WATERSHED
A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or
drains off of it goes into the same p...
Watershed development refers to the conservation regeneration and the
judicious use of all the resources – natural (like l...
History of watershed in Karnataka

Watershed in Karnataka before Independence

During 1923 the Royal Commission on Agricul...
1) Conserve basic resourses such as soil, rain water, and vegetation.
2) Achieve higher biomass production both in arable ...
Why the concept of watershed?

 •   Soil, water and vegetation are so interdependent that one can not
     be managed effi...
•     A watershed provides a natural geo-hydrological unit for
      planning any developmental initiative.




WATERSHED ...
7
8
9
WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES



Centrally Sponsored Scheme
1. National Watershed development programme in Rainfed Areas (...
National Watershed development programme in
                   Rainfed Areas (N.W.D.P.R.A.)


Introduction

National Water...
Blocks having less than 30 percent assured means of irrigation in the arable land
  Severity of land degradation
  Lack of...
people from among themselves. Members are local NGOs, voluntary agencies,
local officers of the development department, gr...
Upper Reaches - Treatment like live checks, brushwood checks, loose boulder
checks and small dugout ponds are taken up sup...
on the other hand. The result of these devastation’s in the catchment area cause
degradation of lands and premature siltat...
area of 5.02 lakh ha. Identified as high and very high priority as on 31.3.2001,
further 138 watersheds have been saturate...
17
Completed watershed development programmes in Karnataka
                 (1984-85 to 1999-2000)




                      ...
Sl. Name of the programme           Implementing        No. of      No. of          Total         Area      Amount
No.    ...
Sl. Name of the Administrative Fund Implementing       Mode of     No. of   Area Amount
No. programme      control     rel...
(DFID)
c.    DANIDA       WDD        WDD        WDD     WDC/WDD          12   20143 1387.51
       project
     (Denmark
 ...
• Utilizing the land according to its capability
• Establishing adequate vegetative cover
•   Conserving as much rain wate...
 Farming Systems Approach (FSA)
 Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA)
 Alternate land use systems viz., a...
 Reduces cost of processing
 Restriction of middlemen involvement
 Opportunities for the farmer himself to become a gro...
 The World Bank through International Development Association
  provided major portion of plan outlay as a loan to Govern...
It is being implemented in seven districts, namely Kolar,
Chikkabalapur, Tumkur, Madhugiri, Chitradurga, Haveri and
Dharwa...
OBJECTIVES

  To improve the productive potential of selected watersheds and
    their associated natural resource base.
...
28
Project Primary objectives
 • Increasing House Hold Income
 • Improving Agriculture Productivity.
 • Improving Vegetative ...
• Involvement of various resource agencies for provision of
  specialized inputs


• Monitoring & Evaluation is inbuilt wi...
• Development of animal husbandry
  • Bore well recharge
  • Construction of loose border checks
  • Open well recharge
  ...
REFERENCES:
• Department of Agriculture
• Karnataka Watershed Development Department
• Principles of Agronomy- Shankar Red...
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Shankaraiah N:Rural Sociology Record

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Shankaraiah N:Rural Sociology Record

