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  1. 1. Copyright © 2000-2002 Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference GuideDisclaimer 2Instance 3Database 6Database Utilities 7Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments 8Logfiles 9Tables, Constraints & Triggers 10Views, Synonyms & Sequences 12Clusters 12Index-organized Tables 13Indexes 13Temporary Segments 14Undo Management 14Users, Privileges, Resources & Policies 15Auditing 16Net Services 16Recovery Manager 18Distributed DB, Replication, Heterogenous Services,Advanced Queuing & Data Warehousing 20Real Application Clusters 22Globalization Support 24SQL*Plus 25Data Types (PL/SQL & Database) 26SQL, PL/SQL & Java 28Embedded SQL 32SQLJ 34Label Security 35Performance 35Architecture 36 www.larsditzel.de
  2. 2. 2 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Disclaimer This document is nothing official by Oracle ers for input data are enclosed in brackets <> Corporation. Oracle holds all rights on its with corresponding default values underlined. documentation. Certain terms are registered A comma followed by an ellipsis inclosed in trademarks. The major goal of this quick ref- square brackets [, …] indicates that the pre- erence guide is compaction, not clarity. Some ceding syntactic element may be repeated. An syntax options only work under certain circum- ellipsis without preceding comma … indicates stances, some options exclude each other. This that the corresponding syntactic elements have behaviour is intentionally not reflected to avoid been specified beforehand. proliferation of similar statements. Be aware of Each section commonly starts with dynamic your actions! The author disclaims liability for performance views and static data dictionary errors within this document and subsequent views (only DBA variants listed) and – oc- mistakes that might harm your database. In casionally – tables. Initialization parameters case of uncertainties please refer to Oracle’s follow as well as database packages and im- original documentation, which comprises sev- portant files or processes. Then comes a list eral hundred megabytes meanwhile, or contact of performance tuning measures and desup- Oracle Customer Support. Suggestions and ported or deprecated features. The main part corrections to improve this guide are welcome. of each section is comprised of SQL statements This reference uses a modified Backus-Naur grouped by functionality. The final section may Form syntax which is adapted from the Oracle state utilities if any exist. online documentation. Optional parts are Changes from Release 8i to 9i are colored enclosed in square brackets [], a list of items is blue for new features or red for obsolete fea- enclosed in curly braces {}, alternatives within tures. Outdated syntax has not been removed brackets or braces are separated by a vertical most of the time as one eventually comes bar |. Keywords appear in regular style and across databases running older releases of are not case-sensitive in most OS. Placehold- Oracle Server. Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management • Ringstraße 23a • 65824 Schwalbach • Germany Phone/Fax +49 (6196) 889739-0/5 • Mobile +49 (173) 6530050 • info@larsditzel.de www.larsditzel.de Copyright © 2000-2002 Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management
  3. 3. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 3Instance Background Processes (v$bgprocess) cess, v$px_process_sysstat, v$pq_sesstat, Tuning/Contention ARC<n>, CJQ0, J<nnn>, CKPT, DBW<n>, v$pq_slave, v$pq_sysstat, v$pq_tqstat, Buffer cache: «Cache Hit Ratio» (v$sysstat) DIAG, DMON, EMN0, LCK<n>*, LGWR, v$execution, v$mls_parameters, deptree, or per pool (v$buffer_pool_statistics) LMD0*, LMON*, LMS<n>*, LNSV, LSP0, session_context 1 – («physical reads» / («db block gets» + MRP0, NSV0, PMON, QMN<n>, RECO, «consistent gets»)) < 90–95% -> increase RLAP, RSM0, SMON, RFS<n> Parameters (init<sid>.ora) «db_block_buffers» or «buffer_pool_keep», BSP<n>*, SNP<n> << obsolete spfile, ifile, instance_name, service_names, «buffer_pool_recycle» * RAC processes Shared pool: «Shar. Cursors» db_block_size, sga_max_size, db_cache_size, Failure of LGWR (Err 470), CKPT (470), DBW<n> (471), ARC<n> (473), SMON (474) or RECO (476) db_keep_cache_size, db_recycle_cache_size, (v$librarycache) gethitratio for SQL AREA lead to termination of instance by PMON. Failure of db_<n>k_cache_size, db_cache_advice, < 99% PMON leads to termination of instance by DBW<n> shared_pool_size, log_buffer, large_pool_size, (Err 472). Library cache: sum(reloads) / sum(pins) > 1% Failed SNP<n> processes are restarted by PMON. java_pool_size, shared_pool_reserved_size, (v$librarycache) pre_page_sga, sessions, processes, user_dump_ Dict. cache: sum(getmisses) / sum(gets) > dest, background_dump_dest, max_dump_ 15% (v$rowcache) -> increase «shared_ Foreground Processes file_size, local_listener, remote_listener, pool_size» D<nnn>, S<nnn>, P<nnn> mts_service, circuits, dispatchers, max_dis- LRU latch: «cache buffers lru chain» patchers, shared_servers, max_shared_servers, (v$latch) sleeps / gets > 1% -> increase Views & Tables shared_server_sessions, dbwr_io_slaves, «db_block_lru_latches» (max. CPU * 6 or v$fixed_table, v$fixed_view_definition, remote_os_authent, os_authent_prefix, BUFFERS / 50) v$indexed_fixed_column, v$instance, v$sga, dml_locks, enqueue_resources, parallel_auto- Redo buffer: «redo%retries» (v$sysstat) v$sgastat, v$pgastat, v$session, v$process, matic_tuning, parallel_min_servers, paral- PGA: «%ga memory%» (v$sysstat), «sorts%» v$bgprocess, v$version, product_compo- lel_max_servers, parallel_min_percent, paral- (v$sysstat), sorts (v$sqlarea), «work- nent_version, v$license, v$option, v$access, lel_adaptive_multi_user, parallel_threads_ area%» (v$sysstat, v$sesstat), v$pgastat, v$timer, v$parameter, v$parameter2, per_cpu, parallel_execution_message_size, par- v$sql_workarea, v$sql_workarea_active, v$spparameter, v$system_parameter, allel_broadcast_enabled, oracle_trace_enable, pga_%_mem (v$process) v$system_parameter2, v$obsolete_parameter, oracle_trace_collection_{name | path | size}, v$sql, v$sqlarea, v$sqltext, v$sqltext_with_ oracle_trace_facility_{name | path}, java_ soft_sessionspace_limit, java_max_sessions- Deprecated Features newlines, v$sql_cursor, v$sql_bind_data, v$sql_bind_metadata, v$sql_shared_memory, pace_size, lock_sga, shared_memory_address, v$mts v$sql_plan, v$sql_workarea, v$sql_work- hi_shared_memory_address, object_cache_op- db_block_buffers, buffer_pool_keep, buf- area_active, v$librarycache, v$rowcache, timal_size, object_cache_max_size_percent, fer_pool_recycle, mts_circuits, mts_dispatch- v$rowcache_parent, v$rowcache_subordi- serial_reuse, session_max_open_files, timed_ ers, mts_max_dispatchers, mts_servers, nate, v$open_cursor, v$object_dependency, os_statistics, cursor_sharing, drs_start mts_sessions v$db_object_cache, v$shared_pool_reserved, utlbstat.sql, utlestat.sql v$bh, v$cache, v$subcache, v$buffer_pool, Packages v$buffer_pool_statistics, v$db_cache_advice, DBMS_SYSTEM Desupported Features v$filestat, v$sysstat, v$sesstat, v$mystat, set_sql_trace_in_session v$recent_bucket, v$current_bucket, db_ v$statname, v$waitstat, v$latch, v$latchname, DBMS_SESSION block_lru_latches, use_indirect_data_buffers, v$latchholder, v$latch_parent, v$latch_chil- set_sql_trace db_block_lru_extended_statistics, db_block_ dren, v$event_name, v$system_event, DBMS_SHARED_POOL lru_statistics, lock_sga_areas, shared_pool_re- v$session_event, v$session_wait, v$circuit, keep, unkeep, sizes served_min_alloc, parallel_server_idle_time, v$queue, v$shared_server, v$shared_serv- DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO parallel_transaction_resource_timeout, paral- er_monitor, v$dispatcher, v$dispatcher_rate, set_module, set_action, set_client_info, lel_min_message_pool, mts_rate_log_size, v$reqdist, v$queue, v$lock, v$enqueue_lock, read_module, read_client_info mts_rate_scale, mts_max_servers v$locked_object, v$global_blocked_locks, v$session_connect_info, v$session_longops, v$system_cursor_cache, v$session_cur- Files sor_cache, v$session_object_cache, v$sess_io, dbmspool.sql, prvtpool.plb, catparr.sql, v$bsp, v$px_session, v$px_sesstat, v$px_pro- utldtree.sql Database locks (v$lock) CU cursor bind, DF data file, DL direct cache, RT redo thread, SC system commit modes loader parallel index creation, DM data- number, SM smon, SN sequence number, 0 - none, 1 - null (NULL), 2 - row share base mount, DR distributed recovery, DX SQ sequence number enqueue, SS sort seg- (SS), 3 - row exclusive (SX), 4 - share (S), distributed transaction, FS file set, HW ment, ST space transaction, SV sequence 5 - share row exclusive (SSX), 6 - exclu- space management operation, IN instance number value, TA generic enqueue, TS sive (X) number, IR instance recovery, IS instance temporary segment (ID2=0) or new block user types and names state, IV library cache invalidation, JQ allocation (ID2=1), TT temporary table, TM dml enqueue, TX transaction job queue, KK redo thread kick, L[A-P] UN user name, US undo segment ddl, enqueue, UL user-defined lock library cache lock, MM mount defini- WL being-written redo log, XA instance tion, MR media recovery, N[A-Z] library registration attribute lock, XI instance system types and names cache pin, PF password file, PI/PS parallel registration lock BL buffer hash table, CF control file trans- operation, PR process startup, Q[A-Z] row action, CI cross-instance call invocation, www.larsditzel.de
  4. 4. 4 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Instance (cont.) Parameters | false}, remote_os_roles = {true | false}, repli- Session Scope Dynamic Init. Parameters show parameter[s] <string> cation_dependency_tracking = {true | false}, alter session set <param> [=] <value>; alter system set <param> [=] <value> rollback_segments = (<rbs> [, …]), row_lock- cursor_sharing = {similar | exact | force}, [comment ‘<text>’] [deferred] ing = {always | default | intent}, serial_reuse = db_block_checking, db_create_file_dest = [scope = {memory | spfile | both} ] {disable | select | sml | plsql | all}, session_max_ ‘<dir>’, db_create_online_log_dest_<1-5> = [sid = { ‘<sid>’ | ‘*’ } ]; open_files = <10>, sessions = <(1.1*proc)+5>, ‘<dir>’, db_file_multiblock_read_count = <8>, sga_max_size = <n>, shadow_core_dump global_names = {true | false}, hash_area_size alter system reset <param> = {partial | full}, shared_memory_address = = <n>, hash_join_enabled = {true | false}, [scope = {memory | spfile | both} ] <0>, shared_pool_reserved_size = <5%SP>, log_archive_dest_<1-10> = {location = <path> [sid = { ‘<sid>’ | ‘*’ } ]; shared_server_sessions = <n>, spfile = <file>, | service = <serv>} [optional | mandatory] sql92_security = {true | false}, sql_trace = {true [[no]reopen [=<300>]] [arch | lgwr] [synch | Static Initialization Parameters | false}, tape_asynch_io = {true | false}, thread async = <n>] [[no]affirm] [[no]delay [= <30>]] active_instance_count = <n>, audit_file_dest = <n>, transactions_per_rollback_segment = [[no]dependency] [[no]alternate [= <dest>]] = <dir>, audit_trail = {none | false | db | true | <5>, undo_management = {manual | auto}, [[no]max_failure [= <n>] [[no]quota_size os}, background_core_dump = {full | partial}, util_file_dir = <dir> [= <n>] [[no]quota_used] [[no]register [= bitmap_merge_area_size = <1m>, blank_trim- <loc>]], log_archive_dest_state_<1-10> = {en- ming = {true | false}, buffer_pool_{keep | Dynamic Initialization Parameters able | defer | alternate}, log_archive_min_suc- recycle} = {<n> | (buffers: <n>, lru_latches: aq_tm_processes = <n>, archive_lag_target = ceed_dest = <1>, max_dump_file_size = {<n> <n>} << deprecated, circuits = <n>, cluster_data- <n>, background_dump_dest = ‘<dir>’, back- | unlimited}, nls_calendar = ‘<cal>’, nls_comp base = {true | false}, cluster_database_instances up_tape_io_slaves = {true | false}, control_file_ = {binary | ansi}, nls_currency = <curr>, = <n>, cluster_interconnects = <ip>[:<ip>…], record_keep_time = <7>, core_dump_dest = nls_date_format = ‘<fmt>’, nls_date_lan- commit_point_strength = <n>, compatible ‘<dir>’, db_{2|4|8|16|32}k_cache_size = <0>, guage = <lang>, nls_dual_currency = <curr>, = <x.x.x>, control_files = (“<file>” [, …]), db_block_checking = {true | false}, db_block_ nls_iso_currency = <terr>, nls_language = cpu_count = <n>, create_bitmap_area_size checksum = {true | false}, db_cache_advice <lang>, nls_length_semantics = {byte | char}, = <8m>, cursor_space_for_time = {true | = {on | ready | off }, db_cache_size = <48m>, nls_nchar_conv_excp = {true | false}, nls_nu- false}, db_block_buffers = <n> << deprecated, db_{keep | recycle}_cache_size = <0m>, meric_characters = <sep>, nls_sort = {binary | db_block_size = <2048>, db_domain = dispatchers = ‘{ (protocol = <prot>) | (descrip- <ling>}, nls_territory = <terr>, nls_time_for- <str>, {db | log}_file_name_convert = (‘prim’, tion = (address =…) ) | (address = (protocol mat = ‘<fmt>’, nls_timestamp_format = ‘stdby’ [, …]), db_files = <200>, db_name = = <prot>) (host = <node>) (port = <port>) ‘<fmt>’, nls_timestamp_tz_format = ‘<fmt>’, <str>, db_writer_processes = <1>, dblink_en- )} (connections = <n>) (dispatchers = <1>) nls_time_tz_format = ‘<fmt>’, object_cache_ crypt_login = {true | false}, dbwr_io_slaves = (index = <n>) (listener = <list>) ( {pool | max_size_percent = <10>, object_cache_op- <0>, disk_asynch_io = {true | false}, distrib- multiplex} = {1 | on | yes | true | both | ({in | timal_size = <n>, optimizer_index_caching uted_transactions = <n>, gc_files_to_locks out} = <n>) | 0 | off | no | false | <n>}) (ticks = = <0>, optimizer_index_cost_adj = <100>, = ‘<f#>[-<f#>]=<n>[!