Civil service in developed & developing countries a comparative study
Civil Service in Developed & Developing Countries - A Comparative Study Md. Shamsul Arefin A member of Bangladesh Civil Service ( Administration Cadre) Joint Secretary (OSD)
What is Civil Service?The term civil service has two distinct meanings:A branch of governmental service in which individuals areemployed on the basis of professional merit as proven bycompetitive examinations.The body of employees in any government agency other thanthe military.A civil servant is a person in the public sector employed fora government department or agency. The term explicitlyexcludes the armed services, although civil officials work at"Defence Ministry" headquarters
Characteristics Civil services in developing countries are large, underpaid, and politicized. Hence service delivery is inefficient and corrupt. The consensus in the development community is on a merit model for civil-service reform (the model used by today’s advanced countries). 3
Organizing principles for a civil service Merit systems employ people on the basis of merit, protect them from undue political interference, and provide equality of access. New Public Management principles provide options to improve the performance orientation of merit systems in the core civil service Civil service systems and performance orientation: Merit systems improve performance. Merit systems are pre-conditions for NPM-style options. 4
Organizing principles for a civil service1. The merit model promotes competence and protects the civil service from political interference.2. But it largely fails in developing countries3. The evidence of history shows the conditions under which merit reforms come about and subsequently develop.4. Merit-based reform in developing countries is blocked by politics and by large government. 5
Merit-based Civil Servants Entrance to the service based on competitive exams. Protection of civil servants from arbitrary removal. Protection of their political neutrality. Policing of these rules by an independent body. 6
Merit-based Civil Servants Common features: positions are established centrally and classified according to rank; bureaucrats are paid a salary and pension that is determined by their rank, rather than the work that they do; there are often impediments to external lateral entry at senior grades; there are few points of entry, with most entering at a young age and most senior positions filled by promotion. . 7
Merit-based Civil Servants1. New interests with the need and the power to promote a more efficient and honest public administration are weak in many countries. Some countries are characterized by spoils systems that provide the currency of political competition. Others are characterized by the continuing vigor of traditional systems (kinship and loyalty ties, for instance) which frustrate reform movements. 8
Table 1: Comparing Civil-Service Systems: Management Principles Patronage system Patronage system (modern) Merit system New-Public-Management (traditional) optionsEntrance Based on loyalty/affinities Informally based on Competitive, transparentcriteria and, to a varying extent, loyalty/affinities, formally on process open to all citizens. merit. merit criteria (see merit column)Tenure and Tenure last no longer than Most appointments on political/ Lifetime tenure, with removalrelation to the political principal’s term welfare grounds. Lifetime only through due process,political in office. tenure, with removal only protects political neutrality.principals through due process.Remuneration Less rigid pay structure. Formal pay structures Relatively rigid pay structure Pay structure based on work Sometimes political undermined by variety of based largely on rank (rather done, with some element of contributions from pay, or allowances, supplements, etc. than work done); sometimes reward for performance. political services, are Political contributions and back-loading of rewards (e.g. required. services often required. Japan).Position Same as merit system. Positions are establishedclassification centrally and classified according to rank.Lateral entry There are often impediments Impediments to externalpoints to external lateral entry at entry are loosened,(internal or senior grades; there are few especially at more seniorexternal labor points of entry, with most levels.market) entering at a young age and most senior positions filled by promotion.Senior Many countries have flexible The amount and depth of Senior posts are subject toappointments approaches to political political (as opposed to merit) contractual (performance) appointments. appointments is limited in conditions and tenure is most OECD systems. US, removed notably, allows large numbers of political appointments.Management Management is centralized, Decentralization of often with an independent management. body managing appointments. 9
Table 2: Comparing Civil-Serice Systems: the External Environment Patronage system Patronage system (modern) Merit system New-Public-Management (traditional) optionsPolitical •Spoils systems fund politics •Modern spoils systems are •Merit systems arise under •NPM options have mostlyarrangements (by rewarding for political informal, hidden behind formal mature democracies with been applied where meritand the civil- loyalty, services) or affinity merit systems. checks and balances and systems are entrenched, not toservice system systems (kin, elites, etc.). •Informal patronage politics are where political parties are change them fundamentally, but •Traditional spoils systems based on spoils systems, affinity funded independently of civil- to modify them partially. can be formal (codified) systems, or public-welfare- service spoils. •Regimes more akin to private- systems. employment policies •Merit civil services protect sector personnel systems have (government as employer-of- their privileges, acquire a been applied in non-core last-resort). corporate identity, and agencies (e,g, executive become an interest group. agencies), while core agencies •A merit system, by have retained most elements of protecting civil servants from a merit system. politicians, promotes credible •NPM options seek to bring commitment, but at the risk of back accountability to shirking and inefficiency. politicians and promote efficiency, but at the risk of politicization.Labor-market •Scarcity of “modern-sector” •Well-functioning laborconditions jobs. markets, but many civiland the civil- •Poorly functioning labor services function as internalservice system markets, and scarcities of labor markets, insulated from qualified people. the national market. 10
BrazilCivil servants in Brazil, Servidores públicos in Portuguese, are those workingin the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the federal governmentCanadas public serviceCanadas civil service is a body with less than 10 departments and 450,000members, including commissions, councils, crown corporations, the Office ofthe Queens Privy Council for Canada, and the Royal Canadian MountedPolice. Each provincial government also has its own public service.ChinaOne of the oldest examples of a civil service based on meritocracy is theImperial bureaucracy of China, which can be traced as far back as the QinDynasty (221–207 BC). Officers work in the areas of administration.Appointments are based solely on merit.FranceThe civil service in France (fonction publique) is often considered to includegovernment employees, as well as employees of public corporations.