  1. 1. WATERSHED A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. Watershed is “that area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living things are inextricably linked by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community." The word watershed refers to a “contiguous area draining into a single water body or a water course” or “it is a topographical area having a common drainage”. This means that the rainwater falling on an area coming within a ridgeline can be harvested and will flow out of this area thorough single point. Some refer it as a catchment area or river basin. A watershed is like a bathtub. The watershed outlet - the mouth of a pond, lake or river- is the tub's drain. The watershed boundary is the tub's rim. The watershed's drainage system consists of a network of rivers, streams, constructed channels, stormdrains, wetlands, and the underlying groundwater. What is Watershed Development? Simply, we can say it is the development of watershed area based on type of soil, depth of soil, vegetative cover, harvestable rain water in that area and watering that area and water budgeting and treatment given to soils from the ridge to the valley. It is not a simple word. The term watershed development encompasses additional dimensions like equity, sustainability, gender and peoples participation. It has become a trusted tool for the overall development of the village and people living within a watershed area. 1
  2. 2. Watershed development refers to the conservation regeneration and the judicious use of all the resources – natural (like land, water plants, animals) and human – within the watershed area. Watershed Management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side and man and animals on the other. Since it is the man which is primarily responsible for degradation of environment, regeneration and conservation can only be possible by promoting awakening and participation among the people who inhabit the watersheds Opinions of Watershed Experts In the words of eminent economist, C.H.Hanumantha Rao “Watershed development has been conceived basically as a strategy for protecting the livelihoods of the people inhabiting the fragile ecosystems experiencing soil erosion and moisture stress”. Watershed Development Programme aims at creating a scenario where the Government acts as a facilitator and the people at the grass root level become the real executioner of the programme 2
  3. 3. History of watershed in Karnataka Watershed in Karnataka before Independence During 1923 the Royal Commission on Agriculture suggested the setting-up of research stations in Bijapur, Hagari and Raichur. Based on this, dry farming stations were established in Raichur, Hagri and Bijapur in Contour bunding to check run off. Deep ploughing once in 3 years for percolation of water Use of farm yard manure. Interculturing of crop for limited moisture use. Karnataka under the dry land farming following system were introduced: Watershed in Karnataka after Independence I. Stage: After Independence, Karnataka continued with the traditional techniques of soil conservation and water retention treatments with a host of programmes being implemented by the Agriculture Department. In 1983 a World Bank assisted comprehensive watershed project was taken in Kabbalnala. II. Stage: In order to capitalize on the gains of the Kabbalanala Project in 1984, Government of Karnataka created four Dry Land Development Boards under four revenue Divisional Commissioners with a jurisdiction over 19 districts. Each district had a multidisciplinary team comprising of line departments. The main objectives were: 3
  4. 4. 1) Conserve basic resourses such as soil, rain water, and vegetation. 2) Achieve higher biomass production both in arable and non-arable areas 3) Impart stability to crop yields through proper rainwater management, crop patterns and land use. 4) Enhance the income of individuals through adoption of alternative enterprises. 5) To restore and sustain ecological balance. III. Stage: The success of these watersheds encouraged GOI to follow the strategy of watersheds in principle and launched a massive NWDP in 7th five year plan extended to 693 watersheds located in 99 districts of the country with a total outlay of Rs. 239 crores in 15 states, including Karnataka. This project was re named has NWDPRA during 8th five year plan and was operated in 85 watersheds in Karnataka ranging from 5000 to 10000 hectares. 7. Two Decades of Watershed in Karnataka The various partners for these projects included Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, World Bank, Danida (Royal Danish Govt. assistance), DFID (British Govt. assistance), German Development Bank (KFW) and SDC (Swiss Govt. assistance). State Plan funds were also used for the over all development of watersheds. 4
