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A Detailed Study on Battery Recycling
Programmes in other Countries.
By:
Lim Zhong Yan 0521170
Lin Shan 0514600
Tay Jing Y...
Overview
Battery Recycling Programmes in other
Countries.
 Importance of battery recycling
 Case study on programmes in ...
Classification of Batteries
Batteries
Primary Secondary
• Alkaline
Manganese
• Zinc Carbon
• Button
• Lead Acid
•Nickel Ca...
Primary Batteries
Alkaline Manganese
Primary Batteries (Cont’d)
Zinc Carbon
Primary Batteries (Cont’d)
Button cells
Secondary Batteries
Lead Acid
Secondary Batteries (Cont’d)
Nickel Cadmium
Secondary Batteries (Cont’d)
Nickel Metal Hydride
Secondary Batteries (Cont’d)
Lithium Ion
Demand for Primary Batteries
Demand for Secondary Batteries
Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
 Mercury
 Cadmium
 Lead
Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
Mercury
Dumping of mercury
compounds in Minamata
Bay, Japan, polluting the bay
in 19...
Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
Cadmium
 Cadmium is known to cause cancer
 Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes
c...
Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
Lead Acid Contamination
Haina, Dominican Republic
 Toxic fumes produced
were over th...
Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
Lead Acid Contamination
La Oroya, Peru
 Heavy lead mining and
smelting
 High risk o...
Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal
Lead Acid Contamination
La Oroya, Peru (cont’d)
 Report done in 1999
showed out of 1...
Exploration of countries
Deciding factors for choosing countries for case study:
 Impact
 Efforts
 Public awareness
 S...
Exploration of countries
There were other countries that also displayed
the factors mentioned but did not do so on a
large...
China
 Increased technological
advancements and higher standards
of living
 Produces 15 billion batteries a year
which a...
China
Lead Acid Batteries
 More than 50 million
waste lead-acid
batteries are recycled
annually in China
 About 140 thou...
China
Household Batteries
 Only 1 – 2% are recycled
 Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution
Prevention from Waste Batt...
China
Efforts
 In 2006, a campaign was launched to
promote the recycling of used batteries in the
Guangdong province of C...
China
Governmental Efforts
 In 2003, the State Environmental Protection Agency
(SEPA), together with nine other governmen...
China
Legislation
 “Law of the People’s Republic of China on
Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution to
the Envir...
China
Analysis
 Lack of Strong Governmental Support
 Lack of Public Awareness and Participation
 Lack of Proper Storage...
China
Conclusion
 A more enthusiastic and supportive
government would help greatly.
 Introduce a rigid legal system so
o...
USA
 Lead consumption alone by United States can reach
as high as 1.54 million tons of lead
 Americans throw away over 3...
USA
Legislation
 All rechargeable batteries have to bear a
symbol.
 California have the strictest legislation
directly a...
USA
RBRC
 Rechargeable Battery Recycling
Corporation (RBRC) is a non-profit, public
service organization
 Started in 199...
USA
RBRC’s program
USA
Analysis
 Stringent Legislation
 Weak Governmental support
 Strong Public Awareness and Participation
 Safe Recycl...
USA
Conclusion
 Stringent legislation and strong public
awareness contribute to USA’s successful
recycling campaign.
 Ma...
Belgium Case Study
Introduction
In Belgium, BEBAT is the company responsible
for collection and recycling of batteries
T...
Belgium Case Study
Introduction (Cont’d)
Graph showing BEBAT’s collection rate since they started in 1996
Belgium Case Study
Belgium’s Effort in Recycling
BEBAT was founded by the battery industry
in 1995 for the purpose of col...
Belgium Case Study
Governmental Efforts
EPBA (European Portable Battery Association)
was established in Belgium with cons...
Belgium Case Study
Legislation
 On 6 September 2006, there was a new directive of the
EU parliament and council on batter...
Belgium Case Study
Analysis
 Efficiency of collection network
 Strong governmental and retailer support
 Strong Environ...
Belgium Case Study
Conclusion
Belgium is considered to be one of the most
successful countries in battery recycling
Thei...
Australia
 Second waste country on earth
 Australians discard about 8,000 tons of used
batteries
 Municipal landfill si...
Australia
 Three lead acid battery plants operate within
Australia in SA, Queensland and NSW.
 Up to one third of Austra...
Australia
Cleanaway
 Cleanaway is Australia’s largest waste
management operator.
