Globalization, Internationalization and the Knowledge Society


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  • Globalization, Internationalization and the Knowledge Society

    1. 1. THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: GLOBALISATION AND THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Internationalisation, Globalisation and the Knowledge Economy Peter Maassen; 8 October 2007
    2. 2. A Knowledge Economy? <ul><li>An economy where success is determined more by knowledge than by labour and capital. Knowledge has become the third factor of production in leading economies. (Romer, 1986; 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>For countries in the vanguard of the world economy, the balance between knowledge and resources has shifted so far towards the former that knowledge has become perhaps the most important factor determining the standard of living - more than land, than tools, than labour. Today's most technologically advanced economies are truly knowledge-based (World Development Report, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Economies that are directly based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information (OECD, The Knowledge Based Economy, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>An economy that makes effective use of knowledge for its economic and social development. This includes tapping foreign knowledge as well as adapting and creating knowledge for its specific needs (World Bank) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Knowledge Economy Index (WB) 83 variables, including: <ul><li>Innovation system </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers in R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Manuf. Trade as % of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Scient. & Tech. Pub. p. mil/people </li></ul><ul><li>Education and human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Adult literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Average years of schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Enrollment </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Enrollment </li></ul><ul><li>ICT Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. Lines per 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Computers per 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Internet hosts per 10,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Economics: </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff & Non-tariff barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Property Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul>
    4. 4. Knowledge Economy Index (WB)
    5. 5. Knowledge Economy Index (WB) Economics Innovation Education ICT Infrastructure <ul><li>Researchers in R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Manuf. Trade as % of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Scient. & Tech. Pub. per </li></ul><ul><li>million people </li></ul><ul><li>Adult literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Enrollment </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Enrollment </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. Lines per 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Computers per 1000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Internet hosts per 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff & Non-tariff barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Property Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul>
    6. 6. Knowledge economy index Tertiary education enrollment Knowledge Economy and Higher education
    7. 7. Globalisation index 2004 (
    8. 8. Knowledge Economy, GDP & Globalisation Knowledge Economy Index & GDP Globalisation Index Iran 62 India 61 Egypt 60 Indonesia 59 Venezuela 58 China 57 Bangladesh 56 Turkey 55 Kenya 54 Denmark 10 Austria 9 New Zealand 8 United States 7 Canada 6 Finland 5 Netherlands 4 Switzerland 3 Singapore 2 Ireland 1 Country Rank
    9. 9. <ul><li>Knowledge (information) becomes the determinant for global competitiveness  global competitiveness becomes the determinant in the global economy (Cerny, Castells) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in knowledge formation from national into global space? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globalisation of science-based innovation industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demilitarisation of high tech companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global growth of information and communication technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>International division of (knowledge) labour </li></ul>The Knowledge Economy & Globalisation (1)
    10. 10. Based on: Salmi, 2002 The Knowledge Economy & Globalisation (2) <ul><li>Growing brain drain and loss of advanced human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Easier access to expertise, skills and knowledge embedded in professionals </li></ul>Global labour market <ul><li>Growing digital divide among and within nations </li></ul><ul><li>Easier access to knowledge and information </li></ul>ICT revolution <ul><li>Increasing knowledge gap between nations </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of leapfrogging in selected areas of economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution of social problems (food security, health, water supply, energy, environment) </li></ul>Growing role of knowledge THREATS OPPORTUNITIES CHANGE FACTOR
    11. 11. Globalisation <ul><li>Academic Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Political/Public Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation & Higher Education: preview </li></ul>
    12. 12. The academic debate <ul><li>The globalisation sceptics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing really new is happening: world-wide system of nation states already came into being in the ‘ belle époque ’ of globalisation: 1890-1914 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation of the economy is still predominantly national </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What we experience is internationalisation: growing links between discrete national economies or societies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The hyperglobalisers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The erosion of national sovereignty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We are experiencing the end of the nation-state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One world, shaped by flows, movements and networks across regions and continents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The transformationalists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profound changes are taking place in societies around the world in social values, institutions, and practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>states take on new roles and act in a different context </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The academic debate (2) Globalisation is transforming state power and world politics. Internationalization relies on the support and acquiescence of states  The Nation-state is history Central argument Who knows? Global fragmentation and integration. Regional blocs/clash of Civilizations Global civilization Historical trajectory Reordering of interregional relations Internationalization and regionalization. As a reordering framework of human action.  