  5. 5. Why the concept of watershed? • Soil, water and vegetation are so interdependent that one can not be managed efficiently with out the other two. • But water can be conveniently and efficiently managed only if the hydrological unit vis-à-vis watershed is taken as a whole. • Since these three are interdependent resources, watershed is considered to be the ideal unit. • Deforestation, soil degradation, sedimentation and the resultant floods, droughts, and poverty often require different kinds of solutions but are connected by the fact that they can best be understood and managed as physical units defined by the flow of water, that is watershed. • Man and his environment are interdependent. The changes in the environment directly affect the lives of the people depending on it • A degraded environment means a degraded quality of life of the people. • Environmental degradation can be tackled effectively through the holistic development of the watershed. 5
  6. 6. • A watershed provides a natural geo-hydrological unit for planning any developmental initiative. WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Objectives To mitigate the adverse effects of drought on crops and livestock. To control desertification. To encourage restoration of ecological balance and To promote economic development of village community. BENEFITS DERIVED FROM WATERSHED METHODOLOGY The crop yield has increased by in dry land farming The soil loss due to erosion was brought down Large extents of barren hill slopes were covered by vegetation. Large tracts of marginal lands brought under dry land Horticulture Development of Agro-Horti and Agro-Forestry systems. Water resources were harvested through nala bunds, farm ponds, gully embankments Regeneration of grass lands for more fodder and grass. The income of farmers increased considerably. Administrative structure 6
  7. 7. 7
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  10. 10. WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES Centrally Sponsored Scheme 1. National Watershed development programme in Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) 2. River Valley Project (RVP) State Sector Scheme 1. Sujala 2. NABARD RIDE 3. Suvarna Krishi Honda Externally Aided Projects 1. World Bank Assisted Watershed Development Project 2. British Government Assisted (DFID) KAWAD Programme (Project Completed) 3. Swiss Government Assisted (ISPWDK) Project (Project Completed) District Sector Watershed Development Scheme:- 1. Drought Prone Area Programme 2. Desert Development Programme 3. Western Ghats Development Programme 4. Integrated Wasteland Development Programme 5. Watershed Development Training Centres 10
  11. 11. National Watershed development programme in Rainfed Areas (N.W.D.P.R.A.) Introduction National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas is in operation since 1991-92. So far, 9,09,996 Ha. have been treated at an expenditure of Rs. 198.899 Crores. During 2001-2002 it is programmed to develop an area of 45280 Ha. in 141 taluks/watersheds in 26 districts with an outlay of Rupees 2100 lakhs. Objectives The broad objectives of the Watershed Programmes are: Conservation, development and sustainable management of natural resources including their use. Enhancement of agricultural productivity and production in a sustainable manner. Restoration o ecological balance in the degraded and fragile rainfed eco-systems by greening these areas through appropriate mix of trees, shrubs and grasses. Reduction in regional disparity between irrigated and rinfed areas. Creation of sustained employment opportunities for the rural community including the landess. Criteria for Selection of Watershed 11
  12. 12. Blocks having less than 30 percent assured means of irrigation in the arable land Severity of land degradation Lack of earlier investments in watershed development projects Significant proportion of arable land under private cultivation Pre-ponderance of resource poor, SC/ST persons Willingness of community to participate and contribute in the programme and take up responsibility of post project maintenance of the assetsD. Monitoring Mechanism State level Watershed Development Implementation Committe Headed by Additional Chief Secretary and Development Commisisoner. Members are Principal Secretary, Agriculture & Horticulture, Secretary (Horticulture), Director, Watershed Development Department, Commissioner for Agriculture, Chief Conservator of Forests (Social Forestry), Director, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, Director, Horticulture Deartment, Chief Scientist, Dry Land Development, UAS, GKVK and Directors of Extension, UAS, Bangalore and Dharwad. District level Co-ordination Committee Headed by Chief Executive Officer of respective Zilla Panchayat. Members are District Watershed Development Officer, Horticulture Officer, Forest Officer, Deputy Director of Animal Husbandry, Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Society and District Joint Director of Agriculture. Taluka Level Co-ordination Committee - Headed by Chairman of the Taluka Panchayat. Members are Z.P. Member of Watershed area, Chairman of the Grama Panchayat of the Watershed area, Executive Officer of the Taluka Panchayat and taluka level Officers of various concerned Departments. Watershed level - Watershed Committee (Mitra Krishika Mandal/ Watersheds Sanghas, Watershed Societies) - Headed by a President, selected by the local 12
