.bka;epiyahfpa gubtspa[k; capu;; epiyahfpagukhqf;fSk; xU vy;iyf;Fs; mika[k;mstpd; tpfpjhrhuj;jpw;F Vw;g m;FeilbgWk; ,af;fk; gy;ntW epiyfismilfpd;wJ. mj;jifa ntWghLfs; jhd;Fwpg;ghf mwptpdhy; czug;bgWk; Kf;fpagphpt[fshfpa tpz;/ fhw;W/ btg;gk;/ jz;zPh;epyk;/ vd;gdthFk;. ,t;ite;J gphpt[fspy; xUepiynahL kw;w epiyia ve;j mstpy; To,ize;J ,a;Ffpd;wnjh mjw;F Vw;gmGj;jk;/ xyp/ xsp/ Rit/ kzk;/ mwpt[/ vd;wMWtifahd epfHr;rpfSk; mtw;wpd;xt;bthU gphptpYk; gytpj Vw;w jhH;t[epiyfSk; cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd. ,g;go xt;bthU   78
  79. 79. ,af;fj;jpYk; jd;dpaf;fk;/ bjhlhpaf;fk;/gpujpgypg;g[ ,af;fk;/ juk;/ khw;wk; Vw;gl;Lxd;W gythf ,a;Fk; epfHr;rpfshfpd;wd.,e;j Kiwapny ,a;Fk; bjhlh; epfHr;rpfs;mqthfp/ mqf;fs; To fhw;whfp/ btg;gkhfp/ePuhfp mz;lbtspapny jd;idj;jhnd RHd;WRw;wp kpje;J bfhz;L ,Uf;fpd;wd. mjd;kj;jpapy;; tpiut[ Fiwe;j mqf;fs; beUf;fKw;W fdw;FHk;ghfp nky;nehf;fp ePh;tuk;gpw;Fnky; te;J bfl;oahd ghpzhknk epykhFk;.nkYk; g{kpapd; eLikaj;jpy; Vw;gLk;mqf;fs; mGj;jj;jhy; btg;gk; mjpfkhfpmjd; tpisthf cnyhf;fs;/ ,uj;jpd;fs;,urhad;fshft[k;; cw;gj;jpahfpd;wd. nkYk;nkYk; tpise;J bfhz;nl ,Uf;fpd;wd.Kiwahfj; jhdhf cz;lhFk; mqmLf;Fg;bgw;w xU ,af;f kz;lyj;jpy; fhe;jk;/kpd;rhuk; fhw;W/ e Ph ; / Mfpa ehy;tifr;RHy;fSk; Vw;gl;L bfhs;sy;/ js;sy; vd;w,af;f epfH;r;rpfs; Kiwahf eilbgWk;nghJmJ tpj;jhfpd;wJ. nkYk; mt;tpj;jhdJMw;wyhy; vGr;rp bgw;W ,a;fp jhtu,dkhfpa Xuwpt[ $PtdhfpaJ. mjpypUe;j<uwpt[ ,dkhd g[G njhd;wp/ mijj; bjhlh;e;Jtwpt[/ ehywpt[/ Iawpt[g; gpuhzpfs;/Mwwpt[s;s kdpj ,dKk; njhd;wpa[s;sd.   79
  80. 80. ,t;thW gunk mqbtd;w capuhfp mJntjd;dGj;j ,af;fj;jhy; clyhfp clYs;,a;Fk; caph;rrf;jpahfp mr;rf;;jpna xypahfp/x s p a h f p / R i t a h f p k z k hf p / c z U k ; j p w D k h f p /caph;fs; vd;w ghpzhk rpwg;ig bgw;wJ.,j;jifa ghpzhkj; bjhlUk; ,af;f;fSk;,ize;j xU nghpaf;f kz;lyk;jhd; gpug";rk;g";rg{jk; vd;wiHf;fg; gLfpd;wJ.25. gpug";r ghpzhkk;;gpug";r ghpzhkk; xU tisaj;ijg; nghd;wJ.,J guj;jpny bjhl;fp mq/ fhw;W/ btg;gk;/ePh;/ epyk; Xh; mwpt[ $Ptd; Kjy; Iawpt[ $Ptd;tiua[s;s czh;r;rp epiy cUtkhdkdpjdhfpwJ/ kdpjnd jd; ,ay;iga[k;/epiyia[k; czh;e;jnghJ jhd; njtd; vd;Wfilrpapny kPz;Lk; guj;jpny Kot[ bgWfpwJ.g";rg{j braw;ifahd njhw;wkhff; fhqk;epfHr;rpfspy; gupzhkk; vd;Dk; tpz;/ gyfl;l;fspYk; CLUtp xo ,a;Fk;jd;ikf;Fk;/ Kiwf;Fk; tpiutpw;Fk; Vw;gmGj;jk;/ xyp/ xsp/ Rit/ kzk; czh;r;rpfs;vd;w MWtifahd bjhlh; epfH;r;rpfs;cz;lhfpd;wd. vdnt gupzhknk caph;; vdkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.   80
