Project human resource management


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Project human resource management

  1. 1. Project Human Resource ManagementMudassar Saleem 10-SE-138Syed Haris 10-SE-74Jahangir Shams 10-SE-144Muhammad Yousuf 10-SE-18Muhammad Danial 10-SE-114
  2. 2. Human Resource andHuman Resource Management• Human Resources (HR) is the set of individuals (people) whomake up the workforce of an organization, business sector or aneconomy.– "Human Capital" is sometimes used synonymously withhuman resources, although human capital typically refers to amore narrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individualsembody and can contribute to an organization.• Human Resource Management (HRM) is the process ofacquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, andof attending to their labor relations, health and safety, andfairness concerns.
  3. 3. Project Human Resource Management• Include the process that organize, manage, and lead the projectteam.• Making the most effective use of the people involved with aproject.• Early involvement and participation of team members benefits:– add their expertise during the planning process– strengthens their commitment• Tips: Understand clearly the role and responsibilities of ProjectSponsor/Initiator, the team, stakeholders, functional manager, PM, portfoliomanager, program manager
  4. 4. Project Human Resource Management:ProcessesKnowledgeAreaProcessInitiating Planning ExecutingMonitoring& ContolClosingHumanResourceDevelop HumanResource PlanAcquire Project TeamDevelop Project TeamManage Project TeamEnter phase/Start projectExit phase/End projectInitiatingProcessesClosingProcessesPlanningProcessesExecutingProcessesMonitoring &Controlling Processes
  5. 5. Project Human Resource Management:Processes• Processes include:– Human Resource Planning: Identifying and documentingproject roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.– Acquiring The Project Team: Getting the needed personnelassigned to and working on the project.– Developing The Project Team: Building individual and groupskills to enhance project performance.– Managing The Project Team: Tracking team memberperformance, motivating team members, providing timelyfeedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinatingchanges to help enhance project performance.
  6. 6. Keys to Managing People• Psychologists and management theorists have devoted muchresearch and thought to the field of managing people at work.• Important areas related to project management include:– Motivation theories– Influence and power– Effectiveness
  7. 7. • Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activityfor their own enjoyment.• Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for areward or to avoid a penalty.• For example, some children take piano lessons for intrinsicmotivation (they enjoy it) while others take them for extrinsicmotivation (to get a reward or avoid punishment).Motivation Theory: Intrinsic and ExtrinsicMotivation
  8. 8. • Abraham Maslow argued that human beings possess uniquequalities that enable them to make independent choices, thusgiving them control of their destiny.• Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs, which states thatpeople’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence ofneeds.Motivation Theory: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  9. 9. Motivation Theory: Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsImage source: NeedsHigher Level ofNeeds
  10. 10. • Frederick Herzberg wrote several famous books and articlesabout worker motivation. He distinguished between:– Motivational factors: Achievement, recognition, the workitself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Thesefactors produce job satisfaction.– Hygiene factors: Larger salaries, more supervision, and amore attractive work environment. These factors causedissatisfaction if not present, but do not motivate workersto do more.Motivation Theory: Herzberg’s Motivationaland Hygiene Factors
  11. 11. Motivation Theory: Two Factors Theory• Herzberg’s Theory– Job dissatisfaction due to lack of hygiene factors– Job satisfaction due to motivation factorsHygiene Factors- Working condition- Salary- Personal life- Relationship at work- Security- StatusMotivation Factors- Responsibility- Self actualization- Professional growth- Recognition
  12. 12. Motivation Theory: Acquired Needs Theory• David McClelland’s TheoryPeople are motivated by one of the three needsNeeds Behavioral StyleAchievement(N-Ach) These people should be given projects that arechallenging but are reachable They like recognitionAffiliation(N-Affil) These people work best when cooperating withothers They seek approval rather than recognitionPower(N-Pow) People whose need for power is sociallyoriented, should be allowed to manager others These people like to organize and influenceothers
  13. 13. Motivation Theory: McGregor’s X & Y Theory• Theory X– People tends to be negative, passive e.g.incapable, avoid responsibility, need to bewatched– Extrinsic Motivation• Theory Y– People tends to be positive e.g. want to achieve, willing towork without supervision, can direct their own effort– Intrinsic Motivation
  14. 14. • Power is the potential ability to influence behavior to getpeople to do things they would not otherwise do.• Types of power include:– Coercive power– Legitimate power– Expert power– Reward power– Referent powerPower
  15. 15. • Project managers can apply Covey’s seven habits to improveeffectiveness on projects.– Be proactive.– Begin with the end in mind.– Put first things first.– Think win/win.– Seek first to understand, then to be understood.– Synergize.– Sharpen the saw.Improving Effectiveness: Covey’s Seven Habits
  16. 16. 1. Develop Human Resource Plan• The process of identifying and documenting projectroles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationshipsand creating a staffing management plan.Inputs1. Activity resourcerequirements2. Enterpriseenvironmental factors3. Organizational processassetsTools &Techniques1. Organization charts andposition descriptions2. Networking3. Organizational theoryOutputs1. Human resource plan.
