Successfully reported this slideshow.
Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Activity based costing and traditional costing system

39,423 views

Published on

how to estimate cost using activity based costing system and traditional costing system

Published in: Education
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

### Activity based costing and traditional costing system

1. 1. Activity-Based Costing Systems Learning Objective 1
2. 2. Traditional Costing Systems Traditional cost systems were created when manufacturing processes were labor intensive. Traditional cost systems were created when manufacturing processes were labor intensive. A single company-wide overhead rate based on direct labor hours may be used to allocate overhead to products in these labor intensive processes. A single company-wide overhead rate based on direct labor hours may be used to allocate overhead to products in these labor intensive processes.
3. 3. In this example, overhead will be allocated to jobs using direct labor hours. If total overhead is \$120, how much will be allocated to each job? In this example, overhead will be allocated to jobs using direct labor hours. If total overhead is \$120, how much will be allocated to each job? Traditional Costing Systems Job 1 Job 2 Labor Hours 2 6
4. 4. Job 1 Job 2 Labor Hours 2 6 Overhead Allocation 30\$ 90\$ Overhead Rate = \$120 ÷ 8 direct labor hours Overhead Rate = \$15 per direct labor hour Job 1 = 2 hours × \$15 per hour = \$30 Job 2 = 6 hours × \$15 per hour = \$90 Traditional Costing Systems
5. 5. The company introduces automated machinery. Total overhead rises from \$120 to \$420, while the labor time needed for Job 2 falls from 6 hours to 1 hour. Now allocate the \$420 overhead to the two jobs. Traditional Costing Systems
6. 6. Job 1 Job 2 Labor Hours 2 1 Overhead Allocation 280\$ 140\$ Overhead Rate = \$420 ÷ 3 direct labor hours Overhead Rate = \$140 per direct labor hour Job 1 = 2 hours × \$140 per hour = \$280 Job 2 = 1 hour × \$140 per hour = \$140 Traditional Costing Systems
7. 7. Is this a reasonable costing method? Automation benefited only Job 2, but most of the additional overhead cost was allocated to Job 1. Clearly, we need to look for another cost driver. Job 1 Job 2 Labor Hours 2 1 Overhead Allocation 280\$ 140\$ Traditional Costing Systems
8. 8. Learning Objective 2
9. 9. Products Require Activities Activities Consume Resources People Manage Activities Activity-Based Costing (ABC) A costing method that identifies the activities performed within the organization as it delivers its goods and services. A costing method that identifies the activities performed within the organization as it delivers its goods and services.
10. 10. Direct labor hours Machine hours Process setups Design time Lot size Customer contact Activity-Based Costing (ABC) A costing method that assigns costs to products, based on the number of activities the organization used in producing them. A costing method that assigns costs to products, based on the number of activities the organization used in producing them.
11. 11. Used in internal decision making as well as in inventory valuation for external reporting. Used in internal decision making as well as in inventory valuation for external reporting. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing costs may be assigned to products. Both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing costs may be assigned to products. Allocation bases often differ from traditional costing systems. Allocation bases often differ from traditional costing systems. A B C ABC is a good supplement to our traditional cost system. ABC is a good supplement to our traditional cost system.
12. 12. Level of Com plexity Cost of Im plem entation Level of Benefits Traditional Costing Traditional Costing Activity-Based Costing Activity-Based Costing ABC Compared with Traditional Costing
13. 13. Resource CostsResource Costs Cost Pools:Cost Pools: Plants orPlants or DepartmentsDepartments Cost ObjectsCost Objects Traditional Costing Resource CostsResource Costs Cost Pools:Cost Pools: Activities orActivities or Activity CentersActivity Centers Cost ObjectsCost Objects Activity-Based Costing Directly traced or allocated Directly traced or allocated Predetermined overhead rate Cost driver rates for each activity ABC Compared with Traditional Costing
14. 14. An Activity CostActivity Cost PoolPool is a common way to collect costs that are related to a specific activity in the ABC system. \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Activity Costs Activity-Based Costing (ABC)
15. 15.  Identify and classify the activities related to the company’s products or services.  Estimate the cost of each activity identified in .  Calculate a cost-driver rate for each activity.  Assign activity costs to products using the cost-driver rate.  Identify and classify the activities related to the company’s products or services.  Estimate the cost of each activity identified in .  Calculate a cost-driver rate for each activity.  Assign activity costs to products using the cost-driver rate. Four Steps in the ABC Process
16. 16. Learning Objective 3
17. 17.  Identify and Classify Activities UNIT-LEVEL ACTIVITIES Resources acquired and activities performed for individual units of product. CUSTOMER-LEVEL ACTIVITIES Resources acquired and activities performed to serve specific customers. BATCH-LEVEL ACTIVITIES Resources acquired and activities performed for a group or batch of similar products or services. PRODUCT-LEVEL ACTIVITIES Resources acquired and activities performed to produce and sell a specific product or service. FACILITY-LEVEL ACTIVITIES Resources acquired and activities performed to provide general capacity to produce goods or services.