  81. 81. flypny njhd;Wk; miyfs; flypny ml;FtJnghyt[k;/ ePhpd; mirit miybadkjpf;fg;bgWtJ nghyt[k; gpug";rk; jdJ,af;ff; fl;l;fSf;nfwgg gy;ntW mstpYk;tYtpYk; Vw;w jhH;t[fis bfhz;l,af;ffshft[k; fhl;rpfshft[k; ,Uf;fpdwd.,it mwpthy; czug; gLfpd;wd. vdnt ehk;fhqk; ve;jj; njhw;wKk; bghUs; epiyapy;guknkahk.; guj;ij jtph;j;J ntW bghUs;jhd;VJ.fhqk; njhw;wKk; fhz;gtDk; ,af;fepiyfspy; xg;gpl;L czUk; fUj;Jf;F ntWntwhf tpsf;fk;;bgw;w nghJk/ MH;e;JMuha;e;j tpsf;fj;jpy; bghUs; epiyahfpaguKk/ mjd; epiyahfpa fhl;rpa[k;/epfH;r;rpapd; epHr;rpahfpg; guj;jpny Koe;Jbfhz;oUf;Fk; mwpt[k; d;Wk; xd;whfnt,Uf;Fk; ngUz;ik mf;fhl;rpahFk;.gunk mqthfp me;j mq ,af;fj; bjhlh;tpisthf mJnt gy fl;lf; fhl;rpfshfp/gyg;gy ntWghLfisg; bgw;W tps;Ffpd;wdvd Kd;dnk mwpe;njhk;. mJnt J}ymikg;gpy; capuhft[k;/ czh;r;rp epiyapy;fhyk;/ J}uk;/ gUkd;/ ntfk; vd;w vy;iyfspy;fl;Lg;gl;l czh;tpy/ ,d;g Jd;gkhft[k;/fzpjj;jpw;F cl;gl;l gythft[k; ,e;j ehd;F   81
  82. 82. msitfisf; fle;j nghJ vy;yhk; xd;Wgl;lgukhft[k; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.gunk ehdhft[k; cs;sJ. “ehd;” vd;gJ jdpna,y;iy guj;ijj; jtph;j;J ntW xd;Wnk,y;iy. ,af;f epfH;r;rpfs; midj;jpw;Fk;bghUshft[k;/ mtw;wpw;F Kjy; yrf;jpahft[k; ,Ug;gJ guk;bghUs; xd;nw.Mjpepiyapy; gukhft[k;/ mqepiyapy;capuhft[k;/ mqf;fs; ,ize;j bfhj;J ,af;fepfH;r;rpapy; cUt;fshft[k;/ fhl;rpfshft[k;/,af;f;fshft[k;/ ,Uf;fpd;w me;j xU bghUsjhd; ‘ehd;’ vd;w brhy;ypd; cz;ikf;fUj;Jvd;gJ bjspthf tps;Fk;.mGj;jkhf mqf;fs; ,ize;J ,a;Fk; xUepfH;r;rpna J}a cly;. mjD}nl mGj;jk;Fiwe;J Mdhy; tpiut[ mjpfkhfp Nf;Fkhfr;RHd;W ,a;Fk; mqj; bjhlhpaf;fnk caph;/J}yj;jpD}nl caph;rf;jp RHd;W tUk;nghJVw;gLk; nkhjy; epfHr;rpapypUe;J xyp/ xsp/Rit kdk;/ czh;jy;/ vd;Wk; bjhlh;epfH;r;rpfs; tpisfpd;wd. clYk;mqf;fshy;MdJ capUk; mqf;fshy; MdJ.Mdhy; mqf;fspd; ynkh guk; Mfntclyhf capuhf czh;thf mtw;wpd; Kotpy;gukhf ,Ug;gtd; vtndh mtnd ehd.; ehd;vdg;gLgtnd mtd;. vdg;gLtd; bja;tk;   82