  17. 17. • Teams are used throughout software production– Especially during implementation• Two extreme approaches to team organization– Democratic teams (Weinberg, 1971)– Chief programmer teams (Brooks, 1971; Baker, 1972)Team Organization
  18. 18. Democratic Team Approach• Basic underlying concept—egoless programming• Egoless programming– Restructure the social environment– Restructure programmers’ values– Encourage team members to find faults in code– A fault must be considered a normal and accepted event– The team as whole will develop an ethos, group identity– Modules will “belong” to the team as whole– A group of up to 10 egoless programmers constitutes ademocratic teamTeam Organization
  19. 19. Democratic Team ApproachTeam Organization
  20. 20. Chief Programmer Teams• Problem with democratic teams is communication.• Consider a 6-person team– Fifteen 2-person communication channels– The total number of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-person groups is57– The team cannot do 6 person-months of work in 1 monthTeam Organization
  21. 21. Chief Programmer TeamsTeam Organization• Six programmers, but now only 5 lines of communication
  22. 22. Chief Programmer Teams• Two key aspects– Specialization– Hierarchy• Chief programmer is personally responsible for every line ofcode.– He/she must therefore be present at reviews• Chief programmer is also team manager,– He/she must therefore not be present at reviews!Team Organization
  23. 23. Democratic Centralized TeamTeam Organization• Solution– Reduce the managerial role of the chief programmer
  24. 24. Democratic Centralized Team• It is easier to find a team leader than a chief programmer• Each employee is responsible to exactly one manager—linesof responsibility are clearly delineated• Team leader is responsible for only technical management• Budgetary and legal issues, and performance appraisal are nothandled by the team leader• Team leader participates in reviews—the team manager is notpermitted to do so• Team manager participates at regular team meetings toappraise the technical skills of the team membersTeam Organization
  25. 25. Democratic Centralized Team for Large ProjectTeam Organization
  26. 26. Democratic Centralized Team for Large ProjectTeam Organization• Decentralize the decision-making process where appropriate
  27. 27. Organization Chart & Position Desc. (Tools & Techniques)• Ensure that each work package has an unambiguous owner.• All team members have a clear understanding of their roles andresponsibility.• Types of R&R:– Hierarchical e.g. Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)– Matrix e.g. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) e.g. RACI (responsible,accountable, consult, inform)– Text-orientedActivity Role-1 Role-2 Role-3 Role-4Aaaaaa R R C IBbbbb R A ICcccc R A C I
  28. 28. Sample Organizational Chart for a Large IT Project
  29. 29. Work Definition and Assignment Process
  30. 30. • A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a matrix thatmaps the work of the project, as described in the WBS, to thepeople responsible for performing the work, as described inthe OBS.• Can be created in different ways to meet unique projectneeds.Responsibility Assignment Matrixes
  31. 31. Sample: Responsibility Assignment Matrixes(RAM)
  32. 32. RAM Showing Stakeholder Roles
  33. 33. Sample RACI ChartR = Responsibility, only one R per taskA = AccountabilityC = ConsultationI = Informed
  34. 34. Staffing Management Plans and ResourceHistograms• A Staffing Management Plan describes when and how peoplewill be added to and taken off the project team.• A Resource Histogram is a column chart that shows thenumber of resources assigned to a project over time.
  35. 35. Sample Resource Histogram
  36. 36. Human Resource Plan (Output)HR plan includes(but not limited to)1. Roles and responsibilities•Role•Authority•Responsibility•Competency2. Project Organization Chart3. Staffing Management Plan•Staff Acquisition•Resource calendars•Staff release plan•Training needs•Recognition and rewards•Compliance, Safety.• Resource HistogramBar chart shows number ofresource used per time periodThis is an output ofAcquire Project Teamprocess
  37. 37. 2. Acquire Project Team• The process of confirming human resource availability andobtain the team necessary to complete project assignments.Inputs1. Project managementplan2. Enterpriseenvironmental factors3. Organizational processassetsTools &Techniques1. Pre-assignment2. Negotiation3. Acquisition4. Virtual teamsOutputs1. Project staff assignment2. Resource calendars3. Project managementplan updatesRead as “Acquire final project team.”
  38. 38. • Acquiring qualified people for teams is crucial.• The project manager who is the smartest person on the teamhas done a poor job of recruiting!• Staffing plans and good hiring procedures are important, asare incentives for recruiting and retention.– Some companies give their employees one dollar for everyhour that a new person who they helped hire works.– Some organizations allow people to work from home as anincentive.2. Acquire Project Team
  39. 39. • They feel they do not make a difference.• They do not get proper recognition.• They are not learning anything new or growing as a person.• They do not like their coworkers.• They want to earn more money.Why People Leave Their Jobs
  40. 40. Resource Assignment• Pre-Assignment– Resources who are assigned in advance• Negotiation– For gaining resources within the organization or externalvendors, suppliers, contractors, etc (in contract situation)• Acquisition– Acquiring/hiring from outside resources (outsource)• Virtual teams– Think the possibilities of having group of people even little orno time spent to meet face to face.
