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B&B channel partner event ethernet intro - shane duffy

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Ethernet intro

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B&B channel partner event ethernet intro - shane duffy

  1. 1. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011
  2. 2. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Ethernet Introduction Shane Duffy Product Development EngineerProduct Manager
  3. 3. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Agenda
  4. 4. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • A network is defined as an interconnection of computing devices • Network types – Personal Area Network (PAN) – Local Area Network (LAN) – Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) – Wide Area Network (WAN) Ethernet Introduction The Basics
  5. 5. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Ethernet defines the wiring and signalling standards for the Physical Layer. – Network access at the Media Access Control(MAC)/Data link Layer – Common addressing format Transmission Media Cat5e/Cat6 twisted pairs Single Mode / Multi Mode fibre Ethernet Introduction What is Ethernet
  6. 6. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 www.ieee.org “Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, international non-profit, professional organisation for the advancement of technology related to electricity” IEE Standards affect a wide range of industries including: Information Technology Telecommunications Biomedical & Healthcare Transportation Power & Energy Active portfolio of 1300 standards and projects under development. •IEEE 802: LAN/MAN group of standards which includes the –IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard –IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networking standard Ethernet Introduction IEEE Standards – IEEE 802
  7. 7. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Ethernet Introduction Cabling  Coaxial cable  Unshielded twisted pair  Fiber optic
  8. 8. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Ethernet Introduction Cabling Categories Category 1 Voice only (Telephone) Category 2 Data to 4 Mbps Category 3 Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet) Category 4 Data to 20 Mbps (Token ring) Category 5 Category 5e Data to 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet) Data to 1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) Category 6 Category 6a Data to 2500 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) Data to 10000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet)
  9. 9. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Ethernet Introduction Cabling – RJ45 Connectors RJ45 Crimp RJ45 Crimping tool Note 1 - Pair 1 and 4 are not used for 10Mb or 100Mb but are used for 1Gb and 10Gb Ethernet Note 2 - Power Over Ethernet (PoE) Mid Span uses pair 1 and 4 to deliver 48vdc to power connected devices instead of running separate power to the device. PoE End Span uses the pairs 2 and 3 (Active Pair)
  10. 10. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Ethernet Introduction Cabling – Fibre Connectors
  11. 11. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IEEE Standards – IEEE 802 SC ST LC
  12. 12. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing OSI Model
  13. 13. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing OSI Model ApplicationApplication TransportTransport NetworkNetwork LinkLink OSI ModelOSI Model TCP/IPTCP/IP ProtocolsProtocols HTTPHTTP SMTPSMTP POP3POP3 FTPFTP …… TCPTCP UDPUDP IPIP ETHERNETETHERNET PPPPPP …… Link Layer : includes device driver and network interface card Network Layer : handles the movement of packets, i.e. Routing Transport Layer : provides a reliable flow of data between two hosts Application Layer : handles the details of the particular application
  14. 14. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Data is sent down the protocol stack • Each layer will at to the packet by prepending headers ApplicationApplication TransportTransport NetworkNetwork LinkLink DataData DataDataTCP/UDP header TCP/UDP header DataDataTCP/UDP header TCP/UDP header IP header IP header DataDataTCP/UDP header TCP/UDP header IP header IP header Frame header Frame header Frame trailer Frame trailer Addressing Protocol Stack Application Data TCP segment / UDP packet IP Datagram 22Bytes 20Bytes 20Bytes 4Bytes 64 to 1500 BytesPhysicalPhysical Network Frame
