Management is essential in all organized
effort, be it business activity or any other
Management is the dynamic life giving
element in every organization. It is
management element that co-ordinate
current organizational activities & plan
Mary Parker Follet stated,
“Management is an art
of getting things done
Harold Koontz wrote,
“Management is an art of getting
things done through and with
people in formally
Henri Fayol defines,
“To manage is to forecast
and to plan, to organize,
to command, to co-ordinate
and to control.”
Art uses the known rules & principles and
skill, expertise, wisdom, experience to
achieve the desired result.
Relation between Art & Management:
(II) Personal Skill
Science is a collection of systematic
knowledge, collection of truths and
conclusion after continuous study and
Relation between Science & Management:
(I) Universally Accepted
(II) Cause-Effect Relationship
(III)Systematic Decision Making
Management has two faces like a coin; on one
side it is art and on the other it is science.
Management has got scientific principles which
constitute the elements of Science and Skills
and talent which are attributes of Art.
Levels of management are the convenient
platforms created managing the activities of
Normally, there are three levels,
(A) Top Level Management
(B) Middle Level Management
(C) Lower Level Management
CEO, other senior
executives, board of
directors and corporate
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
He has proposed that there are six primary
functions of management and 14 Principles
1. Division of labour
Work of all kinds must be divided & allotted
to various persons according to their expertise
in a particular area.
2. Authority & Responsibility
Authority refers to the right of superiors
to get exactness from their sub-ordinates.
Responsibility means obligation for the
performance of the job assigned.
3. Unity of Command
A sub-ordinate should receive orders and be
accountable to one and only one boss at a time.
4. Unity of Direction
People engaged in the same kind of business
or same kind of activities must have the same
objectives in a single plan.
The employees should be treated with
kindness & equity if devotion is expected of
This principle is concerned with proper &
systematic arrangement of things and people.
sincerity, obedience, respect of authority &
observance of rules & regulations of the
enterprise. Subordinate should respect their
superiors and obey their order.
Management should provide opportunity to
its employees to suggest ideas, experiences &
new method of work.
Remuneration to be paid to the workers
should be fair, reasonable, satisfactory &
rewarding to the efforts.
10. Stability of Tenure
The period of service in a job should be
11. Scalar Chain
Scalar chain is the chain of superiors
ranging from the ultimate authority to the
lowest. Communications should follow this
12. Sub-ordination of Interest
An organization is much bigger than the
individual it constitutes therefore interest of
the interest undertaking should prevail in all
13. Espirit De’ Corps
It refers to team spirit i.e. harmony in the
work groups and mutual understanding among
Centralization refers to the degree to
which subordinates are involved in decision
making. Whether decision making is centralized
(to management) or decentralized (to
subordinates) is a question of proper