<B>][r][each][: …]’ << <15>) (service = <serv>) (presentation = {ttc | optimizer_max_permutations = <80000>, op- disables Cache Fusion, hi_shared_memory_ad- oracle.aurora.server.{SGiopServer | GiopServ- timizer_mode = {first_rows_{1|10|100|1000} dress = <0>, ifile = <file>, instance_groups er} })’, drs_start = {true | false}, fal_client = | first_rows | all_rows | choose | rule}, = <gr> [, …], instance_name = <sid>, <serv>, fal_server = <serv>, fast_start_io_target oracle_trace_enable = {true | false}, parallel_ instance_number = <n>, java_max_ses- = <n> << deprecated, fast_start_mttr_target broadcast_enabled = {true | false}, parallel_in- sionspace_size = <0>, java_pool_size = = <0>, fast_start_parallel_rollback = {hi | stance_group = <gr>, parallel_min_percent = <20k>, java_soft_sessionspace_limit = <0>, lo | false}, fixed_date = <date>, global_con- <0>, partition_view_enabled = {true | false}, large_pool_size = <n>, local_listener = <serv>, text_pool_size = <1m>, hs_autoregister = plsql_compiler_flags = {[debug | non_debug], lock_name_space = <name>, lock_sga = {true | false}, job_queue_processes = <0>, [interpreted | normal]}, plsql_v2_compat- {true | false}, log_archive_format = <fmt>, license_max_sessions = <0>, license_max_us- ibility = {true | false}, query_rewrite_enabled log_archive_start = {true | false}, log_buffer = ers = <0>, license_sessions_warning = <0>, = {true | false}, query_rewrite_integrity = <n>, logmnr_max_persistent_sessions = <1>, log_archive_dest = <dir>, log_archive_du- {stale_tolerated | trusted | enforced}, remote_ max_commit_propagation_delay = <700>, plex_dest = <dir>, log_archive_max_processes dependencies_mode = {timestamp | signature}, max_dispatchers = <5>, max_enabled_roles = = <1>, log_archive_trace = <0>, log_check- session_cached_cursors = <0>, sort_area_re- <20>, max_shared_servers = <n>, o7_diction- point_interval = <bl>, log_checkpoint_time- tained_size = <n>, sort_area_size = <65536>, ary_accessibility = {true | false}, open_cursors out = <sec>, log_checkpoints_to_alert = {true star_transformation_enabled = {temp_disable = <50>, open_links = <4>, open_links_per_in- | false}, parallel_adaptive_multi_user = {true | true | false}, timed_os_statistics = <0>, stance = <4>, optimizer_features_enable | false}, parallel_threads_per_cpu = <n>, timed_statistics = {true | false}, tracefile_iden- = <9.0.0>, oracle_trace_collection_name pga_aggregate_target = <0>, plsql_native_c_ tifier = ‘<id>’, undo_suppress_errors = {true | = <name>, oracle_trace_collection_path = compiler = <path>, plsql_native_library_dir false}, workarea_size_policy = {auto | manual} <dir>, oracle_trace_collection_size = <n>, = <dir>, plsql_native_library_subdir_count = oracle_trace_facility_name = {oracled, oraclee, <0>, plsql_native_linker = <path>, plsql_na- Session Parameters Only oraclesm, oraclec}, oracle_trace_facility_path = tive_make_file_name = <path>, plsql_native_ constraint[s] = {immediate | deferred | default}, <dir>, os_authent_prefix = <OPS$>, os_roles make_utility = <path>, resource_limit = {true create_stored_outlines = {true | false | ‘<cat>’} = {true, false}, parallel_automatic_tuning = | false}, resource_manager_plan = <plan>, ser- [nooverride], current_schema = <schema>, er- {true | false}, parallel_execution_message_size vice_names = <serv> [, …], shared_pool_size = ror_on_overlap_time = {true | false}, flagger = = <n>, parallel_max_servers = <n>, paral- <16/64m>, shared_servers = <0/1>, standby_ {entry | immediate | full | off }, instance = <n>, lel_min_servers = <0>, pre_page_sga = {true archive_dest = <path>, standby_file_manage- isolation_level = {serializable | read commit- | false}, processes = <n>, rdbms_server_dn = ment = {manual | auto}, trace_enabled = {true ted}, plsql_debug = {true | false}, skip_unus- <x.500>, read_only_open_delayed = {true | | false}, transaction_auditing = {true | false}, able_indexes = {true | false}, sql_trace = {true false}, recovery_parallelism = <n>, remote_ar- undo_retention = <900>, undo_tablespace = | false}, time_zone = {‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ | local | chive_enable = {true | false}, remote_listener = <ts>, user_dump_dest = <dir> dbtimezone | ‘<tz_region>’}, use_{private | <serv>, remote_login_passwordfile = {none | shared | exclusive}, remote_os_authent = {true stored}_outlines = {true | false | ‘<cat>’} www.larsditzel.de
  5. 5. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 5Instance (cont.) Deprecated Initialization Parameters oradebug | hanganalyze [level] mts_dispatchers, mts_servers { help [cmd] | ffbegin %_area%_size <<for dedicated server cofigurations | setmypid | ffderegister | setospid <ospid> | ffterminst | setorapid <orapid> [‘force’] | ffresumeinst Obsolete Initialization Parameters | dump <dump> <lev> [addr] | ffstatus job_queue_interval, db_block_max_dirty_tar- | dumpsga [bytes] | core get, hash_multiblock_io_count = <n> | dumplist | ipc | event <evt> | unlimit Events | session_event <evt> | procstat { alter system set event = | alter session set | dumpvar {p | s | uga} <var> [lev] | call <func> [<arg> , …] } events [=] } ‘<dbg_evt> trace name context | setvar {p | s | uga} <var> <val> {forever, level <n> | off }’ | peek <addr> <len> [lev] alter session set events [=] {‘immediate trace | poke <addr> <len> <val> name {heapdump | controlf | systemstate} level | wakeup <orapid> <n>’ | ‘<oerr> trace name errorstack level 3’} | suspend | resume | flush Debug events | close_trace 10015 (rollback), 10046 (process), 10049, | tracefile_name 10051, 10053, 10210, 10211, 10212, 10231, | lkdebug 10232, 10235, 10248 (dispatcher), 10249 | nsdbx (shared server + dispatcher), 10257 (pmon), 10262, | -G {<inst> | def | all} 10297 (oid caching), 10325 (control), 10408 | -R {<inst> | def | all} (block keywords), 10520 (avoid invalidations), | setinst {“<inst> [, …]” | all} 10619 (compatibility), 19027 (ctxxpath), 29700 | sgatofile <”path”> (v$ges_convert% views), 30441 | dmpcowsga <”path”> | mapcowsga <”path”> Instance Startup/Shutdown Utilities startup orapwd [force] [restrict] [pfile=<par>] [ nomount | file=<file> password=<pwd> entries=<n> [exclusive | parallel [retry] | shared [retry]] oradim { mount [<db>] | open –{new | edit | delete | startup | shutdown} [read {only | write [recover]} | recover] –{sid <SID> | srvc <serv>} –newsid <SID> [<db>] } ] –usrpwd <pwd> –intpwd <pwd> shutdown –maxusers <n> –startmode {a | m} [ normal | transactional [local] –shutmode {a | i | n} | immediate | abort ] –{starttype | shuttype} alter database [<db>] {srvc | inst | srvc, inst} { mount [ {standby | clone} database] –pfile <par> –timeout <n> [exclusive | parallel] << obsolete tkprof <trc> <out> | dismount [explain=<user>/<pwd>@<netserv>] | open [read only | [read write] [table=<tab>] [print=<n>] [sys=no] [resetlogs | noresetlogs] ] [insert=<file>] [record=<file>] | close [normal | immediate] }; [aggregate=<n>] [sort=<opt>] otrcfmt Instance Modification oemctl alter system {enable | disable} restricted { {start | stop | status | ping} session; oms [<user>/<pwd>] | {start | stop} alter system {quiesce restricted | unquiesce}; paging [<host> <name>] | {enable | dis- able | dump | export | import} alter system {suspend | resume}; eventhandler [<file>] alter system kill session ‘<SID>,<Serial#>’ | {import | export} registry [<file>] [immediate]; <user>/<pwd>@<repalias> alter system disconnect session | configure rws } ‘<SID>,<Serial#>’ oemapp {console | dataguard} [post_transaction | immediate]; vppcntl –start alter system shutdown [immediate] ‘D<nnn>’; vtm alter system register; alter system flush shared_pool; www.larsditzel.de
  6. 6. 6 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Database Views & Tables Files v$database, v$controlfile, v$controlfile_re- catalog.sql, catproc.sql, utlrp.sql, utlip.sql, cord_section, v$deleted_object, utlirp.sql, utlconst.sql, utlincmpt.sql, v$compatibility, v$compatseg, v$timezone_ utldst.sql, timezone.dat, timezlrg.dat, names, dictionary, dict_columns, dba_catalog, catlg803.sql, u0703040.sql, r0703040.sql, dba_objects, dba_object_size, dba_ana- u080<n>0<n>0.sql, r08000<n>0.sql, lyze_objects, props$, database_properties, d080<n>0<n>.sql database_compatible_level Tuning/Contention Parameters phyrds, phywrts (v$filestat) db_create_file_dest, db_create_online_log_ dest_<n>, undo_tablespace, cluster_database, control_files, db_name, db_domain, db_files, compatible, read_only_open_delayed DB Creation [national character set create controlfile [‘<ctrl>‘] [reuse] create database [<db>] {<UTF8> | <AL16UTF16>} ] set database <db> [datafile…] [logfile…] [datafile ‘<file>’ [, …] size <n> [reuse] [set time_zone = … [[no]resetlogs]; [autoextend {on | off } [next <1xBS> { ‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ create spfile [= ‘<spfile>’] from maxsize {<n> | unlimited}] ]] | ‘<time_zone_region>’ } ] pfile [= ‘<pfile>’]; [logfile [group <n>] [set standby database create pfile [= ‘<pfile>’] from (‘<log>’ [, …] ) size <n> [reuse] {protected | unprotected} ] spfile [= ‘<spfile>’]; [, [group <n>] [archivelog | noarchivelog] [exclusive]; alter database [<db>] backup controlfile to (‘<log>’ [, …] ) size <n> [reuse] ] … ] { ‘<file>’ [reuse] [default temporary tablespace <ts> DB Modification | trace [resetlogs | noresetlogs] }; [tempfile ‘<file>’] alter database [<db>] rename global_name alter database [<db>] create standby controlfile [extent management local] to <db>; as ‘<file>’ [reuse]; [uniform [size <1> [k | m]] ]] alter database [<db>] default temporary alter database [<db>] set standby database [undo tablespace <SYS_UNDOTBS> tablespace <ts>; {protected | unprotected}; [datafile ‘<file>’ alter system set undo_tablespace = <new_ts>; alter database [<db>] [autoextend…] [, …] ]] alter database [<db>] convert; commit to switchover to [physical] [controlfile reuse] alter database [<db>] reset compatibility; {primary | standby} [wait | nowait]; [maxdatafiles <n>] [maxinstances <n>] alter database [<db>] [national] character set alter database [<db>] activate [physical] [maxlogfiles <n>] [maxlogmembers <n>] <new_char>; standby database [skip [standby logfile]]; [maxloghistory <n>] [character set {<charset> alter database [<db>] set {dblow = <str> | | <UTF8> | <UTFE> | <AL32UTF8>} ] dbhigh = <str> | dbmac {on | off } }; Data Guard CLI alter Other Utilities dgmgrl [-silent] [-xml] [-debug] [-echo] { configuration set state = dbassist connect <user>/<pwd>@<service> ‘[online | offline]’ dbca | site ‘<site>’ set { state = ‘[online | offline]’ startup [restrict] [force] [pfile=<file>] | auto pfile = ‘<pfile>’ [off ] } [nomount | mount [<db>] | resource ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] set | open [read {only | write} ] ] { state = ‘<state>’ shutdown {normal | immediate | abort} | property ‘<prop>’ = ‘<val>’ }; show { configuration [verbose] [‘<prop>’] create | site [verbose] ‘<site>’ [‘<prop>’] { configuration ‘<conf>’ | resource [verbose] ‘<res>’ [‘<prop>’] as primary site is ‘<prim>’ [on site ‘<site>’] | site ‘<site>’ } | dependency tree resource is ‘<res>’ hostname is ‘<host>’ | log [alert] [latest] on site ‘<site>’ }; instance name is ‘<inst>’ enable { configuration | site ‘<site>’ | resource service name is ‘<serv>’ ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] }; site is maintained as physical; disable { configuration | site ‘<site>’ | resource remove { configuration ‘<conf>’ | site ‘<site>’ }; ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] }; www.larsditzel.de
  7. 7. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 7Database Utilities Views & Tables Loads {whitespace | [x]’<str>’ | eof } v$loadcstat, v$loadistat, v$loadpstat, sqlldr [[optionally] enclosed…] } v$loadtstat, dba_exp_files, dba_exp_objects, userid = <user>/<pwd> data = <data> [trailing [nullcols] ] dba_exp_version, sys.incexp, sys.incfil, control = <ctrl> parfile = <par> log = [sorted indexes] sys.incvid <log> bad = <bad> discard = <discard> [singlerow] discardmax = <n> skip = <n> load = ( { <col> { <sqlfunc> | sysdate | recnum <n> errors = <n> rows = <n> bindsize | sequence [( { <n>[.<x>] Files = <65536> readsize = <65536> silent | max | count } )] } catexp.sql, catexp7.sql, migrate.bsq | <col> [filler] = ( {header | feedback | errors | discards | partitions | all} [, …] ) direct = <n> [ position ( { <x> [ {: | -} <y>] Export multithreading = <n> streamsize = <n> | * [+<z>] } ) ] exp columnarrayrows = <n> parallel = <n> { char [(<n>)] help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile file = <file> skip_unusable_indexes = <n> | varchar [(<n>)] = <par> file = <expdat.dmp> filesize skip_index_maintenance = <n> com- | varcharc = <n> volsize = <n> log = <log> buf- mit_discontinued = <n> external_table | date [“<fmt>”] fer = <n> silent = <n> recordlength = = {not_used | generate_only | execute} | time <n> direct = <n> rows = <y> indexes resumable = <n> resumable_name = <str> | timestamp = <y> grants = <y> constraints = <y> resumable_timeout = <7200> datecache | time with time zone triggers = <y> feedback = <0> statistics = <n> | timestamp with time zone = {estimate | compute | none} record = bind array size = | interval year to month (n rows) * ( SUM (fixed field lengths) + SUM(max. | interval day to second <y> compress = <y> consistent = <n> varying field lengths) + ( (number of varying length object_consistent = <n> flashback_scn = fields) * (size of length indicator [2 or 3, system | integer [external] [(<n>)] <scn> flashback_time = <time> resumable dependent]) ) ) | smallint = <n> resumable_name = <str> resum- | float [external] able_timeout = <7200> template = <x> Controlfile | double tablespaces = (<ts> [, …]) transport_ta- [ options ( | byteint blespace = <n> tts_full_check = <x> [, …] [bindsize = <n>] [columnsarrayrows = | zoned [external] (p [,<s>]) point_in_time_recover = <n> <n>] [direct = {true | false}] [errors = <n>] | decimal [external] (p [,<s>]) recovery_tablespaces = <ts> [, …] [load = <n>] [multithreading = {true | | raw [(<n>)] { full = <n> | owner = <schema> false}] [parallel = {true | false}] [readsize | varraw | tables = (<tab>[:<part>] [, …] = <n>] [resumable] [resumable_name] | long varraw [query = <expr>] ) } [resumable_timeout] [rows = <n>] [silent | varrawc inctype = {complete | cumulative | incre- = ({feedback | errors | discards | all} [, …])] | graphic [(<n>)] mental} << deprecated [skip = <n>] [skip_index_maintenance] | graphic external [(<n>)] Perform full exports as user System. [skip_unusable_indexes] [streamsize = | vargraphic [(<n>)] } buffer size = <n>] ) ] [terminated by (n rows) * SUM(max. field length + size of length indicator [2 or 3, system dependent]) {“<str>” | whitespace} ] {load | continue_load} data [ {nullif | defaultif } ({<col> | <pos>}) [{infile | inddn} [‘<load.dat>’ | * ] <op> { [x]‘<str>’ | blanks } [and…] ] Import [“str [x]’<char>’”] [enclosed by ‘<chr>’ and ‘<chr>’] imp [“recsize <n> buffers <n>”] [“<sql_stmt>(:<col>)”] help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile [badfile ‘<load.bad>’ | baddn] [, <col> …] ) = <par> file = <expdat.dmp> filesize = [{discardfile | discarddn} ‘<load.dsc>’] [into table <tab> …] <n> volsize = <n> log = <log> buffer [{discards | discardmax} <n>] [characterset <char>] [begindata…] = <n> recordlength = <n> rows = <y> grants = <y> indexes = <y> indexfile = [byteorder {big | little} [endian] ] [byteordermark {check | nocheck} ] Migration <file> constraints = <y> commit = <n> compile = <y> ignore = <n> inctype = [length [semantics] mig {system | restore} feedback = <0> show {byte | char | character} ] dbname = <db> new_dbname = <new> = <n> statistics = {always | none | safe | [concatenate <n>] pfile = <initfile> spool = <logfile> check_ recalculate} analyze = <y> recalculate_sta- [continueif only = <false> no_space_check = <false> tistics = <n> destroy = <n> skip_unus- { [this | next] [preserve] multiplier = <15> nls_nchar = <char > able_indexes = <n> toid_novalidate = [(] <pos> (<type> [, …] ) resumable = <n> resum- | last [preserve] [(] } able_name = <str> resumable_timeout <op> [x]’<str>’ [)] ] = <7200> streams_configuration = <y> into table <tab> streams_instatiation = <n> { full = <n> | [ ({partition | subpartition} <part>) ] tables = (<tab>[:<part>] [, …])} fromuser [skip <n>] = <schema> [, …] touser = <schema> [, {insert | replace | truncate | append} …] transport_tablespace = <n> datafiles = [options (file = <db_file>) ] ‘(<file> [, …] )‘ tablespaces = (<ts> [, …]) [when ({<col> | <pos>}) tts_owners = <owner> [, …] point_in_ <op> { [x]‘<str>’ | blanks } [and…] ] time_recover = <false> [fields Order: type defs – table defs – table data – indexes { enclosed [by] – constraints, views, procedures, triggers [[x]’<str>’] [and [x]’<str>’] – bitmap, functional, domain indexes | terminated [by] www.larsditzel.de
  8. 8. 8 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments Views & Tables Parameters tablespace_migrate_{from | to}_local, v$tablespace, v$datafile, v$datafile_copy, db_block_checking, db_block_checksum, segment_{verify | corrupt | dump | v$datafile_header, v$dbfile, v$offline_range, recovery_parallelism, fast_start_parallel_roll- moveblocks}, segment_drop_corrupt, seg- v$tempfile, v$tempstat, v$temp_extent_map, back, db_file_name_convert, log_check- ment_number_{blocks | extents}, v$temp_extent_pool, v$temp_space_header, point_timeout, log_checkpoints_to_alert, DBMS_TTS v$temp_ping, v$backup, v$recover_file, db_writer_processes, db_file_simultane- transport_set_check, downgrade v$recovery_file_status, v$recovery_log, ous_waits, standby_file_management, v$recovery_progress, v$recovery_status, read_only_open_delayed Deprecated Features v$recovery_transactions, v$instance_recovery, fast_start_io_target, log_checkpoint_interval v$fast_start_servers, v$fast_start_transac- Packages tions, v$managed_standby, dba_tablespaces, DBMS_REPAIR Desupported Features dba_ts_quotas, dba_data_files, filext$, check_object, {skip | fix}_corrupt_blocks, db_block_max_dirty_target, db_file_simul- dba_temp_files, dba_segments, dba_extents, dump_orphan_keys, rebuild_freelists, taneous_writes, db_block_checkpoint_batch, dba_free_space, dba_free_space_coalesced, admin_tables, segment_fix_status parallel_transaction_recovery dba_free_space_coalesced_tmp[1-3], DBMS_SPACE ts_pitr_objects_to_be_dropped, ts_pitr_check, unused_space, free_blocks, space_usage transport_set_violations, dba_dmt_free_space, dba_dmt_used_extents, dba_lmt_free_space, DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN dba_lmt_used_extents, pluggable_set_check, tablespace_verify, tablespace_{rebuild | uni_pluggable_set_check, straddling_ts_ob- relocate | fix}_bitmaps, tablespace_rebuild_ jects quotas, tablespace_fix_segment_states, TS Creation alter tablespace <ts> { online | offline [immediate] [nowait] | disconnect create tablespace <ts> [ normal | temporary | immediate [from session] [finish [nowait]] ] [datafile ‘<file>’] << only optional if | for recover ] }; << deprecated | [standby] tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST is set alter tablespace <ts> { read {write | only} [until [consistent with] controlfile] [size <n>] [reuse] | permanent | temporary }; | [standby] datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] [autoextend {off | on [next <n>] alter tablespace <ts> [minimum extent <n>] [until [consistent with] controlfile] [maxsize {<n> | unlimited} ] } ] default storage (…); | logfile ‘<log>’ } [,’<file>’… [autoextend…] ] alter tablespace <ts> coalesce; [test [allow <x> corruption] ] [minimum extent <n>] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ] alter tablespace <ts> {begin | end} backup; [blocksize <n> [k]] | continue [default] | cancel }; alter database [<db>] datafile <n> [, …] [default storage ( [initial <5xBS>] recover [automatic] [from ‘<log_path>’] end backup; [next <5xBS>] [pctincrease <50>] { database [until { cancel | change <scn> [minextents <1>] | time ‘<YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS>’ }] Datafiles [using backup controlfile] [maxextents {<n> | unlimited} ] [freelists <1>] [freelist groups <1>] alter system checkpoint [global | local]; | [managed] standby database [buffer_pool {default | keep | recycle} ] )] alter system check datafiles [global | local]; [timeout <n> | cancel [immediate] ] [logging | nologging] alter database [<db>] datafile ‘<file>’ [, …] | [standby] tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] [permanent | temporary] [online | offline] { resize <n> | autoextend… | online [until [consistent with] controlfile] [extent management | offline [drop] | end backup }; | [standby] datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] { dictionary | local alter database [<db>] tempfile ‘<file>’ [, …] [until [consistent with] controlfile] [autoallocate | uniform [size <1m>]] }] { resize <n> | autoextend… | online | logfile <log> [segment space management | offline | drop [including datafiles] }; | continue [default] {manual | auto} ]; alter database [<db>] rename file | cancel } create undo tablespace <ts> ‘<file>’ [, …] to ‘<new_file>’ [, …]; [noparallel | parallel (degree {<n> | default} [datafile ‘<file>’… [autoextend…] ] << s.a. [instances <1> | default] )] alter database [<db>] create datafile [extent management local] ‘<file>‘ [, …] [as {new | ‘<file>‘ [, …]} ]; [uniform [size <1m>]]; create temporary tablespace <ts> Recovery [tempfile ‘<file>’… [autoextend…] ] << s.a. set autorecovery {on | off } [extent management local] [uniform [size <1m>]]; set logsource <dir> drop tablespace <ts> alter database [<db>] recover [including contents [and datafiles] [automatic] [from ‘<log_path>‘] [cascade constraints] ]; { { [standby] database [until { cancel | change <scn> | time ‘<YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS>’ }] TS Modification [using backup controlfile] alter tablespace <ts> add {datafile | tempfile} | managed standby database ‘<file>’ size <n> [reuse] [autoextend…]; [ next <n> | timeout <n> | delay <n> alter tablespace <ts> rename datafile | nodelay | expire <n> | cancel ‘<file>’ [, …] to ‘<new>’ [, …]; www.larsditzel.de
  9. 9. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 9Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments (cont.) Utilities RowID Packages dbv file=<file> Logical: DBMS_ROWID start=<n> end=<n> logfile=<log> hex string of variable length (rowid_create, rowid_object, rowid_rela- blocksize=<2048> feedback=<0> Extend(10B): tive_fno, rowid_block_number, ro- parfile=<fil> segment_id=<ts.fil.blck> DataObj#{32b} - RelFile#{10b} - wid_row_number, rowid_to_absolute_fno, Block#{22b} - Row#{16b} rowid_to_extended, rowid_to_restricted) Blocks Base64 v$type_size OOOOOO – FFF – BBBBBB – RRR Header: Restrict(6B): static(61B), row directory(2B*rec), transac- Block#{Xb} - Row#{Xb} - File#{Xb} tion headers (23B*TX) [Cluster: table directory]Logfiles Views & Tables Packages Tuning/Contention v$log, v$logfile, v$thread, v$loghist, v$log_ DBMS_LOGMNR_D v$system_event, v$sysstat history, v$database, v$archive, v$archive_dest, build Redo latch: v$archive_dest_status, v$archive_gap, DBMS_LOGMNR «redo allocation», «redo copy» (v$latch) v$standby_log, v$archived_log, v$archive_ add_logfile, start_logmnr, end_logmnr, «misses» / «gets» > 1% or processes, v$logmnr_dictionary, v$logmnr_pa- mine_value, column_present «immediate_misses» / («immediate_gets» + rameters, v$logmnr_logs, v$logmnr_contents, DBMS_LOGMNR_SESSION «immediate_misses») > 1% dba_source_tables, dba_source_tab_columns, {add | remove}_logfile, {create | attach | -> decrease «log_small_entry_max_size» dba_subscriptions, dba_subscribed_tables, detach | destroy}_session, column_present, -> increase «log_simultaneous_copies» dba_subscribed_columns, change_sources, include_src_tbl, mine_value, {prepare | (max. CPU * 2) change_sets, change_tables release}_scn_range, set_dict_attr, set_ses- sion_params Desupported Features Parameters DBMS_[LOGMNR_]CDC_PUBLISH v$targetrba, log_archive_buffers, log_archive_ db_create_online_log_dest_<1-5>, thread, {create | alter | drop}_change_table, drop_ buffer_size, log_block_checksum, log_simul- log_buffer, log_archive_max_processes, {subscription | subscriber_view}, purge taneous_copies, log_small_entry_max_size, log_archive_start, log_archive_dest, log_ar- DBMS_[LOGMNR_]CDC_SUBSCRIBE lgwr_io_slaves chive_format, standby_archive_dest, log_ar- get_subcription_handle, subscribe, chive_duplex_dest, log_archive_dest_ {activate | drop}_subscription, {extend | <1-10>, log_archive_dest_state_<1-10>, purge}_window, {prepare | drop}_ sub- remote_archive_enable, fal_client, fal_server, scriber_view log_archive_trace, archive_lag_target, log_ar- chive_min_succeed_dest, log_file_name_con- Files vert, arch_io_slaves, utl_file_dir, logmnr_ dbmslm.sql, dbmslmd.sql, dbmslms.sql, max_persistent_sessions dbmscdcp.sql, dbmscdcs.sql catcdc.sql, (_allow_resetlogs_corruption << undocumented & unsupported) initcdc.sql Archive Mode Logfiles alter database [<db>] drop archive log { list | stop | {start | next | all | alter database [<db>] add [standby] logfile [standby] logfile member ‘<log>’; <n>}} [thread <n>] [group <n>] (‘<log>’, …) alter database [<db>] clear [to <dest>] << always applies to current instance size <n>; [unarchived] logfile {group <n> | ‘<log>’} alter database [<db>] alter database [<db>] [unrecoverable datafile]; {archivelog | noarchivelog}; {enable [public] | disable} thread <n>; alter database add supplemental log data alter system archive log [thread <n>] alter database [<db>] add [standby] logfile ( {primary key | unique index} [, …] ) { start [to ‘<log_path>’] | stop member ‘<log>’ [reuse] to group <n>; columns; | current << global log switch alter database [<db>] register [or replace] alter database drop supplemental log data; | next | all | sequence <n> | group <n> [physical] logfile ‘<log>’ [, …]; alter table add supplemental log group <grp> | change <n> | logfile ‘<file>’ }; alter database [<db>] rename file (<col> [, …] ) [always]; alter system switch logfile; ‘<log>’ [, …] to ‘<new_log>’ [, …]; alter table drop supplemental log group <grp>; << applies only to current instance alter database [<db>] drop [standby] logfile group <n>; www.larsditzel.de