  15. 15. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Layer 2 communication – Computer <-> Computer on same network – Each device has unique MAC address (48 bits) • 00:0E:BE:12:D4:0E Addressing Layer 2 Addressing 00 0E BE 12 D4 0E 48 BITS 24 BITS ORGANIZATIONALLY UNIQUE IDENTIFIER (OUI) 24 BITS UNIQUE DEVICE ID
  16. 16. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • ARP – Address Resolution Protocol – Low level network protocol – Layer 2 OSI Model – Used by Internet Protocol (IP) to map IP network address to the hardware address used by the data link protocol Addressing ARP
  17. 17. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • ARP Request • ARP Reply • Broadcast ARP – To all machines on LAN FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF • Who has 192.168.0.12? – Device with 192.168.0.12 will reply • Its me, 00:0E:BE:12:D4:0E • ARP Cache stores list of mappings Addressing ARP Messaging
  18. 18. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IPv4 Addressing • 32-bit number in “dotted-quad” notation – www.bb-elec.com --- 174.143.40.161 10101110 10001111 0101000 10100001 Network (16 bits) Host (16 bits) 174 143 40 161 • Problem: 232 addresses is a lot of table entries 4,294,967,296 • Solution: Routing based on network and host – 174.143.0.0/16 is a 16-bit prefix with 216 IP addresses
  19. 19. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IPv4 Classful subnetting Network ID Host ID 8 16 Class A 32 0 Class B 10 Class C 110 24 /8 blocks (e.g., MIT has 18.0.0.0/8) /16 blocks (e.g., Georgia Tech has 130.207.0.0/16) /24 blocks (e.g., AT&T Labs has 192.20.225.0/24)
  20. 20. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IPv4 Solutions to routing table growth • Get rid of global addresses – NAT • Get more addresses – IPv6 • Change route aggregation strategies – Classless Interdomain routing
  21. 21. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IPv4 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) IP Address: 209.85.128.5 “Mask”: 255.255.128.0 11010001 01010101 10000000 00000101 11111111 11111111 10000000 00000000 Use two 32-bit numbers to represent a network. Network number = IP address + Mask Example: Google Prefix: 209.85.128.0/17 Address no longer specifies network ID range. New forwarding trick: Longest Prefix Match
  22. 22. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing CIDR aggregation • Efficiency: Can allocate blocks of prefixes on a finer granularity • Hierarchy: Prefixes can be aggregated into supernets. (Not always done. Typically not, in fact.) Customer 1 Customer 2 Colt Telecom Internet 12.20.249.0/24 12.20.231.0/24 12.0.0.0/8
  23. 23. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • 32bit to 128bit Addressing – IPv4  IPv6 • 4,294,967,296  340,282,366,920,938,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000 • Easy address auto-configuration • Ability to deploy end-to-end IPsec (NATs no longer needed) Addressing IPv4 to IPv6
  24. 24. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IPv4 to IPv6 • 128-bit addresses – Top 48-bits: Public Routing Topology (PRT) • 3 bits for aggregation • 13 bits for TLA (like “tier-1 ISPs”) • 8 reserved bits • 24 bits for NLA – 16-bit Site Identifier: aggregation within an AS – 64-bit Interface ID: 48-bit Ethernet + 16 more bits – Pure provider-based addressing • Changing ISPs requires renumbering
  25. 25. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Addressing IPv6 IP Service IPv4 Solution IPv6 Solution Mobile IP with Direct Routing DHCP Mobile IP IGMP/PIM/Multicast BGP IP Multicast MLD/PIM/Multicast BGP,Scope Identifier Mobility Autoconfiguration Serverless, Reconfiguration, DHCP 32-bit, Network Address Translation 128-bit, Multiple Scopes Addressing Range Quality-of-Service Differentiated Service, Integrated Service Differentiated Service, Integrated Service Security IPSec Mandated, works End-to-End IPSec
  26. 26. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Where is IPv6 now? – Tick the box excersise for sales • World IPv6 Day. 8th June 2011 • Comcast • Google • Yahoo • Facebook • Youtube • Akamai • Microsoft Bing • AOL • Cisco • Mastercard • BBC Addressing IPv6 There were more than 400 participants included some of the biggest destinations on the Internet, CDNs, ISPs, Large content providers.
