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The WorldEnergy Problem      &Energy Auditing
Energy problemsThe imbalance between demand and supply ofEnergy. The demand of energy is more whereasSupply is less.Why th...
How to solve it ?  1. GLOBALLY   Switch into renewable energy sources such     as wind, solar, biomass.   Encourage the ...
 Careful use of large electric or gas appliances such as  stoves refrigerators, washing machines. Eat grain based diets ...
Energy AuditingEnergy auditing is necessary for Conserving energy .In this process the quantum of energy available, thenum...
The Human Being is a System...   Warmth    Water                        Organic                                 Waste    F...
in closed loop with the world ...    Warmth     Water                          Organic                                    ...
Primitive Man ...
Modern Man ...                 Inorganic                   Waste
What is behind our inputs/outputs ?                                ?
Let’s have a look in ourworld ...       and try to quantify what is       happening ...
Various powers associatedWith various elements inworld.
1WW    kW   MW   GW   TW   EW   YW   Power
40-100 WW     kW       MW   GW   TW   EW   YW   Power
70-300 WW    kW    MW   GW   TW   EW   YW   Power
1-3 kWW   kW   MW   GW   TW   EW   YW   Power
30-130 kW                 W      kW      MW       GW       TW                         EW   YW   PowerSource: “Fuel Consump...
0.5-5 MWW   kW   MW   GW     TW   EW   YW   Power
140 MW                  W     kW      MW   GW   TW   EW   YW   PowerSource: www.boeing.com, www.bp.com
1.2 GW - Coal1.3 GW - Nuclear                                  2 GW - Hydro    W     kW       MW   GW   TW                ...
22 GW - China                             14 GW - Brazil                     W      kW       MW        GW       TW        ...
83 GW - USA                                              127 GW - USSR                 W      kW      MW        GW       T...
and we need also a unitof volume/mass ...
Volume/Mass Unit: TI Europe (super tanker)      Cargo Capacity       ! 500.000 m3        ! 430.000 t
How many are we ?                10                  9                                                                    ...
How fast do we grow ?                10                  9                                                                ...
How much land for eachperson ?(Density)                         =   ?
1500 ...                        550 m                        3Source: UN; US CENSUS
1550 ...                        520 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1600 ...                        490 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1650 ...                        470 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1700 ...                        450 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1750 ...                        430 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1800 ...                        390 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1850 ...                        340 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1900 ...                        300 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
1950 ...                        240 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
2007 ...                        147 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
2050 ...                        ! 125 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
And for different countries ?                                                        (2007)                               ...
How much energy needs the   human body to live ?                                                             ! 1000 kcal/d...
And all human population ?             (2007)                             0.67 TW                    100 W       8x
How much food is it ?
(2007)            Food                     10 million t/day                        1.5 kg/day                 23 x        ...
But how much energy do we use ?                                      (2007)                                               ...
How do we spend it ?
Transportation ...
Industry ...
At home ...
Food Production ...
Food Processing and Distribution ...
Potable Water Production...
Some Examples ... boiling 1l water  0.1 kWh      0.1           1   10   100   1.000   10.000   Energy                     ...
Some Examples ...         Watching TV 2h          0.4 kWh   0.1                1   10   100   1.000   10.000   Energy     ...
Some Examples ...    Cooking pasta 2 per. (20min)           0.5 kWh   0.1               1             10   100   1.000   1...
Some Examples ...         1 wash @ 40 - 95ºC         0.6 - 1.7 kWh   0.1          1             10   100   1.000   10.000 ...
Some Examples ...                                  1x                              Daily average energy                   ...
Some Examples ...                                                          1 Car driving 100km                            ...
Some Examples ...                                         Average Annual EU25                                         Hous...
Where does the energy                                                                                 (2007)   come from ?...
If we always consume energylike this ?
Total Energy Consumption ...          40          35          30          25          20          15          10          ...
The History of EnergyConsumption in Pictures ...
1875 ...                                                        New York, USASource: www.flickr.com/photos/40045986@N00/31...
1896 ...                                                        New York, USASource: www.flickr.com/photos/40045986@N00/31...
1913 ...                                  New York, USASource: www.shorpy.com/node/204
1930 ...                                                   New York, USASource: www.geocities.com/s_andrewes/chron3.html
Today ...                                           ! 800 million cars in the WorldSource: www.plunkettresearch.com/Indust...
1887 ...Source: www.flickr.com/photos/40045986@N00/3143525392;
Today ...
And how efficiently do weuse energy ?
Electricity production andtransportation use heavilythermal engines ...                                                   ...
Efficiency during Electricity production &  transmission       10.6TW16TW                        3.1TW                42% ...
Food system efficiency ...  Non-Renewable      fuels          Energy In          Energy                              Out
1kg of white bread ...           Non-Renewable               fuels                                 20.7 MJ                ...
1kg of white bread ...                  Stores - 3.7%                  Baking - 64%                   Milling - 13%       ...
How much non-renewable fuelsdo we use ?
(2007)           Oil                                      10.8 million t/day                                       1.6 kg/...
(2007)       Natural                                         5.8 million t/day        Gas                                 ...
(2007)           Coal                                     17.7 million t/day                                       2.6 kg/...
(2007)     Uranium (U)                                         67000 t/year                                             10...
Try to imagine ...      (2007)            23 x     / day            93 x     / day
In one word ...                  (2007)                              1.6 kg/day                              0.9 kg/day1.5...
And for different countries ?
Non-Renewable Fuels in kg/day ...                                                     (2007)                              ...
Non-Renewable Fuels in W ...                                                      (2007)                                  ...
What about our reserves ofnon-renewable fuels ?   ?      ?      ?       ?
Official Proven Reserves at                                                                      (2007)   constant product...
Does we still have 76 years without worries?   40   35   30   25   20   15                                      ?   10   5...
No ...   40   35   30   25                                        ?   20                                              ?   ...
Maybe switch to coal ...   40   35   30   25                                             ?   20   15                      ...
Maybe switch directly to new sources ...   40   35   30   25   20   15                               Oil   10             ...
But it takes time to switch ...   40   35   30   25   20   15                                Oil   10                     ...
Demand will increase ...   40                                                    = 3.4 kW    ?   35   30   25             ...
This is the Energy Problem !
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Energy problem and energy auditing

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This is an exclusively illustrative presentation on Energy Problems.If you want to download contact to my email-shanidbakkar@gmail.com

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Energy problem and energy auditing

  1. 1. The WorldEnergy Problem &Energy Auditing
  2. 2. Energy problemsThe imbalance between demand and supply ofEnergy. The demand of energy is more whereasSupply is less.Why this imbalance occurs. Increased population Shortage in Non-renewable energy sources. Increased industrial production Increase in No. Of Houses, Vehicles etc. Increased use of Home appliances
  3. 3. How to solve it ? 1. GLOBALLY  Switch into renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass.  Encourage the use of solar cookers, water heaters, photo voltaic cells etc.  Large scale use of CFL  Implement efficient energy transmission systems  Rely upon public transportation.  Use bio fuels(Ethanol)  Implement proper Energy management systems. 2.LOCALLY  Insulate walls and ceilings.  Whenever possible, walk.  Turn off all electronic devices that are not in use  When shopping for new appliances invest in Energy Star
  4. 4.  Careful use of large electric or gas appliances such as stoves refrigerators, washing machines. Eat grain based diets carnivory(meat based) Join car pool (travel more than one person in car/sharing)
  5. 5. Energy AuditingEnergy auditing is necessary for Conserving energy .In this process the quantum of energy available, thenumber & type of users, the cost of energy andduration of availability must be known. From suchdata an comprehensive energy management systemcan be developed &continuously monitored.
  6. 6. The Human Being is a System... Warmth Water Organic Waste Food
  7. 7. in closed loop with the world ... Warmth Water Organic Waste Food
  8. 8. Primitive Man ...
  9. 9. Modern Man ... Inorganic Waste
  10. 10. What is behind our inputs/outputs ? ?
  11. 11. Let’s have a look in ourworld ... and try to quantify what is happening ...
  12. 12. Various powers associatedWith various elements inworld.