The Civil Service exams in India is conducted by Union Public ServiceCommission. Union Public Service Commission conducts Civil ServiceExaminations every year to select officers for the All India Civil Servicesand the Central Civil Services (Grade A and Grade B). The examinationis a three stage process which consists of Civil Services Aptitude TestCSAT (Earlier Civil Services Preliminary Examination) , MainExamination and the Interview.Entry into the Civil Services is through a competitive examination bypublic service commission. Close to 3.5 lakhs of candidates apply everyyear for the 400 to 500 vacancies.The civil service in Spain (funcionariado) is often considered to includegovernment employees.The civil service in the United Kingdom only includes Crown employees;not those who are parliamentary employees. Public sector employeessuch as those in education and the Health sector are not considered tobe civil servants
In the United States, the civil service wasestablished in 1872. The Federal Civil Service isdefined as "all appointive positions in theexecutive, judicial, and legislative branches of theGovernment of the United States, except positionsin the uniformed services. civil servants are notallowed to engage in political activities whileperforming their duties.Certain senior civil service positions, includingsome heads of diplomatic missions and executiveagencies are filled by political appointees.
Basic Features of Civil ServicesThe primary objective of the Civil Service of different countries is to ensure that the CivilService is honest, trustworthy, efficient and provides high quality services to the public.ii. The Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulation which is made under acts orregulations to regulates the conduct of disciplinary proceedings and of proceduresleading to maintain discipline of officers in the Civil Service.iii. Public Service Commission is an independent statutory body established under the The function of the Commission is to ensure appointment, promotion and disciplinematters in the Civil Service.iv. Appointment to the Civil Service is based on the principle of open and faircompetition. Civil service vacancies are filled by selection from among eligiblecandidates through a competitive selection process on the basis of merit. The aim is toappoint “the best person for the job.v. All applicants must meet the basic entry requirements in order to be considered forappointment. The entry requirements for civil service grade and rank are normally setwith reference to academic or professional qualifications, technical skills, workingexperience, language proficiency and other qualities.
PromotionPromotion is the usual means for filling vacancies in higherranks in a grade (promotion ranks), by selecting officersfrom a lower rank in the same grade for promotion. Officersare selected for promotion on the criteria of character,ability, experience and any qualifications prescribed for thehigher rank.Promotion is not a reward. The officer selected for promotionmust be the most meritorious, one who is able and ready toperform the more demanding duties at a higher rank.Seniority also will be given due weight. All eligiblecandidates are considered on equal terms irrespective oftheir terms of appointment.
CIVIL SERVICE PAY SYSTEMCivil servants are remunerated on some sets of pay scales oftheir respective grade and rank. The officers normally advanceone increment a year within their respective grade scales untilthey reach the maximum point of the scales.ii. The objective of civil service pay is to offer sufficientremuneration to attract, retain and motivate staff of suitable caliberto provide quality service to the public. Such remuneration shouldbe regarded as fair both by civil servants and by the public whichthey serve.
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMThe performance-based reward systems into the CivilService is available in some countries whose aim is toimprove the current performance management system. Otherobjectives are to -Make performance management system a more usefulmanagement tool which should in the end be able todistinguish good performers from poor performers andultimately support a more performance-based rewardsystem; andProvide additional tools to motivate and reward staff.
Other benefitsLeave BenefitsThe civil service leave provision to make it more in line with private sectorprovisions. For the sake of flexibility and administrative simplicity, it allowsencashment of leave balance when an officer leaves the service.Housing BenefitsProvisions for housing benefits are made for the every civil servants of the worldfor ensuring their better service.Transport Facilities: This is also provided to all civil servants of differentcountries.Medical and Dental BenefitsOfficers and retirees with pensions and their dependants are eligible for freemedical advice and treatment, investigative procedures and medicines are free insome countries. Dental treatment (extractions and fillings) is also provided freeof charge in government dental clinics.
CIVIL SERVICE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTThe Governments believe that good training and development efforts areessential to enhance the performance for the effective functioning of the CS,.Effective training;Helps disseminate the vision, mission and core values of the organization;Enables CS to acquire the knowledge and skills to meet organizational goalsand standards;Improves individual performance and changes attitudes and behaviour; andPrepares CS to cope with increasing demands arising from the changing,political, economic and management environment.In this context civil service training is given to civil servants and to equipcivil servants with the necessary skills and knowledge to help implement thenew initiatives.
CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE IN CIVIL SERVICEThe Administration is committed to upholding a high standard of integrity andconduct within the civil service. They strive to promote good standards of conductwithin the civil service and to ensure that disciplinary action is strictly enforced inmisconduct cases.Guiding Principle2. Civil servants are required to use their best efforts to promote the interests of theGovernment. They should be honest and impartial in their dealings with members ofthe public, and should not -(a) put themselves in a position or take part in activities where their private interestsconflict with their official duties or bring the civil service into disrepute;(b) use their official position to further their private interests; or(c) lay themselves open to suspicion of dishonesty.Disciplinary Action3. Civil servants are liable to disciplinary action if they -(a) fail to observe any government regulations or official instructions;(b) misconduct themselves in any manner; or(c) by their actions bring the civil service into disrepute.
CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE IN CIVIL SERVICEProceedings under formal disciplinary action are held in accordance withthe principles of natural justice.He/she is then given the right to be heard and to make representations onthe comments or criticisms made against him/her. Such action is takenfor serious misconduct or repeated minor misconduct, includingunauthorized absences from duty, unauthorized outside work, negligenceor insubordination.For minor and isolated cases of misconduct such as lateness for duty,informal disciplinary action is taken.
RETIREMENT OF CIVIL SERVANTSRetirement Policy1. Civil servants are normally required to retire from serviceupon reaching prescribed normal retirement age.2. The normal retirement age for civil servants varies fromthe age of 55 to 67 depending their economic situations.3. Civil servants appointed on agreement or other termswould not normally be appointed beyond the age of 60.
The Australian Public ServiceThe Australian Public Service (APS) is the group of people employed by departments,agencies and courts under the Government of Australia to administer the working of thePublic Administration of the Commonwealth of Australia.The Australian Public Service formally comprises all persons employed under the PublicService Act 1999. This includes all government departments, the court system and alsosome government agencies.In the 2006-07 financial year, there were 155,482 public servants employed under thePublic Service Act. This includes 143,525 ongoing (or permanent) employees and11,957 contract employees. The largest group of public servants are women (57%) andwork in the Australian Capital Territory (36%).The largest government agency is Center-link with 27,296 employees, followed by theAustralian Taxation office (23,110)Each Department is headed by a Secretary, and each independent authority by anappointed head, whose job description includes the administration of the people in thatorganization and evaluates performance and compliance, and helps to build thecapability of the Service.