Conceptualisation of globalisation? It's changing: reconstituted and restructured Reinforced and enhanced Declining and eroding The fate of the nation-state? Messy: combined forces of modernity States and markets Capitalism and technology Driving force of globalisation &quot;Thick&quot; globalization. Interconnectedness is more intense (within economic sectors) and more extensive (across regions) World less interdependent than in 1890s. MNCs not TNCs. Global capitalism; elimination of geography; global culture; global civil society Dominant features of the global economy Historically unprecedented levels of global interconnectedness Relatively little; new trading blocs; weaker supra-national governance than earlier periods A global age What's is new? TRANSFORMATIONALISTS (Held et al.; Cerny) SCEPTICS (Hirst and Thompson) HYPERGLOBALISTS (Kenichi Ohmae)
    14. 14. The normative-political debate <ul><li>Anti-globalists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely diversified coalition: no real agenda, only anti-agenda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successful since Seattle 1999 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position: globalisation as a ‘neo-liberal project’ and destructive to endemic cultures and the poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position: free trade benefits all (although not in an equal way) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current crises are due to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade barriers in rich countries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Import substitution strategies in (some) poor countries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undemocratic and corrupt regimes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finding new forms of global governance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fair globalisation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Themes Cosmopolitanisation Social organisation and identity structured around a-spatial systems Nation as the institutional container of society: Identity, solidarity and citizenship based on nationality; social concept (end of nationality) Homogenisation (or polarisation) Melange of cultures; existing in harmony or friction Mosaic of cultures without significant routes for cross-cultural exchange cultural concept (end of diversity) Deterritorialisation Authority transferred upward, downward and sideways State sovereignty over clearly defined territories concept of authority (end of territoriality) Increasing interconnectedness The world-system that came into existence around 1900. Unconnected localities. geographical concept ( end of geography) Globalisation equals: New realities: Past realities: Transformation:
    16. 16. What is globalisation? <ul><li>Process of social transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, generating transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power (Held: 1999). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A process in which social arrangements (e.g. power, markets, cultures) become disembedded from their territorial context due to the intensification and massification of flows of people, finance, products, services, information and ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But also …. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What is globalisation? <ul><li>Globalisation is the process in which basic social arrangements (like power, culture, markets, politics, rights, values, norms, ideology, identity, citizenship, solidarity) become detached from their spatial context (mainly the nation-state) due to the acceleration, massification, flexibilisation, diffusion and expansion of transnational flows of people, products, finance, images and information. </li></ul><ul><li>The process contains features which are inextricably related to the process: an inner logic (it’s a self-reinforcing process), a global-local nexus (it’s a self-mitigating process due to local reactions on globalisation) and the perils of exclusion (it includes as well as excludes social entities) </li></ul><ul><li>It is multidimensional but not uniform : various social arrangements ‘globalise’ in different ways and some social arrangements are more easily ‘detached’ than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Its actions and re-actions can be cross-sectoral : flows in one sector impinge upon social arrangements in other sectors and vice-versa. The result is that globalisation in one sector can provoke globalisation of another sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Global is different from international both in the sense that it is an integrated whole (instead of an interconnected) and in the sense that it has expanded towards a world-wide scale . </li></ul>Essential elements in the concept of globalisation
    18. 18.  various social arrangements ‘globalise’ in different ways and some social arrangements are more easily ‘detached’ than others. A paradox? 
    19. 19. Themes (2) Increased Interconnectedness Deterritorialisation Homogenisation Comspolitanisation Isolation/Protection Polarisation/ Diversification (Extreme) Nationalism G l o b a l i s a t i o n
    20. 20. Themes (3) Increased internet connections Less government control on information provision Spread of the use of English Increased interest for international developments Isolation through censorship Language policies protecting national & local languages Renewed interest for local relations / fear for alienation G l o b a l i s a t i o n
    21. 21. Themes (4) Increased migration Decreased control on population growth/composition Spread and absorption of other cultures/diaspora Emergence of multicultural society Barriers to immigration Awareness (and protection?) of own national cultures and religions Xenofobia / Increased protection of nationals G l o b a l i s a t i o n
    22. 22. Globalisation and Higher Education A Preview The identity of the university and higher education sectors Cosmopolitanisation Threats to diversity and the rationality of standardisation Convergence Shifts in governance of higher education Deterritorialisation Linkages, connections and flows in higher education Increasing interconnectedness Globalisation and Higher Education: Globalisation: