Qadr or Predestination in Islam

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Qadr or Predestination in Islam

  1. 1.  RuhSurah Al-Isra, Verse 85 :: And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, "The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little." AqlThis is the intellect & rationale BadanSurah al-Araf, Verse 12 :: [Allah] said, "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" [Satan] said, "I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay."
  2. 2. Sahih Muslim Book 001, Number 0001:One day we were sitting in the company of Allahs Apostle (peace be upon him) when there appeared beforeus a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travelon him. None amongst us recognized him.At last he sat with the Apostle (peace be upon him) He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighsand said: Muhammad, inform me about al-Islam. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and you Performed by Badan establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) the journey. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth. He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith). He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Performed by Intellect Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (the inquirer) again said: Inform me about al-Ihsan (performance of good Performed by Soul deeds). He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you dont see Him, He, verily, sees you.
  3. 3. Statement :: Tawheed of Belief Statement of the Heart Statement of the TongueAction :: Tawheed of Action Heart Emotion Tongue Read Quran Dawah Zikr Limbs Salah
  4. 4. Sahih International: Indeed, all things We created with predestination. [ Surah al-Qamar 54, Ayat 49 ]Sahih International: And there is not a thing but that with Us are its depositories, and We do not send it down except according to a known measure. [ Surah al-Hijr 15, Ayat 21 ]Sahih International: And We have sent down rain from the sky in a measured amount and settled it in the earth. And indeed, We are Able to take it away. [ Surah al-Muminun 23, Ayat 18 ]Sahih International: It is He who created you from clay and then decreed a term and a specified time [known] to Him; then [still] you are in dispute. [ Surah al-Anam 6, Ayat 2 ]
  5. 5.  Hadith - Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, Narrated Aisha :: I heard Allahs Messenger (saw) saying: He who discusses about the Divine Decree (al-Qadr) will be answerable for it on the Day of Resurrection and he who observes silence about it, will not be answerable for it.
  6. 6.  Al-Qadar  It is Allah’s complete knowledge, Writing in the Safe Tablet, and Willing of all things before their existence. Al-Qada  It is Allah’s creation of all things by His Command & Will.  The Asha’irah’s define Al-Qada with the definition of Al- Qadar, and vice-versa.  Some scholars said that there is no difference between the meanings of the two words Al-Qada and Al-Qadar.  The phrase Al-Qada qal-Qadar was not mentioned as such in the Quran or Sunnah, and was not used by the Salaf As Salih (first three Msulim generations). However, it became common in the works of Ahl As-Sunnah later.
  7. 7. There have been two extreme groups in relation to their views on Al-Qadar.Al-Jabriyyah  Believed on no free will  Allah compels you to do it  Extreme to define Al-Qadar as absolute  This group went to extremes in affirming Al-QadarAl-Qadariyyah  This group evolved as a response to Al-Jabriyyah  They believed that we make it happen  They went to extreme in denying Al-Qadar
  8. 8. The Pillars of Al-Qadar Al-‘ILM Al-KITABAH ALLAH’S AL-KHALQ Allah’s The Writing MASHEE’AH The CreationKnowledge The Will of Allah
  9. 9.  Al-Ilm :: Allah’s Knowledge :: Allah’s knowledge encompasses everything. He knows what has occurred, what will occur and all that which has no occurred, and how that which has not occurred would be if it had occurred.  Sahih International: And those who believed after [the initial emigration] and emigrated and fought with you – they are of you. But those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of all things. [ Surah Al-Anfal 8, Ayat 75 ]  Sahih International: And *the example of+ Mary, the daughter of ‘Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We blew into [her garment] through Our angel, and she believed in the words of her Lord and His scriptures and was of the devoutly obedient. [Surah at-Tahrim 66, Ayat 12]  Sahih International: And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darkness of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record. [ Surah Al-Anam 6, Ayat 59 ]  Sahih International: If you could but see when they are made to stand before the Fire and will say, "Oh, would that we could be returned [to life on earth] and not deny the signs of our Lord and be among the believers." But what they concealed before has [now] appeared to them. And even if they were returned, they would return to that which they were forbidden; and indeed, they are liars. [ Surah Al-Anam 6, Ayat 27 - 28 ]