 In 2006, CleanAway introduced a new
ba...
Australia
Battery Back
 Started in June 2007
 A joint initiative of Sustainability Victoria,
UniRoss and CleanAway
 Har...
Australia
Legislation
 Few relevant legislation to back battery
recycling.
 Hazardous Waste Act was updated in 1996
for ...
Australia
Analysis
 Lack of Legislation
 Mild Environmental awareness and Public
participation
 Strong Australian Gover...
Australia
Conclusion
 Australia’s battery recycling programs are still
at a initial stage.
 Still room for improvement c...
Analysis
Countries
Governmental
Support
Public
Awareness
Recycling
Technique
Legislations
Storage and
Sorting
Facilities
U...
Analysis
Governmental Support
 Amount of effort poured
in by the country’s
government and
authorities for their
battery r...
Analysis
Governmental Support (Cont’d)
 Belgium’s government was the most supportive.
 They supported BEBAT by funding t...
Analysis
Governmental Support (Cont’d)
 China has the least support from the
government among the 4 countries.
 They do ...
Analysis
Public Awareness
Refers to the
amount of media
coverage given to
the environmental
concerns of
battery recycling.
Analysis
Public Awareness (cont’d)
 Belgium remains the best in public
awareness.
 Commercials broadcasted in mainstream...
Analysis
Public Awareness (cont’d)
 Australia has the least public awareness.
 There’s only two companies that recycle
b...
Analysis
Legislations
The laws that
govern the
country regarding
batteries and
batteries
recycling
Analysis
Legislations (cont’d)
 Belgium has the most stringent legislation to
date.
 European Union has set a minimum st...
Analysis
Legislations (cont’d)
 China currently do not have single unified law
to address batteries and their recycling
...
Analysis
Recycling Technique
 Refers ability
to collect and
recycle
batteries
efficiently with
safe and
advanced
technolo...
Analysis
Recycling Technique (Cont’d)
 None of the countries had a perfect recycling
technique.
 The difficulty of findi...
Analysis
Recycling Technique (Cont’d)
 Australia’s lead acid recycling
facilities do not fully comply to
the environmenta...
Analysis
Storage and Sorting Facilities
 The process and
storage, after
they are
collected and
before they are
recycled.
Analysis
Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)
 Belgium has the best storage and sorting
facilities.
 BEBAT’s sorting ...
Analysis
Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)
 China has an obvious
lack of proper storage
and sorting facility
 Batt...
Analysis
Conclusion
 USA and Belgium are leading countries in battery
recycling
 They each have non-profit organizations...
Factors that made Overseas
Recycling Programmes Feasible
 Supportive Government
 Effective Education and Promotion Progr...
Past and Present efforts in
Singapore
 Green Plan in 2012 launched by NEA.
 Prompted Nokia, IKEA, Singapore
Environment ...
Past and Present efforts in
Singapore (IKEA)
 IKEA collection of
household batteries
ended in 2004 due to
poor response.
...
Past and Present efforts in
Singapore (NOKIA)
 However, used Nokia
handphones, handphone
batteries and accessories
are st...
Past and Present efforts in
Singapore (Energenics)
 A MNC which is a supplier of alternative energy
solutions and technol...
Past and Present efforts in
Singapore (NEA)
 Disposal of household batteries were not of main
concern.
 No collection an...
Constraints faced by Singapore
 Lack of support from the government
 Lack of land space
 Rigid laws and legislations
 ...
Implemention in Singapore Polytechnic
 Plan Proposal for a Battery Recycling
Program in Singapore Polytechnic
 Mandatory...
Conclusion
 A battery recycling facility would not be
feasible.
 A battery collection would be a more realistic
approach...
Future Work
 Implement a battery collection program in Singapore
 Use our group’s research to propose a battery
collecti...