  13. 13. people from among themselves. Members are local NGOs, voluntary agencies, local officers of the development department, group of local people and members of self-help groups / user groups.E. Treatment Approach- Landless, Marginal and Small Farmers Provision has been made to support the above category population living in the watershed area by providing them with incentives under household production activities or loan from the revolving fund. Livestock Management - Provision has been made for reducing the scrub bull population, upgrading the livestock with improve breeds, and development of pasture. Activities like animal health care are also included. Production Activities - Provision of crop demonstration in arable land, agro- forestry and horticulture development in arable as well as non arable land has been made. Other activities like kitchen / homestead gardening are also supported. Soil & Water Conservation activities - Treatment of watersheds is done on a ridge to valley approach. Different soil and water conservation measures integrated with afforestation and horticulture are proposed based on the land capability, slope etc. Vegetative measures of conservation have been given due importance while treating the land. The normal pattern of watershed treatment is as follows - Arable land - Measures like contour vegetative hedges / contour bunding / gully control measures / land smoothening and other inter bund management and contour cultivation / cultivation across the slope. Non-arable land - Measures like contour trenches / diversion drains / gully control measures supported by vegetative measures. Drainage Line 13
  14. 14. Upper Reaches - Treatment like live checks, brushwood checks, loose boulder checks and small dugout ponds are taken up supported by afforestation. Middle Reaches - Earthen structures with vegetative support, loose boulder structures with vegetative support and run-off management dugout ponds are proposed. Further, agri-horticulture systems are advocated. Lower Reaches - Dugout sunken ponds, nal bunds, check dams for run-off management are proposed. Using the stored water, horticulture, afforestation and fodder development activities are taken up. River Valley Project (RVP) Objectives Development and Conservation of Land Resources are very vital for Agricultural Economy. The surface of the earth is being eroded continuously by mankind by one way or the other resulting in ecological imbalance on one hand and Natural calamities such as flood and fury of rivers wash away the wealth of surface soil 14
  15. 15. on the other hand. The result of these devastation’s in the catchment area cause degradation of lands and premature siltation of reservoirs. In order to preserve the wealth of surface land, natural resources like soil and water the River Valley Project Scheme was initiated in Karnataka during the IIIrd five year plan in the catchments of Tungabhadra, Nijamsagar and Nagarjunasagar.This scheme is in operation in Tunghabhadra, Nizamsagar and Nagarjunasagar Catchments. The scheme was started during 1963-64 with the main objective of preventing and checking premature siltation of reservoirs and to increase production and productivity of the catchment area. Since inception of the project an area of 5.85 lakh Ha. has been developed with an expenditure of 102.269 Crores. During 2001-2002 it is programmed to develop an area of 37856 Ha. with a total outlay of Rs. 1500.00 lakhs. At present Centrally Sponsored Scheme is implemented as State Sector Scheme in the state under Macro Management mode. Earlier sharing pattern was 50:50 i.e. Govt.of India grant and long term loan to the state respectively. Objectives Prevention of land degradation by adoption of multidisciplinary integrated approach of soil conservation and watershed management in the catchment areas. Improvement of land capability and moisture regime in the Watersheds. Promotion of land use to match land capability. Prevention of soil loss from the catchment and to reduce siltation of reservoirs People`s involvement in the Management of catchment. Upgradation of skills in planning and execution of land development programmes. In Tungabhadra Catchment 3.232 lakh ha. of priority area has been treated since inception of the RVP Scheme which accounts for 64.38 % of the total priority 15