18. 18. INTERVIEW ORINTERVIEW OR PARTICIPATIVEPARTICIPATIVE APPROACHAPPROACH ABC teams include or interview operating employees. INTERVIEW ORINTERVIEW OR PARTICIPATIVEPARTICIPATIVE APPROACHAPPROACH ABC teams include or interview operating employees. RECYCLINGRECYCLING APPROACHAPPROACH Reuses documentation of processes used for other purposes. RECYCLINGRECYCLING APPROACHAPPROACH Reuses documentation of processes used for other purposes. TOP DOWN APPROACHTOP DOWN APPROACH ABC teams of people from top levels of management generate the activity dictionary. TOP DOWN APPROACHTOP DOWN APPROACH ABC teams of people from top levels of management generate the activity dictionary.  Identify and Classify Activities
19. 19. Learning Objective 4
20. 20. The ABC teams should gather data on the costs of all the activities identified in Step 1. The ABC teams should gather data on the costs of all the activities identified in Step 1.  Estimate the Cost of Activities Examine accounting records for recorded cost information. Examine accounting records for recorded cost information. Ask employees to indicate how much time they work on various activities. Ask employees to indicate how much time they work on various activities.
21. 21. May Company has 4 employees in its Quality Control Department. Salaries and costs for the department total \$360,000 per year. May produces 500,000 units of product a year. What is the cost-driver rate per unit? \$360,000 ÷ 500,000 units = \$.72 per unit May Company has 4 employees in its Quality Control Department. Salaries and costs for the department total \$360,000 per year. May produces 500,000 units of product a year. What is the cost-driver rate per unit? \$360,000 ÷ 500,000 units = \$.72 per unit Two pieces of information are required to compute the cost-driver rate: •Activity Cost •Activity Volume Two pieces of information are required to compute the cost-driver rate: •Activity Cost •Activity Volume  Calculate Cost-Driver Rates for Activities
22. 22. MAY has a customer service center where customers can call to ask questions. Customers pay a fixed fee for each call they make to the service center. It costs MAY \$1,260,000 a year to operate the center. The center receives 120,000 calls per year. The center handles 1,000,000 minutes of calls. What is the appropriate cost driver: total minutes for all calls or number of calls? What is the cost-driver rate? MAY has a customer service center where customers can call to ask questions. Customers pay a fixed fee for each call they make to the service center. It costs MAY \$1,260,000 a year to operate the center. The center receives 120,000 calls per year. The center handles 1,000,000 minutes of calls. What is the appropriate cost driver: total minutes for all calls or number of calls? What is the cost-driver rate?  Calculate Cost-Driver Rates for Activities
23. 23. Since customers are charged “per call”, the proper activity in this case is the number of calls handled by the center. The cost-driver rate would be: \$1,260,000 ÷ 120,000 units = \$10.50 per call Since customers are charged “per call”, the proper activity in this case is the number of calls handled by the center. The cost-driver rate would be: \$1,260,000 ÷ 120,000 units = \$10.50 per call  Calculate Cost-Driver Rates for Activities
24. 24.  Calculate Cost-Driver Rates for Activities Appropriate cost-driver base Based on resource’s practical capacity to support activities Cause and effect relationship between activity and costs Measurable Predict or explain an activity’s use of resources
25. 25. Practical Capacity Note When estimating the cost of an activity, only the costs associated with the product should be used (practical capacity). The cost of “unused capacity” should not be applied to products. When estimating the cost of an activity, only the costs associated with the product should be used (practical capacity). The cost of “unused capacity” should not be applied to products. EXAMPLE Suppose we rent a 1,000 square foot warehouse for \$1,000 per month. Only 800 sq. ft. are used to store Product A. The rest of the warehouse is “unused”. How much rent cost should be allocated to Product A? EXAMPLE Suppose we rent a 1,000 square foot warehouse for \$1,000 per month. Only 800 sq. ft. are used to store Product A. The rest of the warehouse is “unused”. How much rent cost should be allocated to Product A?