Battery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentation
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Battery recycling slide presentation

  1. 1. A Detailed Study on Battery Recycling Programmes in other Countries. By: Lim Zhong Yan 0521170 Lin Shan 0514600 Tay Jing Yun 0520434
  2. 2. Overview Battery Recycling Programmes in other Countries.  Importance of battery recycling  Case study on programmes in other countries  Formulate a suitable program to implement in Singapore
  3. 3. Classification of Batteries Batteries Primary Secondary • Alkaline Manganese • Zinc Carbon • Button • Lead Acid •Nickel Cadmium •Nickel Metal Hydride •Lithium Ion
  4. 4. Primary Batteries Alkaline Manganese
  5. 5. Primary Batteries (Cont’d) Zinc Carbon
  6. 6. Primary Batteries (Cont’d) Button cells
  7. 7. Secondary Batteries Lead Acid
  8. 8. Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Nickel Cadmium
  9. 9. Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Nickel Metal Hydride
  10. 10. Secondary Batteries (Cont’d) Lithium Ion
  11. 11. Demand for Primary Batteries
  12. 12. Demand for Secondary Batteries
  13. 13. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal  Mercury  Cadmium  Lead
  14. 14. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Mercury Dumping of mercury compounds in Minamata Bay, Japan, polluting the bay in 1932–1968. Since 1992, Singapore banned mercury in batteries with concentrations more than 0.025%.
  15. 15. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Cadmium  Cadmium is known to cause cancer  Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death.  NEA have already controlled the types of consumer batteries allowed to be sold.
  16. 16. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination Haina, Dominican Republic  Toxic fumes produced were over the limits  Improper decommissioning of recycling plant  91% of 147 children had lead poisoning
  17. 17. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination La Oroya, Peru  Heavy lead mining and smelting  High risk of developing lung cancer as well as other respiratory ailments, skin conditions, and digestive disorders.
  18. 18. Impacts of Improper Battery Disposal Lead Acid Contamination La Oroya, Peru (cont’d)  Report done in 1999 showed out of 147 children, 99% had lead poisoning.  Doe Run is the main driver of the local economy and hence able to exercise control over the livelihood of the population.
  19. 19. Exploration of countries Deciding factors for choosing countries for case study:  Impact  Efforts  Public awareness  Scale  Person per battery disposed  Recycling techniques  Storage and sorting facilities
  20. 20. Exploration of countries There were other countries that also displayed the factors mentioned but did not do so on a large scale. Examples are :  Philippines  Malaysia
  21. 21. China  Increased technological advancements and higher standards of living  Produces 15 billion batteries a year which amounts to a third of the world’s total production of batteries  Domestic market still consumes around 6 billion units
  22. 22. China Lead Acid Batteries  More than 50 million waste lead-acid batteries are recycled annually in China  About 140 thousand tons of secondary lead are recovered  80 – 85% secondary lead recovery rate
  23. 23. China Household Batteries  Only 1 – 2% are recycled  Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB)  Policy based on an understanding that most zinc- and alkaline-manganese batteries sold and used in China contain mercury weight less than 0.0001%
  24. 24. China Efforts  In 2006, a campaign was launched to promote the recycling of used batteries in the Guangdong province of China  In 2001, Beijing’s high schools and primary schools took part in a waste battery recycling project
  25. 25. China Governmental Efforts  In 2003, the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), together with nine other government bodies, co-issued a new policy on battery recycling called Policy on Technique Adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB).  The government has gradually increased the proportion of GDP allocated to environmental protection from 0.72 percent in 1989 to 1.33 percent in 2003.
  26. 26. China Legislation  “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution to the Environment” which was implemented in 1996, hazardous wastes should be treated separately according to their property  In 2003, Policy on Technique adapted to Pollution Prevention from Waste Batteries (PTPPWB).
  27. 27. China Analysis  Lack of Strong Governmental Support  Lack of Public Awareness and Participation  Lack of Proper Storage and Sorting Facilities  Lack of Advanced Recycling Techniques
  28. 28. China Conclusion  A more enthusiastic and supportive government would help greatly.  Introduce a rigid legal system so organisations, companies and its people will follow strictly.
  29. 29. USA  Lead consumption alone by United States can reach as high as 1.54 million tons of lead  Americans throw away over 3 billion primary and secondary batteries, 745 million SGD worth.  Lead acid batteries make up 74% of lead in USA  98% of all recycled lead is produced in USA with 17 recycling facilities
  30. 30. USA Legislation  All rechargeable batteries have to bear a symbol.  California have the strictest legislation directly affecting batteries.  Disposal of lead-acid batteries in landfills and incinerators prohibited and retailers are required to accept used batteries.
  31. 31. USA RBRC  Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) is a non-profit, public service organization  Started in 1994.  Removed fees associated with its community recycling program starting in January 2003
  32. 32. USA RBRC’s program
  33. 33. USA Analysis  Stringent Legislation  Weak Governmental support  Strong Public Awareness and Participation  Safe Recycling Techniques
  34. 34. USA Conclusion  Stringent legislation and strong public awareness contribute to USA’s successful recycling campaign.  Major advantage is the removal of charges for sending batteries for recycling, and easy access to battery recycling bins.