  10. 10.  Al-Kitabah :: The Writing  Fifty thousand years before the Creation of the heavens and the earth.  Al-Kitabah means that Allah wrote everything He knew about the creation. He has written what He says and what He does and all that comes to existence due to His actions and sayings. All is written with the pen ( Al Qalam ) in Umm Al-Kitaab ( The Mother of All Books ) also known as Al- Lauh Al-Mahfoodh ( The Preserved Tablet )  Sahih International: Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Record. Indeed that, for Allah, is easy. [ Surah al-Hajj 22, Ayat 70 ]  Sahih International: And it is not [possible] for one to die except by permission of Allah at a decree determined. And whoever desires the reward of this world – We will give him thereof; and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter – We will give him thereof. And we will reward the grateful. [ Surah al-Imran 3, Ayat 145 ]
  11. 11.  Al-Kitabah :: The Writing  Abdullah b. Amr b. al-As reported: I heard Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah ordained the measures (of quality) of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as His Throne was upon water. [ Muslim ]  Narrated Abee Hafsah: Ubaadah bin Saamit said to his son: "Oh son! You shall not get the true sense of eemaan (faith) until you know that what has befallen you was not going to miss you and what missed you was not going to befall upon you. I heard the Prophet (saw) saying :: "As soon as Allah created the pen, he commanded it saying: “Write!” It said: "what should I write my Lord?" Allah said: "Write the record of all things to happen till the establishment of the Hour". Oh my son I have heard Allahs Messenger (saw) saying: "He who dies believing other than this is not from me"(i.e. is not upon the Prophet’s belief) [ Abu Dawud ]
  12. 12. Allah’s Mashee’ah :: The Will of Allah  It is the belief that Allah has willed everything that goes on in the universe. Whatever He willed will occur and whatever He did not will, will not occur.  Sahih International: And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differ. [ Surah maidah 5, Ayat 48 ]  Sahih International: Say, “O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent. [ Surah al- Imran 3, Ayat 26 ]
  13. 13.  Al-Khalaq :: The Creation  Allah is the sole Creator of everything including mans deeds. No single atom or higher element, static or in motion exists, but Allah has created it. Nothing takes place in this world except Allah has created it.  Sahih International: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs. [ Surah Al-Zumar 39, Ayat 62 ]  Sahih International: Say, "Who is Lord of the heavens and earth?" Say, "Allah." Say, "Have you then taken besides Him allies not possessing [even] for themselves any benefit or any harm?" Say, "Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Or is darkness equivalent to light? Or have they attributed to Allah partners who created like His creation so that the creation [of each] seemed similar to them?" Say, "Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Prevailing." [ Surah Rad 13, Ayat 16 ]  Sahih International: His command is only when He intends a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is. [ Surah Ya-Sin 36, Ayat 82 ]
  14. 14.  All creation falls under one of two categories 1. Good – alkhayr / alhasanah 2. Bad – ashsharr / as-sayyi’ah  Sahih International: Wherever you may be, death will overtake you, even if you should be within towers of lofty construction. But if good comes to them, they say, "This is from Allah"; and if evil befalls them, they say, "This is from you." Say, "All [things] are from Allah." So what is [the matter] with those people that they can hardly understand any statement ? What comes to you of good is from Allah, but what comes to you of evil, [O man], is from yourself. And We have sent you, [O Muhammad], to the people as a messenger, and sufficient is Allah as Witness. [ Surah an-Nisa 4, Ayat 78 - 79 ]  It is undisputed among scholars that all good is attributed to Allah. Difference is in regards to whether bad can be attributed to Allah or not
  15. 15. The belief of Ahl As-Sunnah is ::  We cannot generalize a statement affirming or negating that Allah wills bad specifically to exist  We cannot attribute evil to Allah, not as a Name, Action or Quality  To what is evil attributed in the Quran ?  General statements affirm Allah as Creator of All things o Sahih International: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs. [ Surah az-Zumar 39, Ayat 62 ]  The act of evil mentioned in the passive voice o Sahih International: And we do not know [therefore] whether evil is intended for those on earth or whether their Lord intends for them a right course. [ Surah al-Jin 72, Ayat 10 ]  It is mentioned as an act of one of His creation o Sahih International: As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working at sea. So I intended to cause defect in it as there was after them a king who seized every [good] ship by force. [ Surah al-Kahf 18, Ayat 79 ]  The Quran refers to the thing that the evil befell o Sahih International: From the evil of that which He created [Surah al-Falaq 113, Ayat ]