26. 26. 20%, or \$200 should20%, or \$200 should be assigned tobe assigned to “unused capacity”“unused capacity” 80%, or \$80080%, or \$800 should be assignedshould be assigned to Product Ato Product A Practical Capacity Note
27. 27. Learning Objective 5
28. 28.  Assign Activity Costs to Products 1. Identify all the activities related to a given product or service. 1. Identify all the activities related to a given product or service. 2. Determine how many units of each activity are used per unit of product. 2. Determine how many units of each activity are used per unit of product. 3. Assign costs to products using the cost- driver rates for each activity. 3. Assign costs to products using the cost- driver rates for each activity.
29. 29. Example: Yazz, Inc. produces 130,000 units of Product A and 400,000 units for Product B. Using the following cost information, how much overhead should be allocated to Product A? Example: Yazz, Inc. produces 130,000 units of Product A and 400,000 units for Product B. Using the following cost information, how much overhead should be allocated to Product A?  Assign Activity Costs to Products
30. 30.  Assign Activity Costs to Products
31. 31. Let’s look at an example from the Bilson Company. Activity-Based Costing Example
32. 32.  Bilson, Inc. manufactures and sells 5,000 units of Product A (deluxe model), and 25,000 units of Product B (standard model) each year.  Product A requires 3.0 direct labor hours (DLH) and Product B requires 2.5 DLH to produce.  Employing a traditional costing system, Bilson assigns overhead cost to products using direct labor hours.  The predetermined overhead rate is:  Bilson, Inc. manufactures and sells 5,000 units of Product A (deluxe model), and 25,000 units of Product B (standard model) each year.  Product A requires 3.0 direct labor hours (DLH) and Product B requires 2.5 DLH to produce.  Employing a traditional costing system, Bilson assigns overhead cost to products using direct labor hours.  The predetermined overhead rate is: Mfg. overhead cost Direct labor hours = \$1,550,000 77,500 = \$20/DLH Activity-Based Costing Example
33. 33. Bilson’s unit product costs using traditional costing are: Product A Product B Direct material 40.00\$ 29.00\$ Direct labor 30.00 25.00 Manufacturing overhead 3.0 DLH × \$20/DLH 60.00 2.5 DLH × \$20/DLH 50.00 Total unit product cost 130.00\$ 104.00\$ Bilson marks its products up by 50 percent and allocates its \$500,000 customer service costs based on revenue. Activity-Based Costing Example
34. 34. Volume 5,000 25,000 Sales Price 195.00\$ 156.00\$ Sales Revenue 975,000\$ 3,900,000\$ Direct Material 40.00\$ 200,000 29.00\$ 725,000 Direct Labor 30.00 150,000 25.00 625,000 Overhead 60.00 300,000 50.00 1,250,000 Gross Margin 65.00\$ 325,000\$ 52.00\$ 1,300,000\$ Customer Service Costs 100,000 400,000 Product operating income 225,000\$ 900,000\$ Product A Product B \$975,000 ÷ (\$975,000 +\$3,900,000) × \$500,000 Traditional Costing \$130.00 × 1.50 Activity-Based Costing Example
35. 35. Sales of Product A have increased steadily since introduction, but company income has declined. Management at Bilson is unhappy with the traditional costing system and they have decided to try activity-based costing. Sales of Product A have increased steadily since introduction, but company income has declined. Management at Bilson is unhappy with the traditional costing system and they have decided to try activity-based costing. In addition, management has observed that the cost of direct labor is relatively stable. Since labor does not behave like a unit-level cost, labor will be combined with overhead and the total conversion cost will be assigned using ABC. In addition, management has observed that the cost of direct labor is relatively stable. Since labor does not behave like a unit-level cost, labor will be combined with overhead and the total conversion cost will be assigned using ABC. Activity-Based Costing Example
36. 36. The total conversion cost is: Traditional overhead \$1,550,000 Labor (77,500 hours @ \$10) 775,000 Total \$2,325,000 The total conversion cost is: Traditional overhead \$1,550,000 Labor (77,500 hours @ \$10) 775,000 Total \$2,325,000 In addition, management has observed that the cost of direct labor is relatively stable. Since labor does not behave like a unit-level cost, labor will be combined with overhead and the total conversion cost will be assigned using ABC. In addition, management has observed that the cost of direct labor is relatively stable. Since labor does not behave like a unit-level cost, labor will be combined with overhead and the total conversion cost will be assigned using ABC. Activity-Based Costing Example
