Shankaraiah N :Audio Visual Aids,,,,,,,8


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Shankaraiah N :Audio Visual Aids,,,,,,,8

  2. 3. <ul><li>Audio refers to sound waves that can normally be heard by the human ear . </li></ul><ul><li>Visual implies relating to the sense of seeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids implies those instructional devices or teaching aids which make teaching more effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio visual aids are those instructional devices that may be used by a teacher or a communicator in order to facilitate better understanding on the part of learners by involving their many senses, particularly those relating to seeing and hearing . </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  3. 4. Definitions <ul><li>According to DALE(1965): All materials used in the class room or other teaching situation to facilitate the understanding of the written or spoken words are Audio visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>According to kinder(1959): audio visual aids may be any device which can be used to make learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>CLASSIFICATION OF AV AIDS </li></ul>
  5. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF AV AIDS <ul><li>According to Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>First generation media : Hand made charts, graphs, exhibits, models, hand writing materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation media : Printed/illustrated texts, printed graphs, workbooks etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Third generation media : photographs, slides, films-strips, films, recordings, radio , tele-lectures etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth generation media : TV, programmed instruction, language laboratories, electronic digital computers. </li></ul>
  6. 7. According to Kumar,1995 <ul><li>Projected materials </li></ul><ul><li>OHP, Slides, Films </li></ul><ul><li>Non-projected materials </li></ul><ul><li>Books, posters, Charts, Leaflets </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic materials </li></ul><ul><li>Computers, Interactive video, Video programmes </li></ul>
  7. 8. According to uses Individual contacts Group contacts Mass contacts Farm and home visits Method demonstration Bulletins Office call Leader training meeting Leaf lets Telephone call Lecture meeting News stories Personnel letters Conferences Circular letters Result demonstration Discussion meetings TV, exhibition
  8. 9. According to form Written Spoken Objectives or visual Bulletins General meeting Result demonstration Leaflets Farm and home visits Exhibitions News articles Office call Posters Personal letters Telephone call Slides
  9. 10. According to K.R.Ganapathy <ul><li>Audial : Human voice ( talk, lecture, speech, discussion, interviews, drama etc.), music and other sound transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual : written/printed (books, pamphlets, posters, notices), elements for media (scripts, drafts, lecture notes, caption), media for writing (chalk board, black board), projected and non projected </li></ul><ul><li>Audio visual media: cinema, motion picture, TV, Recorded exhibition. </li></ul>
  10. 11. According to DALE Words Numbers Signs symbols Charts, graphs Radio, recording Posters, Flat picture Flash cards, Flannel boards Filmstrips, film slide Exhibits , fieldtrips, demonstration Demonstration, models, objects, specimens Direct purposeful experiences INDIRECT SYMBOLING S OBSERVING DIRECT DOING ABSTRACT CONCRETE CONE OF AUDIO-VISUAL EXPERIANCE
  11. 12. PREPARATION OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS <ul><li>The following factors should be taken into consideration before preparation of audio-visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of audience and their level of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities available </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of aid </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers competency </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity of audience with the subject though </li></ul>
  12. 13. PREPARATION OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS <ul><li>The following “ABC” principles are to be considered in preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>A - Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>B - Brevity </li></ul><ul><li>C - Clarity </li></ul>
  13. 14. Tips for development of audio-visual aids <ul><li>More visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Legible aids </li></ul><ul><li>Letter should be written large enough </li></ul><ul><li>Each visual should count </li></ul><ul><li>Provide variety </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar with the use of aids </li></ul><ul><li>Testing should be done in advance. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Preparation of visual aids <ul><li>Caption </li></ul><ul><li>Lettering </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Constract </li></ul>
  15. 16. 1.Caption <ul><li>Caption should be clear, brief, understandable, catchy and relevant for instance. </li></ul><ul><li>“ MILK FOR MILLIONS” </li></ul><ul><li>“ VARALAKSHMI FOR DHANALAKSHMI” </li></ul><ul><li>“ KILL THE PEST GET THE BEST” </li></ul>
  16. 17. 2.Lettering <ul><li>Lettering depends on Style, Colour, Size and Spacing between letters, shape of the letters . </li></ul><ul><li>letter can be arranged in many ways vertically, horizontally, diagonally and zigzag way. </li></ul><ul><li>Height of the letter depends upon size of the audience. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Size of the letters and their visibility Distance from farthest viewer(feet) Height of the letter(in cm) Thickness of the letter (in mm) (1/5 of height) 15 3.00 6.00 30 4.00 8.00 45 5.00 10.00 60 6.00 12.00 75 7.00 14.00 90 8.00 16.00
  18. 19. Conti…. <ul><li>Shape of the letter: </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual shape should be avoided, because they hindrance to clear understanding of the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use letters of usual shape . </li></ul><ul><li>A ( √ ) A ( × ) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Spacing <ul><li>Mechanical method : Distance between the letter is taken to consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical method : Area between the letters is taken into consideration. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Style <ul><li>Gothic : Thickness of the letter uniform through the letter </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thickness” </li></ul><ul><li>Roman : No uniform thickness </li></ul><ul><li>“ T h i c k n e s s ” </li></ul><ul><li>Text : Old English style writing letters in a slanting format is considered as italics. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thickness” </li></ul><ul><li>Always prefer for Gothic style for clarity </li></ul>
  21. 22. 3.ILLUSTRATION <ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Cutouts </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Stick figures </li></ul><ul><li>Use of illustration depends upon many factors like- skill of the teacher and availability of visual aids </li></ul>