  27. 27. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – Standard protocol – Defined by RFC 1541 (Superseded by RFC 2131) – Created by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • Runs over UDP – Port 67 – Connections to Server – Port 68 – Connections to Client – Uses client-server model Services DHCP
  28. 28. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • DHCP Server has address pool of available addressess • Client initiates interaction with DHCPDISCOVER • Server returns DHCPOFFER • Client confirms with DHCPREQUEST • ACK , NAK, DECLINE, RELEASE Services DHCP
  29. 29. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • DHCP gives the device – IP Address and Subnet Mask – Gateway Address – DNS servers – NTP (Time Sync) – ++ More options Services DHCP
  30. 30. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • www.bb-elec.com  174.143.40.161 • Provides mapping from ASCII domain names to IP addresses – Hierarchical naming system. – The set of names is divided into mutually exclusive parts. • Supplies mechanism for global data storage and information retrieval. • Most important principles: – Distributed system – set of servers sharing information. – Efficiency - most of the requests resolved by local servers. • Use of Caching. – Reliability – works even if some of the servers fail. Services DNS
  31. 31. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Services DNS root orgcom gov net bb-elecibm www mail
  32. 32. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • SD-MacBook-Pro:~ ShaneDuffy$ dig www.bb-elec.com • ; <<>> DiG 9.6.0-APPLE-P2 <<>> www.bb-elec.com • ;; QUESTION SECTION: • ;www.bb-elec.com. IN A • ;; ANSWER SECTION: • www.bb-elec.com. 900 IN A 174.143.40.161 • ;; Query time: 2208 msec • ;; SERVER: 192.168.1.1#53(192.168.1.1) • ;; WHEN: Thu Jun 16 09:07:46 2011 • ;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 49 Services DNS
  33. 33. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • The resolver sends a DNS request message over UDP to a local domain name server. • DNS caches store data for a short time defined by TTL on the Record. • When a name server does not have the requested information, it starts at longest match on query name it has when looking for data. • The root server knows the IP address of each second-level domain name server. • Every server knows how to reach servers that are authorities for names further down the hierarchy. • The resolver follows delegations until it receives an answer. Services DNS
  34. 34. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Private Address Space – 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 /24 256 – 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 /16 16 – 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 /8 1 – 127.0.0.0/8 • RFC 1918 • Network Address Translation – Static and Dynamic • Port Address Translation Services NAT
  35. 35. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Services NAT  Static NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mapping of local and global addresses.  Dynamic NAT is designed to map a private IP address to a public address.
  36. 36. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Services NAT  PAT uses unique source port numbers on the inside global IP address to distinguish between translations.
  37. 37. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • NAT can be static or dynamic • Uses a set of predefined private addresses • Conserves legal IPv4 addresses • NAT plus PAT often used • PAT uses unique source port numbers on the inside global IP address to distinguish between translations • Provides a level of security Services NAT
  38. 38. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Hub • Switch • Router • Bridge • Gateway (Protocols) • Firewalls Infrastructure Devices Device types
  39. 39. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Layer 2 – Physical Topology – Physical – Topology – STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) – VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) • Layer 3 – Logical Topology – Routing Redundancy in network design Device types
  40. 40. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Routing – External • BGP • IS-IS – Internal • OSPF • IS-IS • RIP Wide Area Networks Routing
  41. 41. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Virtual Private Networks (VPN) – SSL – PPTP – L2TP – IPSec Wide Area Networks Virtual Private Networks LAN LAN Internet
  42. 42. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • ARP • PING • TRACEROUTE • TELNET • NSLOOKUP / DIG • WHOIS • WIRESHARK Tools & Trouble Shooting Tools
  43. 43. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • Are hosts online? (ping) • How do you get to hosts? (traceroute) • What are hosts running? (nmap, angryip) • “The network is slow” (Netspeed, iperf) • DHCP and DNS (nslookup/dig) • Packet sniffing (wireshark) Tools & Trouble Shooting Trouble Shooting
  44. 44. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • 3G Router & VPN Applications Remote CCTV Monitoring Remote CCTV Monitoring Station Internet
  45. 45. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 Training Where Next To infinity and beyond! Thank you!
  46. 46. Channel Partner Event Galway, Ireland June 16th/17th 2011 • CompTIA Network+ • Talk to your B&B Electronics contacts we have a wide range of knowledge. • We can also deliver more training if required. Training Further Training

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