Organizational Structure of Australian Civil ServiceThe head of an Australian Government Department is the Secretary - likea CEO in the private sector. Secretaries are the pivotal advisors toMinisters on government policy, and lead the executive of theirDepartments.Deputy Secretaries are also part of Departmental executives. DeputySecretaries hold the Public Service level of Senior Executive Service(SES) Band 3. A Department typically has between four and six DeputySecretaries.Deputy Secretaries directly supervise First Assistant Secretaries (FAS)(SES Band 2), each of whom oversees a Division of a Department.Assistant Secretaries (AS) ( Band 1) manage Branches of Divisions.Sections of Branches are headed by Directors. Directors manage a groupof departmental officers.
Bangladesh Civil ServiceBangladesh Civil Service, more popularly known by its acronym BCS, isthe elite civil service of the Government of Bangladesh.It originated from the Civil service of Pakistan. Since independence ithas been known by Act as Bangladesh Civil Service. The BangladeshPublic Service Commission (BPSC) is the main policy setting andrecruitment body of BCS. BCS has 28 cadre services. BCS recruitmentsystem consists of - preliminary MCQ test, written test, viva-voce, finalresult publication, medical test, police verification and finallyappointment.The cadres and entry posts of the Bangladesh Civil ServiceI. The General CadresII. The Technical Cadres are:
Civil Service of CanadaThe Public Service of Canada is the bureaucracy of the federal Government of Canada.Its function is to support the Canadian Monarch, and to handle the hiring of employeesfor the federal government ministries. It is represented by the Governor General.PurposeThe purpose of the Canadian civil service is to enact the will of the government. It doesthis through providing advice, implementing the priorities of the government, supportingCrown and delivering services that support Canadians.StructureThe chief public servant is the Clerks of the Queens Privy Council. In 2007, there wereapproximately 200 departments, agencies, commissions, councils.A typical department is headed by a minister which is a political position held usuallyby a member of parliament, and who is a member of the Cabinet. The senior civil servantin a department is usually titled as Deputy Minister (given the title of Deputy Head).These officials are responsible for all on-going operations within their department, whileminister are held responsible to parliament. Deputy heads report to the Clerk of the Privycouncil.
Civil Service of CanadaUnder the Deputy Minister there will usually be three to five Assistant Deputy Ministers whooversee various broad aspects of the department (policy, administration, program implementationetc.). Within the jurisdiction of each Assistant Deputy Minister is usually two to five Directors-General who oversee more functional areas of each broad element of the department. UnderDirectors-General there are Directors, who oversee various directorates, which are the core ofany department. These directorates contain the ground level in each department and are themembers of the public service who implement government decisions.Personnel HiringHiring (or selection) of civil servants is typically done through a competitive process that iseither external (open) process or an internal (closed) process. External competitions are typicallydone to recruit a greater number of applicants. Conversely, internal competitions may be held forpositions where there is considered to be adequate internal candidates and/or to provideopportunities for advancement within the civil service.Civil servants in Canada are employed by the Canadian Monarch, who personifies the state and"enjoys a general capacity to contract in accordance with the rule of ordinary law.“ Hence, somecivil servants, such as police officers, are required by law to recite the Oath of Allegiance beforetaking their posts. (Bureaucratic civil servants swear a different oath relating to fulfillment ofduty and confidentiality.)
Size of Canada Civil ServiceThe public service has expanded over the years as population has grown,the number of services provided to Canadians has increased and with theintroduction of new offices throughout the country. As of September,2006, there were approximately 454,000 members employed by theCanadian federal government.Only those in the first three categories would be considered traditionalcivil servants.There are approximately 100 distinctly different positions in the corecivil service; most work in policy, operations or administrative functions.About 15% are scientists and professionals, 10% work in technicaloperations and 2.5% are Executives.
Quota system in Canada Civil ServiceGender and ethnicityThe Canadian Civil Service has made significant efforts toreflect the gender balance, linguistic, and ethnic diversity inCanada.Recruitment System of Canada Civil ServiceIn 1849, there was a recognition that the roles of the political and non-politicalgovernment officials needed to be defined and distinguished from one another.1868 - the Canada Civil Service Act was enacted The "Civil Service Act“created the Civil Service Commission, to oversee appointments to governmentpositions.
Recruitment System of Canada Civil Service1920s - the Commission created of a competitive system of examinations for appointment andpromotion (a merit system) as a viable alternative to the patronage system.1924 - The was intended to promote and protect a career civil service.1957 - The CSC establishes the Pay Research Bureau to provide objective information onrates of pay and conditions of employment in government and industry, and to recommendsalary rates for civil servants.1961 - The Act has given the civil servants the right of appeal against not only promotions,but also transfers, demotions, suspensions and dismissals.1979 - The Bilingualism Bonus was introduced for public servants who met thebilingual language requirements of their positions.1984 - the Commission on Equality in Employment issued its report, whichrecommended that targets and not quotas are the most effective means of achievingequity in the employment of members of under-represented groups.Canadian Standards of Competence to Measure Merit2004 - Public Service Modernization Act comes into effect. The Canada School ofPublic Service is formed. The Act also enabled the PSC to prescribe standards ofcompetence to measure merit.2006 - New Public Service Employment Act is released with significant changes tothe staffing and labour relations process.
Civil Service of the Peoples Republic of ChinaThe civil service of the Peoples Republic of China consists ofcivil servants of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs inmainland China.LevelsCivil servants are found in a well-defined system of ranks. Therank of a civil servant determines what positions he/she mayassume in the government how much political power he/she gets,and the level of benefits in areas such as transportation andhealthcare.According to the Temporary Regulations for National CivilServants, civil servants are put into a total of fifteen levels.