  22. 23. 4 . C o l o u r <ul><li>Attracting attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis or contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>Help to create a mood </li></ul><ul><li>Making distinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Heightening our reconstruction of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Other ways to contributes to learning. </li></ul>
  23. 24. 5.Balance <ul><li>Formal type balance: It is created by symmetrical arrangement of all the elements in the layout. </li></ul>
  24. 25. 5.Balance <ul><li>Informal type balance: The elements appears to be balance, even though each side of the arrangement is difficult. </li></ul>
  25. 26. 6.Contrast <ul><li>The contrast between letters, illustration and their background is an important factor in their readability. </li></ul><ul><li>Back and dark colours are usually stronger . </li></ul><ul><li>Light coloured letters should be used on a dark back ground or dark letters on a light coloured background . </li></ul>
  27. 28. Don L. Tolliver May (1973) <ul><li>Color functions in information perception and retention </li></ul><ul><li>This paper reviews key research findings related to color and how this phenomenon affects the perception and retention of information. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Nira Hativa (1986) <ul><li>The microcomputer as a classroom audio visual device: The concept, and prospects for adoption </li></ul><ul><li>The microcomputer with appropriate software may serve as an effective teaching aid </li></ul>
  29. 30. Mary Anne Andrusyszyn (June 1990) <ul><li>The effect of the lecture discussion teaching method with and without audio-visual augmentation on immediate and retention learning </li></ul><ul><li>This study determined whether students taught using the lecture-discussion method augmented with audio-visuals would achieve a higher mean score on an immediate post-test and delayed retention test than students presented with a lecture-discussion without audio-visuals . </li></ul>
  30. 31. Dirk-Jan Povel, Nico Arends (February 1991) <ul><li>The visual speech apparatus: Theoretical and practical aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Designing a visual aid for speech training of the hearing-impaired presupposes the solution of problems in various fields such as automatic speech recognition, speech perception and production, learning theory, system development and computer programming. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Joline Morrison (January 1998) <ul><li>The impacts of presentation visuals on persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Today's microcomputer applications enable users to create and display elaborate presentation visuals that include color, clip art, and special effects such as animation and dynamic transitions. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Nessa Coyle (February 2002) <ul><li>Audio-Visual Communication and Its Use in Palliative Care </li></ul><ul><li>The technology of telemedicine has been used for over 20 years, involving different areas of medicine, providing medical care for the geographically isolated patients, and uniting geographically isolated clinicians </li></ul>
  33. 34. Frederic Berthommier (September 2004) <ul><li>Seeing to hear better: evidence for early audio-visual interactions in speech identification </li></ul><ul><li>Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips </li></ul><ul><li>It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio -only perception </li></ul>
  34. 35. Jeesun Kim, Chris Davis (October 2004) <ul><li>Investigating the audio–visual speech detection advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing the moving face of the talker permits better detection of speech in noise compared to auditory only presentation, an Audio–Visual (AV) facilitation effect. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Annie Magnan, Jean Ecalle (May 2006) <ul><li>Audio-visual training in children with reading disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>This study tested the effectiveness of audio-visual training in the discrimination of the phonetic feature of voicing on the recognition of written words by young children </li></ul><ul><li>these results contribute to an understanding of the nature of reading difficulties and successful training. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Mohiuddin Ahmed, Charles M. Boisvert (September 2006) <ul><li>Using computers as visual aids to enhance communication in therapy </li></ul><ul><li>This study determined whether students taught using the lecture-discussion method augmented with audio-visuals would achieve a higher mean score on an immediate post-test and delayed retention test than students presented with a lecture-discussion without audio-visuals . </li></ul>
  37. 38. Esra Yucel, Deray Derim (June 2008) <ul><li>The effect of implantation age on visual attention skills </li></ul>
  38. 39. Emilio Sanchez (December 2008) <ul><li>The use of modality in the design of verbal aids in computer-based learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based learning environments include verbal aids helping learners to gain a deep understanding. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Yuji Wada (March 2009) <ul><li>  Sound enhances detection of visual target during infancy: A study using illusory contours </li></ul><ul><li>These results suggest that audio–visual enhancement in visual target detection emerges at 7 months of age </li></ul>
  40. 41. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Capture audience attention arose their interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights main points of the message clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>The possibilities of misinterpreting concepts is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure the learning process more effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold attention, make teaching more realistic. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Conti… <ul><li>Message perceived with several senses are understood and retained better. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed up the process of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate self activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Save time of teacher and learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome language barrier. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn more, thoroughly, faster and remember longer </li></ul>
  42. 43. DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Audio visual aids do not necessarily give a true picture of the ideas they present. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio visual aids do not always appropriate for the meaningful content to topic under study. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio visual aids not always appropriate for the age, intelligence, and experience of learners. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Conti… <ul><li>Audio visual aids not always worth the time, expenses and effort involved. </li></ul><ul><li>By introducing Audio visual aids in teaching learning situation many physical and psychological disturbance are likely to be introduced. </li></ul>