  83. 83. vdg;gLfpwhd;/ Mjpbadg;gLfpwhd;/ gpuk;kk;vdg;gLfpwhd;/ mtidj; jtpu;j;J jdpna xUepfH;r;rpa[k; ,y;iy “mtnd ehd;” “ehndmtd;” vd;W bjspthf czh;e;J bfhs;sntz;Lk;. jd;idg; g[yd; czh;r;rpfshy;vy;iyfl;o czUk; jd; Kidg;ghd kaf;fk;,;Fjhd; bjspt[ bgw;W eP;fp xHpfpd;wJ.26. caph;fspd; njhw;wk;czh;jy; vd;w rpwg;ghw;wyhd mwpt[ Kjypy;mGj;jk; btg;g jl;g Vw;w jhH;t[ ,tw;iwczh;thfg; bgWjypy; bjhl;Ffpd;wJ. ,e;jczh;t[ !;ghpr czh;t[ (m) CW czh;t[ MFk;.,e;j Xuwpt[ ,af;fKila $Ptnd jhtuk;MFk;.jhtuj;jpypUe;njh (my;yJ) mjd; tpj;Jf;fspy;,Ue;njh caphpaf;f tpiut[ mjpfkhfp/Rita[zh;t[ To mjw;Fhpa fUtpahd tha;mikag; bgWk;nghJ mJ <uwpt[ MfpwJ.,e;j <uwpt[ caphpd;fsplk; caphpaf;f rf;jptpiut[ bgw;W thrida[zh;thd fUtpahdf;F ghpzhkkile;jhy; mJnt twpthFk;$PtdhFk.; vWk;g[/ bry;/ nghd;wit d;wwpt[$Ptd;fs;/   83
  84. 84. nkYk; xspa[zht[ fUtpahd fz;njhd;wehywpt[ capuhd ghk;g[ Kjypad njhd;wpd.xypa[zh;t[ fUtpahd fhJ vd;W fUtp njhd;wIe;jwpt[ capuhd kpUf;fs; gwitfs; Kjypadnjhd;wpd.,j;jifa ghpzhk tsh;r;rpapd; bjhlh;epfH;r;rpapy; thy; cs;s Fu;F njhd;wp gpd;g[thy; ,y;yh Fu;F njhd;wp/ gpd; kdpjd;njhd;wpapUf;fyhk; vd mDkhdpf;f KofpwJ.bts;sj;jhy; g{kp mjph;;r;rp/ gpst[fs;/ mtw;why;,e;j kdpj FLk;gk; rpjwof;fg;gl;L g{kpapy;gy;ntW ,l;fspy; gutp me;je;j ehl;Ljl;btl;g mikg;g[f;fSf;nfw;g fUg;gh;fs;/bts;isah;fs;/ Fl;ilah;fs;/ bel;ilah;fs;/gdpapy; thGk; v!;fpnkhf;fs; nghd;WgyntWghLfSld; kdpj ,dk; njhd;wp gHf;ftHf;fk; gz;ghL/ fyhr;rhuk;/ nghd;wKiwfshy; kj;fs; gythfg; gphpe;J/ cyfKGtJk; thH;e;J tUfpd;wdh; vd;gij mwpantz;Lk;.Ie;JbghUl;fSk; Mf;Fk; fl;lj;jpy; jP g{kpiaczlhf;FfpwJ (vhpkiyf;FHk;g[).vhpkiyf;FHk;g[ rhk;gy; g{rp cnyhfj;ijcz;lhf;FfpwJ (jhJg;bghUl;fs;). cnyhfk;ePiu cz;lhf;FfpwJ (Fsph;e;j ePh; cs;s   84
  85. 85. lk;shpd; btspapy; ePh; Kj;Jf;fs);/ ePh; fhw;iwczlhf;fp ku;fisg; bgUf;Ffpd;wJ.27. kuzk;mqf;fspy; bfhj;J ,af;f epfH;r;rpna J}ycly;/ mjD}nl gukhq epiyapy; CLUtpXor;RHd;W bfhz;nl ,Ug;gJ caph;r;rf;jp.caph;r;rf;jpapd; Xl;lj;jpy; jila[z; lhdhy;mJnt czh;r;rpahfpwJ. me;j czh;r;rp xU$Ptd; jh;fpg; gHFk; mstpw;F nkyhfX;Fk;nghJ mJ ty;Yzh;r;rpahfp Jd;gkhfpnehahf tUfpwJ. ,e;j jil ePoj;J mjd;tpisthf clypy; kpd;rhuk;/ fhw;W/ ,uj;jk;Mfpa d;W RHy;fSk; jilgLnkahdhy;clYf;F ykhd tpj;J jh;Fk; mstpw;F nky;fdy; bfhz;L mjd; ehs;fisj; jfh;j;JbtspnawptpLk;. czh;r;rp vd;w mwpnthLToacaph;rf;jp bjhlh;e;J me;j clypy; RHd;W,a;fKoahky; cliy tpl;L btspnawptpLk;.cyfj;jpYs;s bghUl;fs; aht[k; kdpj ,dk;cl;gl xt;bthd;Wk; xt;bthU yg;bghUshy;Mdit. mit mHpa[k; nghJ VjhtJ xUjdpg;bghUspy; nrh;e;JtpLk;. ,J ,aw;ifapd;tpjp/ ,jw;F ahUk; vita[k;/ tpyf;fy;y.,e;j;jdpg;bghUl;fs; jhd; epyk;/ ePh;/ beUg;g[/fhw;W/ Mfhak; Mfpait MFk;. ,e;j   85

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