15 Levels of Bureaucracy in ChinaLevel -1 Premier of the Peoples Republic of ChinaLevels 2 Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China and members of the State.Council Levels 3 Leading roles of ministries or equivalents, or of provinces orequivalents.Levels 4 Assisting roles of ministries or equivalents or of provinces or equivalents.Levels 5 Leading roles of departments or equivalents or of prefectures or equivalents.Levels 6 Assisting roles of departments or equivalents of prefectures or equivalents orassistant counsels.Levels 7 Leading roles of divisions or equivalents or of counties or equivalents , orconsultants.Levels 8 Assisting roles of divisions or equivalents or of counties or equivalents orassistant consultants.Levels 9 Leading roles of sections or equivalents or of townships or equivalentsLevel 10 Assisting roles of sections or equivalents.Level 11-14 Staff membersLevel 15 Staff members of sub- ordinates
Employment History of Bureaucracy in ChinaChina has had a tradition of maintaining a large and well-organized civil service. Inancient times eligibility for employment in the civil service was determined by anImperial examination system.State Administration of Civil ServiceThe State Administration of Civil Service (SACS) was created in March 2008 by theNational Peoples Congress (NPC). It is under the management of the Ministry ofHuman Resources and Social Security (MHRSS), which resulted from the merger ofthe Ministry of Personnel and the Ministry of Labor and Social Security. The functionof the administration covers management, recruitment, assessment, training, rewards,supervision and other aspects related to civil service affairs.The SACS also has several new functions. These include drawing up regulations on thetrial periods of newly-enrolled personnel, further protecting the legal rights of civilservants and having the responsibility of the registration of civil servants under centraldepartments.
French Civil ServiceThe French Civil Service is the set of civil servants working for the Frenchgovernment. Not all employees of the state and public institutions or corporations arecivil servants; For instance, most employees of RATP and SNCF (road and railtransport authorities) are not civil servants.The Civil Service is also sometimes incorrectly referred to as the administration, but,properly speaking, the administration is the compound of public administrations andpublic administrative establishments, not their employees.About half of the civil servants are employed in the French public education system.Most employment positions in the French civil service are open to citizens of theEuropean Union. Others, especially in police and justice, are specifically reserved fornationals, while a minority are open regardless of citizenship.The French Civil Service is divided into two parts:Technical personnel and the State personnel - for industrial functions.
Hierarchy of French Civil ServiceCivil servants of the State are divided into corps (administration), which maythemselves be divided into ranks (grades) (called classes in certain corps). Corps aregrouped in 3 categories named A to C.A meaning "college graduate". For instance, the corps of professors of the universitiesis A category.A corps divided into 3 classes such as second class (equivalent to an Americanassociate professor), first class (full professor), exceptional class (leading fullprofessor in his area).Each corps has a set of possible job or task descriptions and may have its ownparticular statutes.Great corps of the State : Certain corps enjoying particular prestige are called "the great corpsof the State"
Duties of France civil serviceMembers of the great administrative corps are well represented inpolitics. This is facilitated by civil servants (of any level) being able toexercise elected office on a temporary leave from government.Duties of Civil Servants in FrenchCivil servants have duties; failure to carry them out may result indisciplinary action, up to discharge. The main duties are:Full commitment to professional activityA civil servant must devote his full professional activity to his appointedtask. By exception, a civil servant may in addition to his regularactivities write books; he may also accomplish certain tasks (teaching...)with the permission of his hierarchical supervisor.
Morality in France civil serviceMoralityOne cannot be a civil servant if one has been convicted of a crimeincompatible with ones functions. Even it is inappropriate for a memberof the civil service to live with a delinquent partner or a prostitute.ReserveA civil servant must not, by his actions and especially by hisdeclarations, cause harm to institutions. Generally speaking, a civilservant should always refrain from enunciating personal opinions in amanner that can be meant the official opinion of the French governmentor a public institution.Civil servants of Foreign cardre should be especially prudent. Forinstance, an ambassador should refrain from making any privatecomment on international issues.
Neutrality in France civil serviceHierarchical obedienceA civil servant must accomplish the orders given by his hierarchical supervisor, unlessthose orders are evidently illegal and contrary to public interest. While the hierarchicalauthority is normally responsible for assigning civil servants to positions andevaluating their work, certain corps of civil servants follow specific rules regarding themanagement, evaluation and discipline of their members.Professional discretionCivil servants must not reveal private or secret information that they have gained in thecourse of their duties.HonestyCivil servants must not use the means at their professional disposal for private gain.NeutralityCivil servant must be neutral with respect to the religious or political opinions andshould refrain from expressing their own opinions.Recruitment and careerMost positions are open to citizens of the European Union. Certain positions involvingthe main powers of the state are open only to French nationals. Some rare positions,e.g. university professors and researchers, are open regardless of citizenship..
Recruitment of France civil serviceThe general rule is that civil servants are recruited through written andoral exams in subjects pertaining to the tasks to be accomplished. Forsome top managerial positions, nominations are at the discretion of theexecutive.High level nominations are made by the President of the Republic in thecouncil of ministers. The rest are by the head of the agency they belongto, or by a minister.
Civil Services of IndiaThe Civil Services of India, also known as the permanent bureaucracy of theGovernment of the Republic of India.The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants. Civil servants areemployees of the Government of India and not Parliament of India. Civil servants alsohave some traditional responsibilities which to some extent protect them from beingused for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may becalled to account to Parliament.The Civil Service does not include government ministers (who are politicallyappointed), members of parliament, members of legislative assembly, members of noncivil service police officers and local government officials.
Head of the Indian Civil ServiceThe highest ranking civil servant is the Chief of the CabinetSecretariat of Republic of India who is also the CabinetSecretary. He is the Ex-Officio and Chairman of the CivilServices Board of the Republic of India; the chief of theIndian Administrative Service and head of all civil servicesunder the rules of business of the Government of India.The Civil Service is equipped with the skills and capability tomeet the everyday challenges it faces and that civil servantswork in a fair and decent environment.
Organization of Indian Civil ServiceThe construction of the Civil Services follows a certainpattern. The All India Services, Central Services and StateServices constitute the Civil Services. Examinations for thestate services are conducted by the individual states of India.All India Services divided into three groupsCentral Civil Services - Group "A“Central Civil Services - Group "B“State Services
The Indian Administrative Service (IAS)The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the administrative civilservice of the executive branch of the Government of the Republic ofIndia.The officers of the IAS play a major role in managing the bureaucracyof both the Union Government (Central Government) and the stategovernments, with its officers holding strategic posts across thecountry. It is one of the three All India Services.