  16. 16. area of 5.02 lakh ha. Identified as high and very high priority as on 31.3.2001, further 138 watersheds have been saturated out of 154 watersheds. The details are in Annexure-1.The districts of Bellary, Haveri, Chitradurga, Koppal and Davanagere are included in Thungabhadra Catchment of River Valley Project. In view of saturating the catchment area, the remaining 16 watersheds will be taken up during the current year (2001-2002) to treat an area of 25467 Ha. and to construct 3736 structures at an outlay of Rs.844.86 lakhs. The total project cost including establishment training, corpus fund, Hydrological sediment monitoring contingency etc., works out Rs. 1100 lakhs. State Sector Scheme State Government has earmarked Rs. 8.42 crores towards establishment cost of the Staff of Watershed Development Department. Under this scheme salaries and other allowances of the employees of Watershed Development Department is met. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. Completed watershed development programmes in Karnataka (1984-85 to 1999-2000) 18
  19. 19. Sl. Name of the programme Implementing No. of No. of Total Area Amount No. agency and year districts water- geographical treated spent since sheds area (ha) since inception inception (Rs.crores) (ha) 1. World Bank assisted DLDB/Department 6 7 136337 136337 37.564 Watershed Projects of Watershed Development(1984-93 ) 2 District watershed DLDB/Department 18 18 578420 515200 121.978 development programmes of Watershed Development (1984-1993) 3 Participative and integrated DLDB/MYRADA 1 1 20300 9680 4.140 development of watersheds (1985-86 to 1993-94 4 Swiss assisted ISPWD-K DLDB/WDD 5 5 74968 30000 12.595 Project (1995 to 2000) 5 KFW assisted Integrated DLDB/WDD 3 5 53627 24600 16.221 Watershed Management (1995 to2000) 6 River valley projects A&H Department 15 723 106.88 (Area to 541800 91.119 (Tungabhadra,Nizamsagar through Dept. of (225 W/s be treated 26.15 and Nagarjuna Sagar) Agri. (Centrally saturated) lakhs) sponsored, 1963-64 onwards) 7 National Watershed A&H Dept. through 26 141 872872 872872 182.995 Development Programme for Dept. of Agri. In the Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) State Sector coordinated by ZP 1986-87. As NWDP 1990-91 onwards as NWDPRA. 8 i) Drought Prone Areas RD & PR Zilla i) 15 423 in 81 - - 75.600 Programme Panchayat and ii) 6 blocks 130 (1995-99) ii) Desert Development Watershed iii) 11 in 22 20.220 Programme Development blocks 40 (1995-99) iii) Western Ghat Associations taluks 53.540 Development (1995-99) 9 Karnataka Watershed A&H Department 3 14 53000 23000 16.036 Development through Directorate 4 12 - - - Project (DANIDA Assistance) of Agriculture I Phase 1990-91 to 96-97 II phase 1997 to 04 Total 2153489 632.008 Projects in operation and administrative arrangement 19
  20. 20. Sl. Name of the Administrative Fund Implementing Mode of No. of Area Amount No. programme control releasing department implementation Micro treated spent department watershed (ha) (Rs.in lakhs) I. State Sector Schemes a. National WDD WDD WDD WDC 568 102514 6353.17 Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) b. River Valley WDD WDD WDD WDD 117 134305 4489.71 Project (RVP) c. Reclamation WDD WDD WDD WDD 6 dist. 1701 249.00 of saline, alkaline and waterlogged soils II. District Sector Schemes a. Drought RDPR & ZP RDPR & ZP WDD WDC 959 143391 9880.48 Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) b. Desert RDPR & ZP RDPR & ZP WDD WDC 644 59125.5 5013.88 Development Programme (DDP) c. Integrated RDPR & ZP RDPR & ZP WDD WDC 258 81885 4421.89 Watershed Development Project (IWDP) d. Western RDPR & ZP RDPR & ZP WDD WDC 215 25394 3814.85 Ghats Development Project (WGDP) e. Special ZP ZP WDD WDD - 2755.3 142.36 Component Plan (SCP) III. Aided Projects a. Sujala WDD WDD WDD Sujala Sangha 753 26115 3442.01 Watershed (WDC) Project b. KAWAD KAWAD WDD KAWAD NGO, WDC, 108 34749 1818.13 Project Society Society Dept. 20
  21. 21. (DFID) c. DANIDA WDD WDD WDD WDC/WDD 12 20143 1387.51 project (Denmark Govt.) d. NABARD NABARD & NABARD & NGO & WDD People’s 47 1405 75.90 assisted WDD WDD participation, watershed WDC Projects WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES 21
  22. 22. • Utilizing the land according to its capability • Establishing adequate vegetative cover • Conserving as much rain water as possible in situ Draining-out surplus water and divert it to storage ponds • Avoiding gully formation through suitable checks to minimize soil erosion and enhance ground water recharge • Maximize productivity per unit area, per unit time and per unit water • Increasing cropping intensity – Intercropping and Sequence cropping • Better utilization of marginal lands through ALUS • Ensuring sustainability of the ecosystem • Maximizing the combined income: • Generating off-season employment • Minimising the risks from aberrant weather • Processing and value addition of the farm produce • Developing and improving infra –structure: Storage, transport and marketing • Promotion of balanced nutrition – Dryland fruits and vegetables besides cereals, pulses and oilseeds SPECIAL FOCUS AHEAD ON WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT  Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)  Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPDM) 22