37. 37. Activity Cost Machine setups 800,000\$ Quality inspections 450,000 Production orders 225,000 Machine-hours worked 650,000 Material receipts 200,000 Total 2,325,000\$ Management has identified the following five activities and costs in the production of its two products: Total conversion cost Activity-Based Costing Example
38. 38. The following transaction data has been complied by management of Bilson: Activity Total Product A Product B Machine setups 5,000 3,000 2,000 Quality inspections 9,000 6,000 3,000 Production orders 600 200 400 Machine-hours worked 50,000 15,000 35,000 Material receipts 800 150 650 Activity-Based Costing Example
39. 39. These data can be used to develop predetermined cost-driver rates for each of the five activities: Activity Costs Total Transactions Rate per Transaction Machine setups 800,000\$ 5,000 160.00\$ per setup Quality inspections 450,000 9,000 50.00 per inspection Production orders 225,000 600 375.00 per order Machine-hours worked 650,000 50,000 13.00 per hour Material receipts 200,000 800 250.00 per receipt Total 2,325,000\$ \$ 800,000 ÷ 5,000 Machine setups = \$160.00 per setup Activity-Based Costing Example
40. 40. Product A Activity ABC Rate Transactions Amount Machine setups 160.00\$ 3,000 480,000\$ Quality inspections 50.00 6,000 300,000 Production orders 375.00 200 75,000 Machine-hours worked 13.00 15,000 195,000 Material receipts 250.00 150 37,500 Total overhead assigned 1,087,500\$ Number of units produced ÷ 5,000 Conversion per unit \$217.50 The activity-based overhead rates we just calculated can be used to assign conversion costs to Bilson’s two products. Activity-Based Costing Example
41. 41. The activity-based overhead rates we just calculated can be used to assign conversion costs to Bilson’s two products. Product B Activity ABC Rate Transactions Amount Machine setups \$160.00 2,000 320,000\$ Quality inspections 50.00 3,000 150,000 Production orders 375.00 400 150,000 Machine-hours worked 13.00 35,000 455,000 Material receipts 250.00 650 162,500 Total overhead assigned 1,237,500\$ Number of units produced ÷ 25,000 Conversion per unit 49.50\$ Activity-Based Costing Example
42. 42. The activity-based overhead rates we just calculated can be used to assign conversion costs to Bilson’s two products. Product B Activity ABC Rate Transactions Amount Machine setups \$160.00 2,000 320,000\$ Quality inspections 50.00 3,000 150,000 Production orders 375.00 400 150,000 Machine-hours worked 13.00 35,000 455,000 Material receipts 250.00 650 162,500 Total overhead assigned 1,237,500\$ Number of units produced ÷ 25,000 Overhead per unit 49.50\$ Total conversion assigned to Product A 1,087,500\$ Total conversion assigned to Product B 1,237,500 Total overhead 2,325,000\$ Activity-Based Costing Example
43. 43. Let’s compute the product cost for A and B using our ABC overhead rates: Activity Based Costing Product A Product B Direct materials 40.00\$ 29.00\$ Conversion 217.50 49.50 Total unit product cost 257.50\$ 78.50\$ These amounts did not change as a result of using ABC. Activity-Based Costing Example
44. 44. Now compare the unit product costs using the traditional costing system and our ABC system. Costing Method Product A Product B Activity-based costing 257.50\$ 78.50\$ Traditional costing 130.00 104.00 Remember, we used one overhead rate based on direct labor hours. Activity-Based Costing Example
45. 45. Now compare the unit product costs using the traditional costing system and our ABC system. Costing Method Product A Product B Activity-based costing 257.50\$ 78.50\$ Traditional costing 130.00 104.00 Adopting activity-based costing usually results in a shift of batch-level and product-level overhead costs from high-volume standard products to low-volume, more complex products. Activity-Based Costing Example
46. 46. Can you see how different allocationCan you see how different allocation methods might lead to makingmethods might lead to making different management decisions?different management decisions? Costing Method Product A Product B Activity-based costing 257.50\$ 78.50\$ Traditional costing 130.00 104.00 Now compare the unit product costs using the traditional costing system and our ABC system. Activity-Based Costing Example
47. 47. Based on these results Bilson also decides to use ABC to assign its \$500,000 customer service costs. The applicable activity is number of customer consultations. Customers buying Product A, the deluxe model, require more consultations than those buying Product B, the standard model. Product A Product B Total Sales Volume 5,000 25,000 Consultations per Unit Sold 10 3 Total Consultations 50,000 75,000 125,000 Cost per Consultation 4.00\$ 4.00\$ Cost per Product 200,000\$ 300,000\$ 500,000 Cost per consultation = \$500,000 ÷ 125,000 consultations = \$4.00 Activity-Based Costing Example
