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Conditions under which higher education operates: International conditions


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This lecture discusses the conditions under which higher education operates and the growing importance, from a regulatory and funding perspective, of the international (supra-national, global) dimensions in higher education. The presenter explains what is meant by internationalization/globalization/Europeanization of higher education and the main aspects of these concepts.

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Conditions under which higher education operates: International conditions

  1. 1. Hodda Nng| I~. ‘t eduta: undvvr| uJl1Iu. assuialion Unit 3 Conditions under which HE operates: International conditions HEEM/ MPhil in Higher Education Peter Maassen Introductory semester, Unit 3, lecture 1 Oslo, 24 September 2007
  2. 2. t-! d d a ll '. "I-' ~du: x ‘: ';~-lwnlv HlIt‘| ll1'l| Conditions under which higher education operates: Analytical levels: - Global - Intemational - Supranational - Regional (intemational) - National - Regional (intra-national) - Inter-institutional - Institutional - Intra-institutional - Individual
  3. 3. Hodda llI? II~. ’lHlU(dIllndl*Vrl| lLJl1|! I.di§[lilll')ll International conditions: Discussion of the growing importance of the intemational dimension in higher education Starting-point: The developments that have led to the growing importance of the intemational dimension in higher education. What is meant by the main terms, such as internationalization and globalization of HE?
  4. 4. Ilodda llnell-. >r slum un dvvrlupnm. muiali-in Literature: 3. Maassen, P. and N. Cloete (2005) Global Reform Trends in Iligher Education. 4. Cerych, L. (2002) Sorbonne, Bologna, Prague: Where do we go from here? 5. Scott, P. (1998) Massification, Internationalization and Globalization. 6. Barrow, C. W. et al (2003) Chapter 1. Globalization, Trade Liberalization, and Higher Education in North America.
  5. 5. H('addd llIl, 'II~. ’l time; in drvrlwnm. di$l'llIll')Il 1. Shifting focus of HE Systems. From inter-territorial to national. From national to international and global. 2. Global: Trade in Higher Education (WTO/ Gats) 3. Old versus new internationalization 4. Supranational developments: Esp. European integration
  6. 6. H('addd llI? II'. ‘l eduia: lIndI'VrlIJ)l1I! I. assuialion The conditions under which HE operates Originally inter-territorial: direct relationship between universities and environment (either church or local authorities), as well as between university teachers and students. Students move from territory to territory
  7. 7. H('addd llI? II'. ‘l eduia: lIndI'VrlIJ)l1I! I. assuialion The conditions under which HE operates Since early 19th Century: in various forms European state takes over the regulatory and funding responsibilities with respect to HE, thereby creating the conditions under which HE must operate. Higher education national institution. Only after 1945 growing political importance of international dimension
  8. 8. I I I _ "I (I ll U H «_»'I= ~ ~ «Inn t‘.1i| (‘| lII'l| The conditions under which HE operates Since end 20th Century: withdrawal of the state? In USA and Australia in the form of reduced public funding, however, no reduction of state regulation. In other parts of the world continuous high level of public funding, however, regulatory framework becomes ‘less dense’. Internationalisation and globalisation become buzzwords.
  9. 9. H('addd llI? lI~. ‘l eduia: In dmluinm. assuiui-in Growing and diversifying demand for HE ° Demographic change ° Knowledge economy ° Development and transition countries ° Increasing & widening access (EFA; secondary education) ° Diversification
  10. 10. H('addd llI? II'. ‘l Iduia: In III-vrlwnuu. assuialion Globalisation: three perspectives The globalisation sceptics: 2. Nothing really new is happening: world-wide system of nation states already came into being in the ‘belle époque’ of globalisation: 1890-1914 2. Organisation of the economy is still predominantly national 3. What we experience is intemationalisation: growing links between discrete national economies or societies
  11. 11. 2-! dd 0 ll I3’: -w . » llllll‘ Hill ‘lidll Globalisation: three perspectives (continued) The hyperglobalisers 1. The erosion of national sovereignty 2. We are experiencing the end of the nation-state 3. One world, shaped by flows, movements and networks across regions and continents The transformationalists 8. Profound changes are taking place in societies around the world in social values, institutions, practices 2. States take on new roles and act in a different context
  12. 12. H('addd llI? II'. ‘l Iduia: In III-vrlwnuu. assuialion Key issues (from the globalisation debate): ' Flows, networks and ICT ° Changing role of the nation state: deregulation, privatisation and liberalisation ° Convergence and/ or divergence ' Role of stakeholders (incl. anti-globalists)
  13. 13. |l(9ddd llnqlm slum: In dvvrlupnm. assuiali-in Normative-Political debate Anti—globalists: ' Extremely diversified coalition: no real agenda, only anti-agenda ° Very successful since Seattle 1999 ° Position: globalisation as a ‘neo-liberal project’ and destructive to cndcmic cultures and the poor
  14. 14. I I _ "I (I ll 0 ll 9'1-"I I ‘ Milt ‘llrlll Globalists: Position: free trade benefits all (although not in an equal way) Current crises are due to: - Trade barriers in rich countries - Import substitution strategies in (some) poor countries - Undemocratic and corrupt regimes
  15. 15. H('addd llueli-rt t'£lU(dL In dI'vr| II)nItI. assuiuion Challenges: - Finding new forms of global governance - Fair globalisation
  16. 16. H('addd llI? II'. ‘l Iduia: In III-vrlwnuu. assuialion Trade Agreements: Regional and Global What is WTO/ GATS? ° What Services are covered by GATS? ° Which laws are covered by GATS? ° How can services be traded‘? - Consumption abroad - Cross-border supply - Commercial presence - Presence of natural persons
  17. 17. Hloddd | lII, zlI~: I eduu: In drvrlupnm. assuialion Internationalisation: Increasing interconnectedness of national education systems (activities) without the boundaries between them or the authority of national governments over these systems being brought into question
  18. 18. J I I g I (I ll 0 ll I3'I-'~ Hill ‘lldll Old Internationalization Versus New Internationalization
  19. 19. H('addd llII, z|I~: I eduia: In dvvrlwnuu. assuialion Europeanisation of HE What is ’Europe’? Bologna Process: harmonisation of HE structures Lisbon Agenda: harmonisation of (aot) HE policies