  13. 13. 1WW kW MW GW TW EW YW Power
  14. 14. 40-100 WW kW MW GW TW EW YW Power
  15. 15. 70-300 WW kW MW GW TW EW YW Power
  16. 16. 1-3 kWW kW MW GW TW EW YW Power
  17. 17. 30-130 kW W kW MW GW TW EW YW PowerSource: “Fuel Consumption Guide 2009”, ecoENERGY, Natural Resources Canada
  18. 18. 0.5-5 MWW kW MW GW TW EW YW Power
  19. 19. 140 MW W kW MW GW TW EW YW PowerSource: www.boeing.com, www.bp.com
  20. 20. 1.2 GW - Coal1.3 GW - Nuclear 2 GW - Hydro W kW MW GW TW EW YW Power
  21. 21. 22 GW - China 14 GW - Brazil W kW MW GW TW EW YW PowerSource: www.industcards.com/ppworld.htm, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itaipu, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam
  22. 22. 83 GW - USA 127 GW - USSR W kW MW GW TW EW YW PowerSource: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Solid_Rocket_Booster , www.pw.utc.com , www.buran-energia.com
  23. 23. and we need also a unitof volume/mass ...
  24. 24. Volume/Mass Unit: TI Europe (super tanker) Cargo Capacity ! 500.000 m3 ! 430.000 t
  25. 25. How many are we ? 10 9 ! 9.2 billion 8 7 6.7 billion 6 5 5.0 billion 4 3 2 2.5 billion 1 1.25 billion 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050Source: “World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision”, UN 2009
  26. 26. How fast do we grow ? 10 9 ! 47 million/year 8 7 6 79 million/year 5 88 million/year 4 3 2 38 million/year 1 8 million/year 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050Source: “World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision”, UN 2009
  27. 27. How much land for eachperson ?(Density) = ?
  28. 28. 1500 ... 550 m 3Source: UN; US CENSUS
  29. 29. 1550 ... 520 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  30. 30. 1600 ... 490 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  31. 31. 1650 ... 470 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  32. 32. 1700 ... 450 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  33. 33. 1750 ... 430 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  34. 34. 1800 ... 390 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  35. 35. 1850 ... 340 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  36. 36. 1900 ... 300 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  37. 37. 1950 ... 240 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  38. 38. 2007 ... 147 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  39. 39. 2050 ... ! 125 mSource: UN; US CENSUS
  40. 40. And for different countries ? (2007) 36 % World Pop. = ? 1300 million 1100 million 300 195 million million 82 million 16.4 million BR USA CN IN DE NLSource: UN; US CENSUS
  41. 41. How much energy needs the human body to live ? ! 1000 kcal/day ! 50 W (2-3 years) ! 2000 kcal/day ! 100 W ! 2500 kcal/day ! 120 WSource: FAO - Human Energy Requeriments 2001
  42. 42. And all human population ? (2007) 0.67 TW 100 W 8x
  43. 43. How much food is it ?
  44. 44. (2007) Food 10 million t/day 1.5 kg/day 23 x / daySource: FAO - FAOSTAT
  45. 45. But how much energy do we use ? (2007) 16 TW (WEC) 2400 W 193 xSource: BP - Statistical Review 2008; IEA - WEO 2006
  46. 46. How do we spend it ?
  47. 47. Transportation ...
  48. 48. Industry ...
  49. 49. At home ...
  50. 50. Food Production ...
  51. 51. Food Processing and Distribution ...
  52. 52. Potable Water Production...
  53. 53. Some Examples ... boiling 1l water 0.1 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)
  54. 54. Some Examples ... Watching TV 2h 0.4 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)
  55. 55. Some Examples ... Cooking pasta 2 per. (20min) 0.5 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)
  56. 56. Some Examples ... 1 wash @ 40 - 95ºC 0.6 - 1.7 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)
  57. 57. Some Examples ... 1x Daily average energy intake 2.4 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)Source: FAO - Human Energy Requeriments 2001
  58. 58. Some Examples ... 1 Car driving 100km (4l - 10l/100km) 40 - 100 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)Source: “Fuel Consumption Guide 2009”, ecoENERGY, Natural Resources Canada
  59. 59. Some Examples ... Average Annual EU25 Household Electricity Consumption 4260 kWh 0.1 1 10 100 1.000 10.000 Energy (kWh)Source: EUROSTAT 2006
  60. 60. Where does the energy (2007) come from ? 6 33.0 % 13 % 5 26.5 % 5% 82 % 4 22.0 % 3 2 10.0 % 5.2 % 1 2.3 % 1.0 % 0 Oil Gas Coal Nuclear Hydro Trad. Geothermal Biomass Solar, Wind, etc... 82% - Fossil fuels 5% - Nuclear 13 % - RenewableSource: BP - Statistical Review 2008; IEA - WEO 2006
  61. 61. If we always consume energylike this ?