Independence of the Indian Civil ServiceThe Constituent Assembly of India intended that the bureaucracy should be able tospeak out freely, without fear of persecution or financial insecurity as an essentialelement in unifying the nation. The IAS officers are recruited by the Union governmenton the recommendation of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and postedunder various State governments. While the respective State Governments have controlover them they can not censure or take disciplinary action against IAS and other AllIndia Services officers without consulting the Union Government (Central) and theUPSC. This independence has given them high image in civil society.Examination.The Civil Services Examination is used for recruitment for many Indian administrativebodies. Civil Service Exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission. It hasthree stages Preliminary Exam, a Main exam, and an interview - and is known for beingextremely challenging. Recently the preliminary exam pattern has been changed. Thereused to be 23 optional subjects along with a general studies paper. Now there will be nooptional subjects in the preliminary examination. Instead there will be a second paperwhich will be common for all candidates. It will check the administrative aptitude ofcandidates-hence its name - the Civil Service Aptitude Test [CSAT]. Entry into the IASis considered very difficult; most applicants rank the Indian Administrative Service astheir top choices because of the high prestige, salary, and benefits that come with suchpositions.
Recruitment systems of Indian Civil ServiceRepeated attempts are allowed up to four times for GeneralMerit candidates. The upper age limit to attempt theexamination is 35 years and the minimum age is 21 years.About 850 candidates are finally selected each year out ofthe nearly 200,000. IAS makes it the most competitiveexam in the world.Powers and jurisdiction of the Indian Civil ServiceA civil servant is responsible for the law and orderand general administration in the area under his work.
Designation of Indian Civil ServantsIAS officersPosition in the Government of India Level and Rank, Order of Precedence (As per Presidential order)1. Junior Time Scale Entry-level—2. Senior Time Scale Under Secretary to Government of India3. Junior Administrative Grade Deputy Secretary to Government of India4. Selection Grade Director to Government of India5. Joint Secretary to Government of India6. Additional Secretary to Government of India7. Secretary to Government of India (The highest rank in a department)8. Cabinet Secretary to Government of India (only one) (Ex-Officio and Chairman of the Civil Services Board of the Republic of India; the chief of the IAS and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the government of India). The report of the Sixth Pay Commissions with details on the amount of salaries can be found here, http://india.gov.in/govt/studies/ias_revised_eng.pdf
All India ServicesCentral Civil Services - Group "A“Indian Administrative Service (IAS)Indian Forest Service (IFS)Indian Police Service (IPS)Indian Audits & Accounts Service (IA&AS)Indian Economic Service (IES)Indian Foreign Service (IFS)Indian Postal ServiceIndian Revenue Service (IRS) Income TaxIndian Revenue Service (IRS) Customs & Central ExciseIndian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS)Indian Railway Traffic Service (IRTS)Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS)Indian Post & Telecommunication Accounts and Finance Service (IP&TAFS)Indian Telecommunications Service (ITS)Indian Trade Service (ITS)Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers (IRSME)Indian Railway Service of Electrical Engineers (IRSEE}Indian Railway Service of Engineers (IRSE)Indian Railway Service of Signal Engineers (IRSSE)Indian Railway Stores Service (IRSS)Military Engineering Service, Survey of India Service
Central Civil Services - Group “B“Central Secretariat ServiceDefense Secretariat ServiceUnion Territories Administrative ServiceUnion Territories Police Service State Services ( Group “C” )State Administrative ServiceState Police ServiceState Forest ServicePublic Works Department
Italian Civil ServiceIn Italy the Senior Civil Service or "la dirigenza" is the set of highranking executives who are in charge of the top and middle managementof national or local governmental offices.StructureSenior executives come in two levels:First and second level positions are identified in each ministry asManagement positions. In each ministry, second level positions arefurther classified accordingly to the responsibilities attached to theiroffices position, corresponding to the classification adopted by theministry.Today senior civil servants are grouped into eight different contractualareas:Civil servants below executive level have a different contract withseparate grading and pay arrangements.
Recruitment in the Italy Civil ServiceThe Italian government encourages the recruitment of young executives, mostly freshfrom university. This reflects the need to overhaul and rejuvenate the entire seniormanagement position.Executives are normally recruited through competitions designed to eliminate politicsfrom the general government. There are two types of competition:The executive group is increasingly targeting talent from the private sector, universitiesand regional entities, which currently account for 10% of first level executives and 8%of second level. External candidates can only be hired for a fixed term.Appointment and tenureThe status of executives has been governed by private law since 1998.A senior executive signs two contracts:Fixed-term contracts may not exceed three years for first level executives and fiveyears for executives. These contracts set out the remuneration terms. Achievement ofthe objectives is nevertheless verified every year based on management control andstrategic-planning results.First level SEOs must be confirmed by every new government, or they loose theirposition.
Performance assessment and pay structure in Italy Civil ServiceThe pay structure emphasizes workload, merit and work performance ("pay forperformance"), while it has no regard to seniority and length of service.Pay is based on:Executives are subjected to an annual assessment based on achievement of objectives,the adequacy of actions implemented in compliance with ministerial directives and theinformation supplied by the management-control and strategic-assessment service.Executives whose contract expires are assessed to determine whether to keep and/orto promote them.Promotion and mobilityAn executives career does not follow a straight line. On completion of a fixed-termcontract, he or she can move from a grade C position to a grade A position ifassessment results are highly satisfactory.Mobility is an important concept. Executives are now entitled to work for up to fiveyears in the private sector or in international organizations with the right to return tothe executive group without loss of prerogatives.Lastly, line managers can become researchers. The Public Administration Collegeallows interested executives to research useful government modernization themes .
Civil Service of JapanThe Japanese civil service has over one million employees, with 400,000 workers inpostal service. In the post-war period, this figure has been even higher.AppointmentsNational government civil servants are divided into "special" and "regular" categories.Appointments in the special category are governed by political or other factors and donot involve competitive examinations. This category includes cabinet ministers, headsof independent agencies, members of the Self-Defense Forces, Diet officials, andAmbassadors.The core of the civil service is composed of members of the regular category, who arerecruited through competitive examinations. This group is further divided into juniorservice and upper professional civil service elite.