  10. 10. 10 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tables, Constraints & Triggers Views & Tables DBMS_STATS «table scans%» (v$sysstat) -> adjust dba_tables, dba_all_tables, dba_object_tables, {set | get}_{column | index | system | «db_file_multiblock_read_count» dba_external_tables, dba_external_locations, table}_stats, gather_{system | database | row migr.: dba_tab_comments, dba_tab_columns, col, schema | table | index}_stats, delete_{sys- «table_name», «head_rowid» (chained_ dba_tab_col_statistics, dba_associations, tem | database | schema | table | index | rows << utlchain.sql, utlchain1.sql) or «table dba_ustats, dba_col_comments, dba_up- column}_stats, {export | import}_ {sys- fetch continued row» (v$sysstat) datable_columns, dba_unused_col_tabs, tem | database | schema | table | index | -> increase pctfree dba_tab_modifications, dba_nested_tables, column}_stats, prepare_column_values, -> recreate table (create as, delete from, dba_part_tables, dba_tab_partitions, convert_raw_value, generate_stats, {create | insert into select, commit, drop) dba_tab_subpartitions, dba_part_col_sta- drop}_stat_table, alter_{database | sche- freelists: tistics, dba_part_key_columns, dba_par- ma}_table_monitoring, flush_{database | «segment header» (v$waitstat), «buffer tial_drop_tabs, dba_subpart_col_statistics, schema}_monitoring_info busy waits» (v$system_event) dba_subpart_key_columns, dba_constraints, DBMS_REDEFINITION -> alter pctfree/pctused, inittrans or dba_cons_columns, dba_triggers, dba_trig- {can | start | finish | abort}_redef_table, -> increase freelist/freelist groups ger_cols, dba_internal_triggers, dba_tab_his- sync_interim_table (v$session_wait -> dba_extents -> dba_seg- tograms, dba_part_histograms, dba_sub- ments -> recreate object) part_histograms, hist_head$ Files full & partial partition-wise joins utlexcpt.sql, utlexcpt1.sql, dbmsstdx.sql, Parameters dbmsutil.sql, utlvalid.sql, utlchain.sql, Desupported Features _system_trig_enabled utlchn1.sql dba_histograms, cache_size_threshold Packages Tuning/Contention DBMS_UTILITY pctfree = UPD/AVG analyze_database, analyze_schema, pctused = 1 – pctfree – AVG/nBLK analyze_part_object scans: Table Creation [pctfree <10>] [pctused <40>] [logging | nologging] ] (max. 1000 col) [initrans <1>] [maxtrans <n>] [index <ind> << deprecated in 8i and 9i create [global temporary] table <tab> [storage (…) ] [tablespace <ts>] ([tablespace <ts>] [of <object_type> [logging | nologging] [storage (…)]) ] [[not] substitutable at all levels] [recoverable | unrecoverable] << deprecated [tablespace <ts>… ] ) ] [object identifier is [organization [XMLType [<col>] store as clob [<lobseg>] {primary key | system generated} ] { heap [([tablespace <ts>]…)] ] [oidindex <ind> ([tablespace <ts>…] | index << see index-organized table below [ partition by range (<col> [, …]) [storage (…)]) ] ] | external ( [type <oracle_loader>] [subpartition by hash (<col> [, …]) ( <col> <type> [ {default | := } <value>] default directory <dir> [subpartitions <n> [with rowid] [scope is <tab>] [access parameters [store in (<ts> [, …])] ] [constraint <col_constr>] { (<opaque_format>) ( partition [<part>] [ {[not] null | using clob <subquery> } ] values less than | primary key [using index location ([<dir>:] ‘<loc>’ [, …]) ) ( {<val> [, …] | maxvalue} ) { <ind>… [reject limit {<0> | unlimited}] } ] [storage (…)] [tablespace <ts>] | (create unique index <ind> [cluster <clust> (<col> [, …])] [ (subpartition <subpart> on <tab> (<col> [,…]) …) } ] [column <col> [tablespace <ts>] | unique [using index { [element] is of [type] (only <type>) [, subpartition…] ) { <ind>… | [not] substitutable at all levels } ] | subpartitions <n> | (create unique index <ind> [nested table <col> store in (<ts> [, …]) ] on <tab> (<col> [,…]) …) } ] [ [element] is of [type] (only <type>) [, partition… | check (<expr>) | [not] substitutable at all levels ] [(subpartition…)] ] ) | references <tab> [(<col>)] store as <tab> | partition by list (<col>) [on delete {cascade | set null}] } [( (<prop>) [storage (…)] )] (partition [<part>] [ [not] deferrable [initially [return as {locator | value}] ] values ({<val> [, …] | null}) {immediate | deferred}] ] [varray <varr> [storage (…)] [tablespace <ts>] [ {enable | disable} [ [element] is of [type] (only <type>) [ (subpartition <subpart> [validate | novalidate] | [not] substitutable at all levels ] [tablespace <ts>] [exceptions into <tab>] ] store as lob [<lobseg>] [, subpartition…] ) [,<col>… [constraint <col_constr>]…] [([tablespace <ts>]…)] ] | subpartitions <n> [, …] [, constraint <tab_constr>…] [lob { (<col>) store as <lob_seg> store in (<ts> [, …]) ] [ref (<col>) with rowid] | (<col> [, …]) store as } [, partition… [scope for (<col>) is <tab>] ( [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] [(subpartition…)] ] ) [supplemental log group <grp> [{enable | disable} storage in row] | partition by hash (<col> [, …]) (<col> [, …]) [always] ] ) [pctversion <10>] [chunk <n>] { (partition <part> [on commit {delete | preserve} rows] [cache | {nocache | cache reads} [tablespace <ts>] www.larsditzel.de
  11. 11. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 11Tables, Constraints & Triggers (cont.) [, partition…]) [, …] […]; | { primary key | unique (<col> [, …]) } | partitions <n> alter table <tab> coalesce partition […]; [cascade] [{keep | drop} index] }; store in (<ts> [, …]) } ] alter table <tab> truncate set constraint[s] {<constr> [, …] | all} [{disable | enable} row movement] {partition | subpartition} <part> {immediate | deferred}; [cache | nocache] [{drop | reuse} storage] […]; [rowdependencies | norowdependencies] alter table <tab> rename Triggers [monitoring | nomonitoring] {partition | subpartition} <part> to <new>; alter table <tab> {enable | disable} all triggers; [parallel [<n>] | noparallel] alter table <tab> modify create [or replace] trigger <trigg> [{enable | disable} [validate | novalidate] {partition | subpartition} <part> { before | after | instead of } { primary key | unique (<col> [, …]) [storage (…) ] [allocate extent…] { {delete | insert | update [of <col> [, …]] } | constraint <constr> } [using index…] [logging | nologging] … [or…] on {<tab> | [nested table <col> [exceptions into <tab>] [cascade] [[rebuild] unusable local indexes]; of ] <view>} [{keep | drop} index] ] [as <subquery>]; alter table <tab> modify | { { {associate | disassociate} statistics partition <part> | analyze | audit | noaudit | comment {add subpartition | create | alter | rename | drop | grant Table Modification [<subpart> [tablespace <ts>]] | revoke | truncate | ddl } [or…] alter table <tab> modify (<col> <type>…); | coalesce [subpartition] } […]; | { shutdown | startup | servererror alter table <tab> add (<col> <type>…); alter table <tab> modify default attributes | logon | logoff | suspend } [or…] } alter table <tab> set unused [for partition <comp_part>] on {schema | database} } {(<col> [, …]) | column <col>} [storage (…)] …; [referencing {old [as] <old> | new [as] [cascade constraints] [invalidate]; alter table <tab> modify <new> | parent [as] <parent>} [, …] ] alter table <tab> drop partition <part> [for each