  35. 35. Belgium Case Study Introduction In Belgium, BEBAT is the company responsible for collection and recycling of batteries They have been operational since 1995/1996 and are fully backed by the government The number of used batteries they collect keep increasing through the years
  36. 36. Belgium Case Study Introduction (Cont’d) Graph showing BEBAT’s collection rate since they started in 1996
  37. 37. Belgium Case Study Belgium’s Effort in Recycling BEBAT was founded by the battery industry in 1995 for the purpose of collection and recycling of batteries They are backed by federal and regional authorities Companies register themselves with BEBAT to comply with environmental legislations They are partners with other battery recycling companies
  38. 38. Belgium Case Study Governmental Efforts EPBA (European Portable Battery Association) was established in Belgium with consent of the government They are responsible for the development of the battery industry in Europe The Belgian government helped BEBAT by using the media and broadcasting commercials to get the public aware They also allowed BEBAT to place over 20,000 collection points in public areas in the country
  39. 39. Belgium Case Study Legislation  On 6 September 2006, there was a new directive of the EU parliament and council on batteries  The new directive states that there shall be specific standards that each country must fulfill  The minimum standard for collection rate of batteries is as follows:  (a) 25 % by 26 September 2012 ;  (b) 45 % by 26 September 2016  In Belgium’s case, this is not a problem for them as they have highest amount for collection of spent batteries at 59%
  40. 40. Belgium Case Study Analysis  Efficiency of collection network  Strong governmental and retailer support  Strong Environmental awareness and public participation
  41. 41. Belgium Case Study Conclusion Belgium is considered to be one of the most successful countries in battery recycling Their battery collection and recycling network should be a model to other countries However, they still needed the help of various other factors All in all, Belgium can be said to be unparalleled in their effective system and network of battery recycling
  42. 42. Australia  Second waste country on earth  Australians discard about 8,000 tons of used batteries  Municipal landfill sites are so contaminated they probably require special containment  60 to 80 lead acid batteries are pulled out from a landfill each day.
  43. 43. Australia  Three lead acid battery plants operate within Australia in SA, Queensland and NSW.  Up to one third of Australia’s batteries have been recycled outside Australia in Third World countries  Proposed lead battery recycling facility in Wagga Wagga rejected
  44. 44. Australia Cleanaway  Cleanaway is Australia’s largest waste management operator.  In 2006, CleanAway introduced a new battery-recycling programme in Australia.  Major disadvantage is, recycling box provided, but costs are borne by companies.  Batteries are sent overseas with export permit exclusive only to 2 companies.
  45. 45. Australia Battery Back  Started in June 2007  A joint initiative of Sustainability Victoria, UniRoss and CleanAway  Harvey Norman and Michaels Camera Video and Digital provide collection points.
  46. 46. Australia Legislation  Few relevant legislation to back battery recycling.  Hazardous Waste Act was updated in 1996 for wastes with financial value to be destined overseas for recycling and recovery operations.
  47. 47. Australia Analysis  Lack of Legislation  Mild Environmental awareness and Public participation  Strong Australian Governmental support  Backward Reycling Techniques
  48. 48. Australia Conclusion  Australia’s battery recycling programs are still at a initial stage.  Still room for improvement compared to other countries.  But progress is the first step to a successful battery recycling program.
  49. 49. Analysis Countries Governmental Support Public Awareness Recycling Technique Legislations Storage and Sorting Facilities USA      China      Belgium      Australia      Table of Comparison
  50. 50. Analysis Governmental Support  Amount of effort poured in by the country’s government and authorities for their battery recycling programmes
  51. 51. Analysis Governmental Support (Cont’d)  Belgium’s government was the most supportive.  They supported BEBAT by funding them and supporting them throughout their entire process.  Educational programs on recycling batteries.
  52. 52. Analysis Governmental Support (Cont’d)  China has the least support from the government among the 4 countries.  They do not have a rigid workable system from collecting to recycling of batteries.  Do not wish to be involved in battery recycling activities.
  53. 53. Analysis Public Awareness Refers to the amount of media coverage given to the environmental concerns of battery recycling.