The Elite bureaucrats of Japan Civil ServiceThe University of Tokyo law faculty is the single most important source of elitebureaucrats. After graduation from college and, increasingly, some graduate-levelstudy, applicants take a series of difficult higher civil service examinations: in 2009,for example, 22,186 took the tests of higher (the 1st grade) civil service, but only1,494, or 6.7 percent, were successful. Of those who were successful, only 660 wereactually hired. The typical young bureaucrat, who is in most cases male, is anintelligent, hardworking, and dedicated individual. Recently, many top-classcandidates in universities prefer to choose financial companies or certificate oflawyers and accountants rather than civil services, however. This is because salary incivil services is lower especially when they are young.The publics attitude toward the elite is ambivalent. The elite enjoy great socialprestige, but its members are also resented. They live in a realm that is at least partlypublic, yet far removed from the lives of ordinary people. Compared with politicians,they are generally viewed as honest.Japans elite bureaucrats are free from any political pressure because they work undercivil service act.
Japan Civil ServiceThe Ministry of Finance is generally considered the most powerful andprestigious of the ministries of Japan. Its top officials are regarded as thecream of the elite. The Civil services in Japan underwent significantchanges and reforms to work more efficiently in severe budget situationof the government in 2001.Central Government Reform was implemented to merge existingministries, strengthen the operation of cabinet and achieve more efficientwork. Criticism to civil services from media and people has got strongeragainst some scandals, mal practice to assure the advantages of high-rank officials after retirement, salary standard and many other factors.
Civil Service of MalaysiaEach Ministry is headed by a Minister and the executive officer isknown as the Secretary General. The Prime Minister’s Department isalso a ministry.Typically there are a number of departments and possibly one or morestatutory bodies as well under a ministry. Head of departments aregiven the title Director General. Head of statutory bodies are calledChairman while the Chief Executive Officer who is a civil servant iscalled the General Manager. There are statutory bodies headed by theexecutive chairman who also functions as the General Manager .The State Agencies consist of state departments, state statutory bodiesand local governments (City, Municipal and District Councils).
The Civil Service of MalaysiaThe term Public Service does not include special institutions like theJudiciary, Public Service Commissions.Central AgenciesThe TreasuryThe Economic Planning Unit (EPU)The Implementation Coordination Unit (ICU)The Central Agencies are Federal agencies responsible for formulating thenational financial and economic policies, the public sector human resourcepolicies and the monitoring and supervising the implementation of thesepolicies. The central agencies are:Ethnic relations and the civil service There is no bias there. All racesare given opportunity for top management positions. There is no quotasystem in Malaysian civil service.
The Civil Service Agencies in MalaysiaAmong civil service agencies in Malaysia are:Royal Malaysian PoliceFire and Rescue Department MalaysiaMalaysian Civil Defence ForceMalaysian Prison DepartmentMalaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC)Election Commission of Malaysia
Central Superior Service of PakistanThe structure of civil service in Pakistan is established under Article 240 of the Constitution of IslamicRepublic of Pakistan. The Constitution lays down separate service for federation and Provinces. Federaland Provincial Governments are required to regulate their civil services through Act of parliament. Legally,there is no service named as Central Superior Services of Pakistan (CSS). This term has emerged fromexam conducted by Federal Public Service Commission for appointment on posts at officer entry level inoccupational groups of APUG. The FPSC holds the combine competitive exam annually under the titleadvertised as exam for Central Superior Services, the term of colonial days. Similarly, use of word Centralinstead of Federal and term Superior are also legacy of past. These were relevant when there was CentralGovernment under 1956 constitution and classes existed in civil service. The 1973 reforms abolished allclasses in civil service. The concept of occupational groups was introduced. Following the foundations laidin the Constitution, the federal government promulgated The Civil Servants Act, 1973 and each provinceenacted its own Civil Servants Acts. The law allow civil service of federation, and of provinces, to beregulated as per rules notified under these enactments.Consequently, both sets of governments have notified Civil Servants (Appointment, Transfer andPromotion) Rules, 1974. The qualification and method (the way) of filling of all posts is regulated by theserules. The posts at initial officer level i.e. BS-17, are classified to be filled by way of promotion or transferand by direct recruitment They join service at young age as compared to departmental officers, andtherefore reach to the highest slots. Since the number of direct officers at entry level is less but their quota inposts in BS-18 to BS-22 is fixed on higher side so their promotion are on fast phase. This arrangementsmakes the civil attractive for talented individuals and instill sense of superiority and pride. Currently, CSSExam is conducted by FPSC includes the following Occupational Groups.
History of civil services in PakistanThe civil Bureaucracy is a colonial legacy n this part of the world. The British used to rule the native population throughIndian Civil Service (ICS) and most of the officers in ICS were British themselves. It was in the early 20th Century that theIndians also started competing against the British and many Indians eventually made it to the ICS. With the in 1947, the termCentral Superior Services was used in Pakistan and the concept of All-Pakistan Services continued. The latter consisted ofthe Civil Service of Pakistan and the Police Service of Pakistan, whereas the Central Services included the Pakistan ForeignService and a broad category of Finance and other services. The Finance category included the Pakistan Audit and AccountsService, Pakistan Railway Accounts Service, Pakistan Military Accounts Service, Pakistan Taxation Service, and thePakistan Customs and Excise Service. The Central Services other than these included the Pakistan Postal Service, PakistanMilitary Land and Cantonment Service, Central Secretariat Service, and Central Information Service. Each of these serviceshad its own cadre and composition rules, specifying the total cadre strength in terms of its number of positions.With the Civil Services Reforms of 1973 a new system of Common Training Program or CTP was introduced and all ofthese occupational groups (12 at that time) were required to go through a mandatory combined training at Civil ServicesAcademy (CSA), Lahore. The batch of officers who attended CSA in 1973 is recognized as “1st Common”. Up till 5thCommon the allocation of occupational groups was done after the culmination of Common Training Program but from 6thCommon onwards this task has also been assumed by FPSC. Even till this day it is an official procedure that once theProbationary Officers successfully complete their CTP then they undergo some further Specialized Training Program (STP)in their own professional academies. Currently the whole civil service cadre is riddled with corruption and incompetence.Commissioned officers of Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Navy have their own quota of 10% in all servicegroups of the Central Superior Services but historically they have only joined District Management Group (DMG), ForeignService of Pakistan (FSP), and Police Service of Pakistan (PSP). Usually officers of Captain Rank are short listed by GeneralHead Quarters (GHQ) and selected against this quota after the permission directly by Chief of Army Staff before interviewprocess.
