THE USAGE OF THE COMMA
RULE 1 <ul><li>Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunct...
RULE 2 <ul><li>Use commas after introductory clauses, phrases, or words that come before the main clause.  </li></ul><ul><...
 
RULE 3 <ul><li>Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essent...
RULE 4 <ul><li>Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with  that  (rel...
RULE 5 <ul><li>Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series. </li></ul><ul><li>Exam...
RULE 6 <ul><li>Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be sure never to add ...
RULE 7 <ul><li>Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct...
 
RULE 8 <ul><li>Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that refer back to the beginning or middle of the ...
RULE 9 <ul><li>Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except ...
RULE 10 <ul><li>Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul>...
QUIZ INDICATE WHETHER THE STATEMENTS ARE CORRECT, IF NOT FIX THEM. <ul><li>The student explained her question yet the inst...
SOURCE <ul><li>http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/02/ </li></ul>
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Freshman English---Group Presentation

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Comma, Commas

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Freshman English---Group Presentation

  1. 1. THE USAGE OF THE COMMA
  2. 2. RULE 1 <ul><li>Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave. </li></ul>
  3. 3. RULE 2 <ul><li>Use commas after introductory clauses, phrases, or words that come before the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. </li></ul>
  4. 5. RULE 3 <ul><li>Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The restaurant had an exciting atmosphere. The food, on the other hand, is rather bland. </li></ul>
  5. 6. RULE 4 <ul><li>Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with that (relative clauses). That clauses after nouns are always essential. That clauses following a verb expressing mental action are always essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The baby wearing the yellow jumpsuit is my niece. (essential) </li></ul><ul><li>My niece, wearing the yellow jumpsuit, is playing in the living room. </li></ul><ul><li>(non-essential) </li></ul>
  6. 7. RULE 5 <ul><li>Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The constitution establishes the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. </li></ul>
  7. 8. RULE 6 <ul><li>Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be sure never to add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with non-coordinate adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>He was a difficult, stubborn child. (coordinate) </li></ul><ul><li>They lived in a white frame house. (non- coordinate) </li></ul>
  8. 9. RULE 7 <ul><li>Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>He was merely ignorant, not stupid. </li></ul>
  9. 11. RULE 8 <ul><li>Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that refer back to the beginning or middle of the sentence. Such phrases are free modifiers that can be placed anywhere in the sentence without causing confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy waved enthusiastically at the docking ship, laughing joyously. </li></ul>
  10. 12. RULE 9 <ul><li>Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Birmingham, Alabama, gets its name from Birmingham, England </li></ul>
  11. 13. RULE 10 <ul><li>Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>John said without emotion, “I’ll see you tomorrow.” </li></ul>
  12. 14. QUIZ INDICATE WHETHER THE STATEMENTS ARE CORRECT, IF NOT FIX THEM. <ul><li>The student explained her question yet the instructor still didn't seem to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>When the snow stops falling, we'll shovel the driveway. </li></ul><ul><li>That Tuesday, which happens to be my birthday, is the only day when I am available to meet. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom the captain of the team was injured in the game. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate promised to lower taxes protect the environment reduce crime and end unemployment. </li></ul>
  13. 15. SOURCE <ul><li>http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/02/ </li></ul>

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