row] [when (<expr>)] {(<col> [, …]) | column <col>} {add | drop} values (<val> [, …]); { begin <stat>; end; [cascade constraints] [invalidate] alter table <tab> move | call … ; } [checkpoint <512>]; {partition | subpartition} <part> alter trigger <trigg> alter table <tab> drop tablespace <ts> {enable | disable | compile [debug]}; {unused columns | columns continue} [logging | nologging] […]; drop trigger <trigg>; [checkpoint <512>]; alter table <tab> split drop table <tab> [cascade constraints]; partition <part1> at (<n>) Statistics rename <tab> to <new_tab>; into (partition <part2>, deprecated (use DBMS_STATS) >> alter table <tab> move partition <part3> [, …] ) […]; analyze table <tab> [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] alter table <tab> merge partitions <part1>, [partition (<n>) | subpartition (<n>)] [logging | nologging] <part2> [into partition <part3>] […]; { compute [system] statistics [parallel [<n>] | noparallel]; alter table <tab> exchange | estimate [system] statistics truncate table <tab> {partition | subpartition} <part> [sample <1064> {rows | percent}] } [[preserve | purge] snapshot log] with table <tab> [including indexes] [for table] [for all [local] indexes] [{drop | reuse} storage]; [{with | without} validation] […]; [for all [indexed] columns [size <75>] ] alter table <tab> [storage (…)] [for columns [size <75>] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ] … Constraints <col> [size <75>] [<col>…] ]; [{nominimize | minimize} alter table <tab> add analyze table <tab> delete [system] statistics; records_per_block]; ( [constraint <tab_constr>] analyze table <tab> list chained rows alter table <tab> { primary key (<col> [, …]) [into <chained_rows>]; { allocate extent ( [size <n>] [using index…] analyze table <tab> validate [datafile ‘<file>‘] [instance <n>] ) | unique (<col> [, …]) [using index…] { structure [cascade] [into <invalid_rows>] | deallocate unused [keep <n>] }; | foreign key (<col> [, …]) {online | offline} lock table <tab> in {share [row exclusive] references <tab> [(<col> [, …])] | ref update [set dangling to null] }; | exclusive} mode [nowait]; [on delete {cascade | set null} ] associate statistics with alter table <tab> {enable | disable} table lock; | check (<expr>) } { columns [<tab>.]<col> [, …] comment on {table <tab> | column [[not] deferrable | functions <func> [, …] <tab>.<col>} is ‘<str>’; [initially {immediate | deferred}] ] | packages <pack> [, …] alter table add supplemental log group <grp> [{disable | enable} [validate | novalidate] | types <type> [, …] (<col> [, …] ) [always]; [exceptions into <tab>]] ); | indexes <ind> [, …] alter table drop supplemental log group <grp>; alter table <tab> | indextypes <indtype> [, …] } {disable | enable} [validate | novalidate] [using <stat_func>] { constraint <constr> [default cost (<cpu>, <io>, <network>)] Partitioning | primary key [default selectivity <selec>]; alter table <tab> add partition <range_part> | unique (<col> [, …]) } disassociate statistics from values less than (<value> [, …] ) [using index…] { columns [<tab>.]<col> [, …] [tablespace <ts>] [exceptions into <tab>] [cascade] | functions <func> [, …] [{update | invalidate} global indexes] [{keep | drop} index]; | packages <pack> [, …] [parallel [<n>] | noparallel]; alter table <tab> modify constraint <constr> | types <type> [, …] alter table <tab> add partition … [rely | norely]; | indexes <ind> [, …] [<hash_part> [tablespace <ts>]] […]; alter table <tab> drop | indextypes <indtype> [, …] } alter table <tab> drop partition <part> { constraint <constr> [cascade] [force]; www.larsditzel.de
  12. 12. 12 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tables, Constraints & Triggers (cont.) External Table Opaque Format | terminated by { whitespace | ‘<str>’} | char <n> [enclosed…] [ltrim…] record [[optionally] enclosed by…] ] [dateformat { {fixed | variable} <n> [ltrim | rtrim | lrtrim | ldtrim | notrim] { { date | {time | timestamp} | delimited by {newline | ‘<str>’} } [missing field values are null] [with timezone] } [characterset ‘<char>’] [(<field> mask “<fmt>” [data is {little | big} endian] [ [position] ({ * | <start> | [+|-] | interval { year_to_month [string sizes are in {bytes | characters} ] <incr>} [:|-] {<end> | <len> }) ] | day_to_second } } ] [load when <expr>] [ [unsigned] integer [external] <n> | { varchar | varraw | varcharc [{badfile [<dir>:] ‘<file>’ | nobadfile] | {decimal | zoned} [external] | varrawc } ([<n>,] <max>) ] [discardfile [<dir>:] ‘<file>’ | nodiscardfile] (<p> [, <s>]) [{defaultif | nullif } <expr>] [logfile [<dir>:] ‘<file>’ | nologfile] | oracle date [, <field> …] ) ] [skip <n>] | oracle number [counted] [fields | {double | float} [external] [ enclosed by ‘<str>’ [and ‘<str>’] | raw <n> Views, Synonyms & Sequences Views & Tables [with { read only | check option Sequences dba_views, dba_synonyms, dba_sequences [constraint <constr>] } ]; create sequence <seq> alter view <view> <constr>…; [start with <1>] [increment by <1>] View constraints are declarative only. Only unique or [maxvalue <1027> | nomaxvalue] Views prim./foreign key with mode disable novalidate. [minvalue <1> | nominvalue] create [or replace] [force | noforce] alter view <view> compile; [cycle | nocycle] [nocache | cache <20>] view <view> rename <view> to <new_view>; [order | noorder]; [ ( { <alias> [<col_constr>] drop view <view>; When an instance shuts down, cached sequence values | <constr> } [, …] ) that have not been used in committed DML statements | of <type> can be lost. Synonyms Ordered sequences may not be cached with RAC. { with object identifier [default | (<attr>, …)] create [public] synonym <syn> for <obj>; alter sequence <seq> …; | under <superview> } rename <syn> to <new_syn>; << only private! rename <seq> to <new_seq>; ( { <attr> <col_constr> drop [public] synonym <syn>; drop sequence <seq>; | <constr> } [, …] ) ] as <query> Clusters Views & Tables [size <1xBS>] cluster <clust> (<col> [, …] ); dba_clusters, dba_clu_columns, all_tab_col- [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] alter cluster <clust>…; umns, dba_cluster_hash_expressions [pctfree <10>] [pctused <40>] truncate cluster <clust> [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <255>]; [ {drop | reuse} storage]; Creation & Modification create index <ind> drop cluster <clust> on cluster <clust> [pctfree <n>] [including tables [cascade constraints]]; create cluster <clust> [tablespace <ts>] [storage (…)] (<col> <type> [, …] ) analyze cluster <clust> …; [initrans <n>] [maxtrans <n>]; [index | [single table] hashkeys <n> create table <tab> [hash is <expr>] ] (<col> <type>… [constraint <constr>…] ) www.larsditzel.de

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