District Management GroupDistrict Management Group or DMG, is an elite cadre of the Civil Service of Pakistan.Officers in this group are recruited through a competitive examination held once a year by theFederal Public Service Commission of Pakistan. Those selected for this group have to undergo atwo-year training programme at the Civil Services Academy (CSA) in Lahore, Pakistan.The Indian Civil Service (ICS)—predecessor of the Civil Service of Pakistan and DistrictManagement Group—was established by the British. Later it was named the Civil Service ofPakistan. In 1954, an agreement was reached between the Governor General of Pakistan and thegovernors of the provinces to constitute an All-Pakistan service. Under administrative reforms of1973, the name of Civil Service of Pakistan was changed to All-Pakistan Unified Group (APUG)of which the DMG and Police Service of Pakistan are now major components.Appointments of DMG OfficersAfter completing initial training and probation at the CSA, officers are posted in field officesthroughout Pakistan on BPS 17 Grade appointments. Their first appointment is typically asAssistant Commissioner of a sub-division. They will simultaneously be charged with theresponsibilities of Deputy Collector (Revenue) and Sub-Divisional Magistrate. Subsequently asthey progress in their careers, DMG Officers are placed on a variety of field, staff, secretarial andinstructional appointments. The BPS grades are enumerated as:
Grade Appointment in Pakistan Civil ServiceField appointment of AC combines roles of Executive Magistracy (SDM) and Land Revenue (Dy. Collector)Acting charge of a Provincial Secretary is also sometimes held by an officer in BPS-19.BPS-20Commissioners of Divisions are directly responsible to the Chief Secretary of respective Province.Post Devolution (2001) ScenarioSince 2001, after the passage of Local Governance Ordinance (LGO) 2001 the nature of appointments takenby DMG officers has undertaken a shift. With the abolition of the institution of Executive Magistracy, theposition of DM/SDM no longer exist. A DMG officer now makes a start as Deputy District Officer(Revenue), a new nomenclature for Deputy Collector (Land Revenue). Similarly, the erstwhile DeputyCommissioner has been replaced with a DO(R) under Land Revenue Act. AC has been replaced with DDOR,while the powers of Commissioners have been vested with EDOR. DCO the so-called head of districtgovernment is not even a revenue officer under Land Revenue Act. He cannot sit as a Revenue court andappeals against decisions of EDOR are heard in Board of revenue.
Singapore Civil ServiceThe Singapore Civil Service is the set of civil servants working for the Government ofSingapore. Many of its principles were inherited from the administrative system left by theBritish Civil Service, as Singapore was once a British colony.The Singapore Civil Service is widely regarded as one of the most efficient and uncorruptbureaucracies in the world, with a high standard of discipline and accountability. It is widelyregarded as one of the key contributors to the success of Singapore since independence.Not all employees of the state and public institutions or corporations are civil servants. Usage ofthe term is usually reserved for employees working in government ministries and relateddepartments. Those employed in Statutory Boards are known as "public servants".Head of the Civil ServiceThe highest ranking civil servant is the Head of the Civil Service. The position holder isaccountable for ensuring that the Civil Service is equipped with the skills and capability to meetthe everyday challenges it faces and that civil servants work in a fair and decent environment.Civil Service valuesThe core values of the civil service are integrity, service, and excellence.
The government of SingaporeThe government of Singapore consists of several departments, known asministries and statutory boards in Singapore. Ministries are led by amember of the cabinet and deal with state matters that require directpolitical oversight.The member of the cabinet heading the ministry is known as theminister, who is supported by a junior minister known as the minister ofstate in Singapore. The administrative management of the ministry is ledby a senior civil servant known as a permanent secretary.
Sri Lanka Administrative ServiceThe Sri Lanka Administrative Service (SLAS) is the key administrative service of theGovernment of Sri Lanka, with civil servants working for both in the Central Government as wellas in the provincial councils. It was formed as the Ceylon Administrative Service (CAS) in 1963as the successor to the Ceylon Civil Service which was abolished on May 1, 1963. It is the seniorof the public services.Based on the British Civil Service the SLAS is the permanent bureaucracy that helps the electedofficials on day-to-day functions of government. They are selected, promoted by the PublicService Commission. But top positions in the government such as Permanent Secretaries areappointed by the President, in theory on the recommendations of the Public Service Commission.A Permanent Secretary is the top bureaucrat of the government ministry and is responsible forthe day-to-day functions of the ministry where as in theory the minister is responsible only fordrafting policy. The head of the SLAS is the Secretary to the President.
Ceylon Civil ServiceThe Ceylon Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym CCS, originated as the elite civilservice of the Government of Ceylon under British colonial rule in 1833 and carried on afterindependence, until May 1, 1963 when it was abolished and the much larger CeylonAdministrative Service (CAS) was created absorbing all executive management groups, was tobe established with five grades. It was renamed following the declaration of the republic in 1972as the Sri Lankan Administrative Service which is now the key administrative service of theGovernment.At the early days the CCS was staffed by Europeans, members of the British Civil Service andonly later were Ceylonese admitted. Only six to eight (or in some years only one) out of a verylarge number of applicants were selected by open competitive examination from graduates withfirst class honors, between the ages of 22 and 24. The selected were classed as cadets and trainedon public administration. They would receive job experience with rotation, serving in thedistricts, in public corporations, ministries and being part of ministerial delegations travelingabroad.This ensured that the top non-elected government positions were held by the best availablecandidates. This was very important since the appointments were permanent. The officers of theCCS therefore commanded a high level of respect, a situation which has continued into the early21st century. When the CCS was abolished its officers were taken in to the CeylonAdministrative Service, the successor to the Ceylon Civil Service
Sri Lanka Administrative ServiceThe Sri Lanka Administrative Service (SLAS) is the keyadministrative service of the Government of Sri Lanka, with civilservants working for both in the Central Government as well as in theprovincial councils. It was formed as the Ceylon Administrative Service(CAS) in 1963 as the successor to the Ceylon Civil Service which wasabolished on May 1, 1963. It is the senior of the public services.Based on the British Civil Service the SLAS is the permanentbureaucracy that helps the elected officials on day-to-day functions ofgovernment. They are selected, promoted by the Public ServiceCommission. But top positions in the government such as PermanentSecretaries are appointed by the President, in theory on therecommendations of the Public Service Commission.A Permanent Secretary is the top bureaucrat of the government ministryand is responsible for the day-to-day functions of the ministry where asin theory the minister is responsible only for drafting policy. The head ofthe SLAS is the Secretary to the President.