  54. 54. Analysis Public Awareness (cont’d)  Belgium remains the best in public awareness.  Commercials broadcasted in mainstream media encouraging the recycling of batteries by BEBAT
  55. 55. Analysis Public Awareness (cont’d)  Australia has the least public awareness.  There’s only two companies that recycle batteries and are not given much attention by Australians
  56. 56. Analysis Legislations The laws that govern the country regarding batteries and batteries recycling
  57. 57. Analysis Legislations (cont’d)  Belgium has the most stringent legislation to date.  European Union has set a minimum standard for collection rate of batteries and it is as follows: – 25 % by 26 September 2012 ; – 45 % by 26 September 2016
  58. 58. Analysis Legislations (cont’d)  China currently do not have single unified law to address batteries and their recycling  Not clear who is responsible for storing and transporting waste batteries and how the cost will be borne
  59. 59. Analysis Recycling Technique  Refers ability to collect and recycle batteries efficiently with safe and advanced technology
  60. 60. Analysis Recycling Technique (Cont’d)  None of the countries had a perfect recycling technique.  The difficulty of finding a recycling technique that is environmental friendly and yet effective still needs to be overcome.  USA and Belgium are not yet self sufficient, they still need to send some of their batteries overseas for recycling.
  61. 61. Analysis Recycling Technique (Cont’d)  Australia’s lead acid recycling facilities do not fully comply to the environmental legislations.  China unwilling to invest on more technology for better recycling techniques
  62. 62. Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities  The process and storage, after they are collected and before they are recycled.
  63. 63. Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)  Belgium has the best storage and sorting facilities.  BEBAT’s sorting technology is automated. The mechanical processing unit sorts zinc- carbon and alkaline-batteries.  They have 20,000 collection points which serve as storage facilities before sending to the plants for processing.
  64. 64. Analysis Storage and Sorting Facilities (cont’d)  China has an obvious lack of proper storage and sorting facility  Batteries collected are left in the open awaiting to be delivered to a recycling plant
  65. 65. Analysis Conclusion  USA and Belgium are leading countries in battery recycling  They each have non-profit organizations that dedicate themselves solely to the cause  China and Australia still have much room for improvement  They have the foundation, now they need to build on it.
  66. 66. Factors that made Overseas Recycling Programmes Feasible  Supportive Government  Effective Education and Promotion Program  Firm Legislation and Policies  Strong Management of Programmes  Safe and Advanced Recycling Technology
  67. 67. Past and Present efforts in Singapore  Green Plan in 2012 launched by NEA.  Prompted Nokia, IKEA, Singapore Environment Council (SEC), to provide collection points for batteries.  SEC provided previous batch of seniors with a report ‘mad about batteries’
  68. 68. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (IKEA)  IKEA collection of household batteries ended in 2004 due to poor response.  Batteries eventually sent for destruction instead of recycling facilities.
  69. 69. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (NOKIA)  However, used Nokia handphones, handphone batteries and accessories are still collected in Nokia retail outlets.  There are 5 collection points.
  70. 70. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (Energenics)  A MNC which is a supplier of alternative energy solutions and technologies.  Discovered an innovative way of reconditioning lead-acid batteries  The process will be shown in a video that we have recorded ourselves at the Energenics facility.
  71. 71. Past and Present efforts in Singapore (NEA)  Disposal of household batteries were not of main concern.  No collection and separation of batteries are done except for lead-acid batteries due to its harmfulness.  NEA encourages battery manufactures, distributors and retailers to voluntarily set up more collection points and fund the recycling of batteries.  The Singapore Green Plan 2012 will be looking into doing a follow up on battery recycling.
  72. 72. Constraints faced by Singapore  Lack of support from the government  Lack of land space  Rigid laws and legislations  Low volume of waste batteries collected  Lack of environmental awareness in Singapore
  73. 73. Implemention in Singapore Polytechnic  Plan Proposal for a Battery Recycling Program in Singapore Polytechnic  Mandatory versus Voluntary Recycling  Funding  Education and Promotion  Collection Points  After Collection
  74. 74. Conclusion  A battery recycling facility would not be feasible.  A battery collection would be a more realistic approach to battery recycling.  Implementation of program in Singapore Polytechnic would be the first step.  Collaboration with governmental authorities in pushing battery recycling awareness.
  75. 75. Future Work  Implement a battery collection program in Singapore  Use our group’s research to propose a battery collection program to government agencies  Use Singapore Green Plan 2012 to jump start the program  Model the program under an effective example like Belgium’s unparalleled battery collection and recycling network

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