  62. 62. Total Energy Consumption ... 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150Source: Putnam, “Energy in the Future”, 1953; J. Laherrere, “Peak Oil and other Peaks”, CERN 2005; BP - Statistical Review 2008;
  63. 63. The History of EnergyConsumption in Pictures ...
  64. 64. 1875 ... New York, USASource: www.flickr.com/photos/40045986@N00/3143509300
  65. 65. 1896 ... New York, USASource: www.flickr.com/photos/40045986@N00/3143514970
  66. 66. 1913 ... New York, USASource: www.shorpy.com/node/204
  67. 67. 1930 ... New York, USASource: www.geocities.com/s_andrewes/chron3.html
  68. 68. Today ... ! 800 million cars in the WorldSource: www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx
  69. 69. 1887 ...Source: www.flickr.com/photos/40045986@N00/3143525392;
  70. 70. Today ...
  71. 71. And how efficiently do weuse energy ?
  72. 72. Electricity production andtransportation use heavilythermal engines ... Waste (heat) Heat 15-50 %Source: Hoffert et al., “Advanced Technology Paths to Global Climate Stability: Energy for a Greenhouse Planet”, Science, Vol. 298, Nov. 2002
  73. 73. Efficiency during Electricity production & transmission 10.6TW16TW 3.1TW 42% 91% 5.4TW 2.3TW 2.1TW 32% Production Transmission
  74. 74. Food system efficiency ... Non-Renewable fuels Energy In Energy Out
  75. 75. 1kg of white bread ... Non-Renewable fuels 20.7 MJ 50% 10.4 MJSource: Leach, G., “Energy and Food Production”, 1976
  76. 76. 1kg of white bread ... Stores - 3.7% Baking - 64% Milling - 13% 50% of Energy In Agriculture - 20% Energy In Energy OutSource: Leach, G., “Energy and Food Production”, 1976
  77. 77. How much non-renewable fuelsdo we use ?
  78. 78. (2007) Oil 10.8 million t/day 1.6 kg/day 25 x / daySource: BP - Statistical Review 2008
  79. 79. (2007) Natural 5.8 million t/day Gas 0.9 kg/day 27 x / daySource: BP - Statistical Review 2008 (if liquid)
  80. 80. (2007) Coal 17.7 million t/day 2.6 kg/day 41 x / daySource: BP - Statistical Review 2008
  81. 81. (2007) Uranium (U) 67000 t/year 10 g/year 1x / 6.4 yearSource: Energy Watch Group - Paper 01/2006
  82. 82. Try to imagine ... (2007) 23 x / day 93 x / day
  83. 83. In one word ... (2007) 1.6 kg/day 0.9 kg/day1.5 kg/day 2.6 kg/day 10 g/year 100 W 2100 W 5.1 kg/day
  84. 84. And for different countries ?
  85. 85. Non-Renewable Fuels in kg/day ... (2007) 34 million t/day 5.1 kg/day 23.6 kg/day 15.4 11.6 kg/day kg/day 6.4 kg/day 2.0 1.4 kg/day kg/day BR USA CN IN DE NLSource: BP - Statistical Review 2008
  86. 86. Non-Renewable Fuels in W ... (2007) 13.8 TW 2100 W 10.2 kW 7.4 kW 4.9 kW 1.8 kW 0.9 kW 0.4 kW BR USA CN IN DE NLSource: BP - Statistical Review 2008
  87. 87. What about our reserves ofnon-renewable fuels ? ? ? ? ?
  88. 88. Official Proven Reserves at (2007) constant production 131 year 80 year 76 year 60 year 43 year + + + = TotalSource: BP - Statistical Review 2008; Energy Watch Group - Paper 01/2006
  89. 89. Does we still have 76 years without worries? 40 35 30 25 20 15 ? 10 5 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
  90. 90. No ... 40 35 30 25 ? 20 ? 15 Oil 10 Gas 5 Coal U RE 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
  91. 91. Maybe switch to coal ... 40 35 30 25 ? 20 15 Oil 10 Gas 5 Coal U 0 RE 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
  92. 92. Maybe switch directly to new sources ... 40 35 30 25 20 15 Oil 10 Gas 5 Coal U RE 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
  93. 93. But it takes time to switch ... 40 35 30 25 20 15 Oil 10 Gas 5 Coal U RE 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
  94. 94. Demand will increase ... 40 = 3.4 kW ? 35 30 25 IEA-2006 20 15 Oil 10 Gas 5 Coal U RE 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
  95. 95. This is the Energy Problem !

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