48. 48. Volume 5,000 25,000 Sales Price 195.00\$ 156.00\$ Sales Revenue 975,000\$ 3,900,000\$ Direct Material 40.00\$ 200,000 29.00\$ 725,000 Conversion 217.50 1,087,500 49.50 1,237,500 Gross Margin (62.50)\$ (312,500)\$ 77.50\$ 1,937,500\$ Customer Service Costs 200,000 300,000 Product operating income (512,500)\$ 1,637,500\$ Product A Product B ABC Costing No change in sales price Let’s compare product income using traditional and ABC costing.Let’s compare product income using traditional and ABC costing. Activity-Based Costing Example
49. 49. ABC Costing Traditional Costing Volume 5,000 25,000 Sales Price 195.00\$ 156.00\$ Sales Revenue 975,000\$ 3,900,000\$ Direct Material 40.00\$ 200,000 29.00\$ 725,000 Conversion 217.50 1,087,500 49.50 1,237,500 Gross Margin (62.50)\$ (312,500)\$ 77.50\$ 1,937,500\$ Customer Service Costs 200,000 300,000 Product operating income (512,500)\$ 1,637,500\$ Product A Product B Volume 5,000 25,000 Sales Price 195.00\$ 156.00\$ Sales Revenue 975,000\$ 3,900,000\$ Direct Material 40.00\$ 200,000 29.00\$ 725,000 Direct Labor 30.00 150,000 25.00 625,000 Overhead 60.00 300,000 50.00 1,250,000 Gross Margin 65.00\$ 325,000\$ 52.00\$ 1,300,000\$ Customer Service Costs 100,000 400,000 Product operating income 225,000\$ 900,000\$ Product A Product B 4-49
50. 50. Learning Objective 6
51. 51. Should Bilson increase the price of Product A? Should Bilson reduce the price of Product B? Should Bilson drop Product A? Product Profitability Now that we have measured product costs accurately, we see how profitable each product really is.
52. 52.  The price of Product A, the deluxe model, should probably be increased. Customers who buy deluxe models may buy based on features instead of price.  The price of Product B, the standard model, may be too high. Customers who buy standard models are price sensitive. Decreasing the price would increase volume, possibly resulting in more income. Product Profitability
53. 53. Customer Profitability What are the costs and benefits of serving specific customers? Activity-based analysis can be used to track the costs of serving customers and those customers’ contribution to company profits. Service calls Buy/sell orders Order changes
54. 54. Estimating Costs of New Products  Apply ABC analysis of present product lines to proposed new products.  This is valid as long as the activities involved with the new products are similar to those for the present products.
55. 55. Learning Objective 7
56. 56. ABC in Service and Merchandising Companies  Identify and classify the activities related to the company’s products or services.  Estimate the cost of each activity identified in .  Calculate a cost-driver rate for each activity.  Assign activity costs to products using the relevant cost-driver rates. The process is exactly the same as for manufacturing!
57. 57.  More accurate and informative product costs lead to better pricing decisions.  The activities driving costs are more accurately measured.  Managers gain easier access to the relevant costs.  More accurate and informative product costs lead to better pricing decisions.  The activities driving costs are more accurately measured.  Managers gain easier access to the relevant costs. An ABC system is very expensive to develop and implement, and very time-consuming to maintain. An ABC system is very expensive to develop and implement, and very time-consuming to maintain. ABC– Benefits and Limitations
58. 58. When Should a Company Use ABC?  Indirect costs are significant in proportion to direct costs.  Goods are complex, requiring many inputs and processes.  Complex, low-volume products are profitable while standard, high-volume products are not.  Different departments believe costs are assigned inaccurately.  The company loses bids it thought were low, and wins bids it thought were high.  Operations have changed significantly, but the costing system has not changed.  Introduction of new models result in higher sales, apparent profits per unit, but an overall income decline.  Indirect costs are significant in proportion to direct costs.  Goods are complex, requiring many inputs and processes.  Complex, low-volume products are profitable while standard, high-volume products are not.  Different departments believe costs are assigned inaccurately.  The company loses bids it thought were low, and wins bids it thought were high.  Operations have changed significantly, but the costing system has not changed.  Introduction of new models result in higher sales, apparent profits per unit, but an overall income decline.
59. 59. The End