  16. 16.  Test & Trial  Sahih International: Alif, Lam, Meem. Do the people think that they will be left to say, “We believe” and they will not be tried ? [Surah Ankabut 29, Ayat 1 – 2]  Sahih International: And We will surely test you with something of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth and lives and fruits, but give good tidings to the patient, [ Surah al-Baqarah 2, Ayat 155 ]  Sahih International: Allah would not leave the believers in that [state] you are in [presently] until He separates the evil from the good. Nor would Allah reveal to you the unseen. But [instead], Allah chooses of His messengers whom He wills, so believe in Allah and His messengers. And if you believe and fear Him, then for you is a great reward. [ Surah Ali Imran 3, Ayat 179 ]
  17. 17.  Tarbiah & Ta’deeb  Sahih International: Allah has already given you victory in many regions and [even] on the day of Hunayn, when your great number pleased you, but it did not avail you at all, and the earth was confining for you with its vastness; then you turned back, fleeing. [ Surah Tawbah 9, Ayat 25 ] Prayer & turning to Allah  Sahih International: And We certainly seized the people of Pharaoh with years of famine and a deficiency in fruits that perhaps they would be reminded. [ Surah al-Araf 7, Ayat 130 ]  Sahih International: And indeed, for you in livestock is a lesson. We give you drink from that which is in their bellies, and for you in them are numerous benefits, and from them you eat. [ Surah al-Muminun 23, Ayat 21 ]
  18. 18.  Contemplation & Lesson from Calamities  Sahih International: And Allah presents an example: a city which was safe and secure, its provision coming to it in abundance from every location, but it denied the favors of Allah. So Allah made it taste the envelopment of hunger and fear for what they had been doing. [ Surah An-Nahl 16, Ayat 112 ]  Sahih International: And We have already destroyed what surrounds you of [those] cities, and We have diversified the signs [or verses] that perhaps they might return [from disbelief]. [ Surah al-Ahqaf 46, Ayat 27 ] Hastened Punishment  Sahih International: Paradise is not [obtained] by your wishful thinking nor by that of the People of the Scripture. Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper. [ Surah an-Nisa 4, Ayat 123 ]  Sahih International: And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.” [ Suta Taha 20, Ayat 124 ]
  19. 19.  Contemplation & Lesson from Calamities  Sahih International: And Allah presents an example: a city which was safe and secure, its provision coming to it in abundance from every location, but it denied the favors of Allah. So Allah made it taste the envelopment of hunger and fear for what they had been doing. [ Surah An-Nahl 16, Ayat 112 ]  Sahih International: And We have already destroyed what surrounds you of [those] cities, and We have diversified the signs [or verses] that perhaps they might return [from disbelief]. [ Surah al-Ahqaf 46, Ayat 27 ] Hastened Punishment  Sahih International: Paradise is not [obtained] by your wishful thinking nor by that of the People of the Scripture. Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper. [ Surah an-Nisa 4, Ayat 123 ]  Sahih International: And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.” [ Suta Taha 20, Ayat 124 ]
  20. 20.  Increase in rewards & raising of level in honor Purification & atonement Abu Huraira reported that when this verse was revealed:" Whoever does evil will be requited for it", and when this was conveyed to the Muslims they were greatly perturbed. Thereupon Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Be moderate and stand firm in trouble that falls to the lot of a Muslim (as that) is an expiation for him; even stumbling on the path or the prickin of a thorn (are an expiation for him). Muslim said that Umar b. Abd al- Rahman Muhaisin was from amongst the people of Mecca. [ Muslim ]
  21. 21.  There is no contradiction between religion & predestination. Sahih International: Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He covers the night with the day, [another night] chasing it rapidly; and [He created] the sun, the moon, and the stars, subjected by His command. Unquestionably, His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds. [ Surah al-Araf 7, Ayat 54 ]
  22. 22. Peace of mindYour concern is not so much with the past or future. Your main concern is your present actionsIt gives you the will power and determination to go forward in the way of Allah.It teaches you to be modest and humble.Leads to total dependence upon Allah. You take precautions, do as much as you can and then depend upon HimEliminates many bad characteristics, such as envy, miserliness, etcEstablishes good character traits such as generosity, bravery, etc

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