Her Majestys Civil Service of EnglandMajestys Home Civil Service, also known as just the Home Civil Service, is thepermanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports Her Majestys Government -the government of the United Kingdom composed of a Cabinet of ministers chosen bythe prime minister, as well as the devolved administrations in Wales.Under the principle of responsible government, ministers are accountable to theSovereign (The Crown - the monarch of the United Kingdom) and the Parliament of theUnited Kingdom (and, in the devolved administration in Scotland, the ScottishParliament) in administering the United Kingdom. However, their executive decisionsare implemented by Her Majestys Civil Service, the British civil service. Civil servantsare employees of the Crown and not Parliament. Civil servants also have sometraditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from beingused for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may becalled to account to Parliament
Her Majestys Civil Service of EnglandIn general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdomdoes not include all public sector employees; the term isusually defined as "a servant of the Crown working in a civilcapacity who is not the holder of a political (or judicial) office;the holder of certain other offices in respect of whose tenure ofoffice special provision has been made; [or] a servant of theCrown in a personal capacity paid from the CivilAs such, the Civil Service does not include governmentministers (who are politically appointed), members of theBritish Armed Forces, police officers, local governmentofficials, members of the National Health Service, or staff ofthe Royal Household.
Permanent Secretaries Management Group (PSMG)A permanent, unified and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments weremade on merit and those who engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an"administrative" class.The PSMG consider issues of strategic importance to the Civil Service as a whole, aswell as providing corporate leadership where a single position is required across allgovernment departments It is chaired by Head of the Home Civil Service and consistsof all first permanent secretaries and other selected permanent secretaries and directorsgeneral. This includes Bruce Robinson, the current Head of the Northern Ireland CivilService, and Peter Ricketts the current Head of the Diplomatic Service.Civil Service Steering Board (CSSB)The CSSB was established in 2007 and meets monthly. Its role is to enhance theperformance and reputation of the Civil Service by focusing on specific areas delegatedto it by PSMG. The CSSB is chaired by Head of the Home Civil Service.Civil Service CommissionersThe Civil Service Commissioners are not civil servants and are independent ofMinisters, they are appointed directly by the Crown under Royal Prerogative and theyreport annually to The Queen.
Permanent Secretaries Management Group (PSMG)Their main role is regarding the recruitment of civil servants. They have theresponsibility to ensure that all civil servants are recruited on the “principle of selectionon merit on the basis of fair and open competition.Political neutralityThe Home Civil Service is a politically neutral body, with the function of impartiallyimplementing the policy programme of the elected government.Like all servants of the Crown, civil servants are legally barred from standing forelection as Members of Parliament or any other political office. All civil servants aresubject to the Official Secrets Act, meaning that they may not disclose sensitivegovernment information.
Civil Service of United States of AmericaIn the United States, the civil service was established in 1872. The Federal CivilService is defined as "all appointive positions in the executive, judicial, and legislativebranches of the Government of the United States, except positions in the uniformedservices.In the early 19th century, government jobs were held at the pleasure of the president—aperson could be fired at any time.The spoils system meant that jobs were used to support the political parties. This waschanged in slow stages by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 andsubsequent laws.By 1909, almost two-thirds of the U.S. federal work force was appointed based onmerit, that is, qualifications measured by tests. Certain senior civil service positions,including some heads of diplomatic missions and executive agencies are filled bypolitical appointees. Under the Hatch Act of 1939, civil servants are not allowed toengage in political activities while performing their duties.The U.S. civil service includes the Competitive service and the Excepted service Themajority of civil service appointments in the U.S. are made under the CompetitiveService, but certain categories in the Diplomatic Service the FBI, and other NationalSecurity positions are made under the Excepted Service
Pay Systems of the USA Civil ServiceGeneral Schedule (or GS) is the name used to describe a pay scale utilized by the majority of white collarpersonnel in the civil service of the federal government of the United States. The GS was enacted into law bythe , which replaced a similar act of the same name enacted in 1923. The GS is intended to keep federalsalaries equitable among various occupations ("equal pay for equal work").The GS includes most professional, technical, administrative, and clerical positions in the federal civilservice. The Wage Grade (WG) schedule includes most federal blue-collar workers. As of September 2004,71% of federal civilian employees were paid under the GS; the remaining 29% were paid under other systemssuch as the Federal Wage System for federal blue-collar civilian employees, the Senior Executive Service/and the Executive Schedule for high-ranking federal employees, and the pay schedules for the United StatesPostal Service and the Foreign Service. In addition, some federal agencies—such as the United StatesSecurities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Reserve System, andAll federal employees in the GS system receive a base pay that is adjusted for locality. Locality pay varies,but is at least 10% of base salary in all parts of the United States. The following salary ranges represent thelowest and highest possible amounts a person can earn, without earning over-time pay or receiving a merit-based bonus. Actual salary ranges differ (for instance a GS-9, step 1 in rural Arkansas may start at $46,625versus $55,015 in San Jose, California), but all salaries lie within the parameters of the following ranges(effective January, 2009)19% of federal employees earned salaries of $100,000 or more in 2009. The averagefederal workers pay was $71,208 compared with $40,331 in the private sector. In 2010, there were 82,034workers, 3.9% of the federal workforce, making more than $150,000 annually, compared to 7,240 in 2005.
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