  23. 23.  Farming Systems Approach (FSA)  Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA)  Alternate land use systems viz., agro-forestry, agri-horticulture, silvi-pasture, horti-silvi-pasture, etc.  Animal Husbandry, Backyard Poultry and Apiculture  Restore or develop gomala/gokatte/gundu topu/devara kadu  Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK)  Post-harvest Processing and Value Addition-APCs  Agri-clinic and agri-business management  HRD-capacity building/leadership development/SHG formation/ MWMG formation/custom hiring services BENEFITS OF AGRO-PROCESSING CENTRE IN WATERSHED VILLAGES  Enhance the quality of inputs  Reduce losses at various post harvest stages 23
  24. 24.  Reduces cost of processing  Restriction of middlemen involvement  Opportunities for the farmer himself to become a grower-cum- processor  Improves the quality of rural life and affords dignity  Motivates educated rural youth to keep engage in processing industry and thus preventing their migration to urban areas  Ensures fair prices to growers for their produce  Makes available diversified products to rural consumer at reasonable and affordable prices SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT  Sujala is a Watershed Development Project designed by the Government of Karnataka and implemented by the Watershed Development Department of Government of Karnataka 24
  25. 25.  The World Bank through International Development Association provided major portion of plan outlay as a loan to Government of India and in turn loan to Government of Karnataka.  The Government of Karnataka finances some portion of the budget and the Watershed Communities contribute some portion.  Sujala a community driven watershed development project with a total budget of Rs.557 crores,  As planned, the project period started from 10.09.2001 and likely to end by 31.03.2009. 25
  26. 26. It is being implemented in seven districts, namely Kolar, Chikkabalapur, Tumkur, Madhugiri, Chitradurga, Haveri and Dharwad of Karnataka covering 4.29 lakhs hectare of land spread over in 77 sub-watersheds and 1270 villages benefiting nearly 4.0 lakhs households including landless. 26
  27. 27. OBJECTIVES  To improve the productive potential of selected watersheds and their associated natural resource base.  Strengthen community and institutional arrangements for natural resource management.  An associated objective is to strengthen the capacity of communities in the project districts for participatory involvement in planning, implementation, social and environmental management and maintenance.  The implementing department operates in a more socially inclusive manner, with in the frame work of a convergent watershed development plan.  This will be achieved through having the community groups implement the project, the project’s collaborative approach and capacity building initiatives 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Project Primary objectives • Increasing House Hold Income • Improving Agriculture Productivity. • Improving Vegetative Cover. • Increasing Milk and Horticulture Production. • Increasing Fodder and Fuel availability. • Reducing Soil Erosion & Runoff to Improve Water Availability. • Enhancing Quality and Life of Village Communities. • Ensuring Institutional support by Watershed Development Department as facilitator and by NGOs for community organization and strengthening. Distinct Features of the Project • Peoples participation as a focus of the entire project • NGOs involvement at all levels • Adopting Area Group approach • Cost sharing by the community to enhance ownership & respect towards peoples choices • Use of agriculture & water resource action plans developed through remote sensing to complement peoples plan 29
  30. 30. • Involvement of various resource agencies for provision of specialized inputs • Monitoring & Evaluation is inbuilt within the project implementation structure & process • Effective accountability & transparency by adopting appropriate financial management systems at all levels • Adopting ESA (Environmental & Social impact assessment) • Involvement of PRIs (Panchayat Raj Institution) • Community development programmes • A Forestation • Dry land horticulture • Construction of bunds • Soil conservation • Fodder production for animal husbandry • Construction of Farm pond 30
  31. 31. • Development of animal husbandry • Bore well recharge • Construction of loose border checks • Open well recharge • Construction of NALA bunds • Inter cropping • Income generating activities for rural poor CONCLUSION Use of land, water and vegetation according to its capability we can change in knowledge, skills, attitudes for enhancing resource use efficiency and improvement in socio-economic and ecological conditions 31
  32. 32. REFERENCES: • Department of Agriculture • Karnataka Watershed Development Department • Principles of Agronomy- Shankar Reddy and Alamand Reddy • watershed.kar.nic.in • www.watersheddevelopment.com 32

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