  41. 41. 1) Subtract the smallest number in each row from every numberin that row• subtract the smallest number in each column from everynumber in that column2) Draw the minimum number of vertical and horizontal straightlines necessary to cover zeros in the table• if the number of lines equals the number of rows orcolumns, then one can make an optimal assignment(step 4)Resource Assignment
  42. 42. 3) If the number of lines does not equal the number of rows orcolumns• subtract the smallest number not covered by a line fromevery other uncovered number• add the same number to any number lying at theintersection of any two lines• return to step 24) Make optimal assignments at locations of zeros within thetableResource Assignment
  43. 43. Resource Assignment CasePerson Activity GroupI II III IV18 10 15 1215 13 10 1116 8 16 1314 11 12 9LetA, E, H Activity Group IB, C Activity Group IID, F, G Activity Group IIII, J Activity GroupIV
  44. 44. Resource Assignment Case: Step 1Person Activity GroupI II III IV18 10 15 1215 13 10 1116 8 16 1314 11 12 9PersonActivity GroupI II III IV8 0 5 25 3 0 18 0 8 55 2 3 0PersonActivity GroupI II III IV3 0 5 20 3 0 13 0 8 50 2 3 0
  45. 45. Resource Assignment Case: Step 2Person Activity GroupI II III IV3 0 50 3 0 13 0 8 50 2 3 02 rows and 3 columns => go to step 3smallestuncoverednumber
  46. 46. Resource Assignment Case: Step 3Person Activity GroupI II III IV1 0 3 00 5 0 11 0 6 30 4 3 0
  47. 47. Resource Assignment Case: Step 4Person Activity GroupI II III IV18 10 15 1215 13 10 1116 8 16 1314 11 12 9Activity GroupI II III IV1 0 3 00 5 0 11 0 6 30 4 3 0Person
  48. 48. Final AssignmentActivity Group II 8Activity Group IV 12Activity Group I 14Activity Group III 10$34
  49. 49. 3. Develop Project Team• The process of improving the competencies, teaminteraction, and the overall team environment to enhanceproject performance.Inputs1. Project staff assignment2. Project managementplan3. Resource calendarTools &Techniques1. Interpersonal skills2. Training3. Team-building activities4. Ground rules5. Co-location6. Recognition andrewardsOutputs1. Team performanceassessments2. Enterpriseenvironmental factorsupdates.
  50. 50. • The main goal of team development is to help people worktogether more effectively to improve project performance.• It takes teamwork to successfully complete most projects.3. Develop Project Team
  51. 51. Team Building Activities (Tools & Techniques)Tuckman’s stage of team formation and development:1. FORMING– The team meets and learns about the project and what their roles and responsibilities.2. STORMING– Address the project work, technical decisions and the project management approach.Conflict/disagreement may occurs.3. NORMING– Work together and adjust work habits and behavior that support the team.4. PERFORMING– Being a well-organized unit5. ADJOURNING– Team completes the work and move on from the project.
  52. 52. Tuckman Model of Team Development• Forming involves the introduction of team members.• Storming occurs as team members have different opinions asto how the team should operate. People test each other, andthere is often conflict within the team.• Norming is achieved when team members have developed acommon working method, and cooperation and collaborationreplace the conflict and mistrust of the previous phase.• Performing occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the teamgoals, rather than working on team process. Relationships aresettled, and team members are likely to build loyalty towardseach other. The team is able to manage tasks that are morecomplex and cope with greater change.• Adjourning involves the break-up of the team after theysuccessfully reach their goals and complete the work.
  53. 53. Training• Training can help people understand themselves and eachother, and understand how to work better in teams.• Team building activities include:– Physical challenges– Psychological preference indicator tools
  54. 54. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)• MBTI is a popular tool for determining personality preferencesand helping teammates understand each other.• Four dimensions include:– Extrovert/Introvert (E/I)– Sensation/Intuition (S/N)– Thinking/Feeling (T/F)– Judgment/Perception (J/P)• NTs, or rationals, are attracted to technology fields.• IT people vary most from the general population in theirtendency to not be extroverted or sensing.
  55. 55. Wideman and Shenhar’s Views on MBTI& Project Management*• Most suited for project leadership:– 100 percent: INTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, ESTJ– 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ• Best suited as followers:– 100 percent: INFJ, ISFJ– 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ, ESFJ• Not suited for project work:– 100 percent: INFP, ISFP, ESFP, ISTP– 50 percent: ENFP, ESTP*Wideman, R. Max and Aaron J. Shenhar, “Professional and Personal Development: A PracticalApproach to Education and Training,” Project Management for Business Professionals, edited byJoan Knutson, 2001, p. 375.
  56. 56. MBTI and Suitability to Project Work**Wideman, R. Max. “Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do wehave enough of the right kind of people?”( ).What doyou thinkabouttheseviews?
  57. 57. Social Styles Profile• People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of fourzones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness:– Drivers– Expressives– Analyticals– Amiables• People on opposite corners (drivers and amiables, analyticalsand expressives) may have difficulty getting along.
  58. 58. Social Styles
  59. 59. Reward and Recognition Systems• Team-based reward and recognition systems can promoteteamwork.• Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals.• Allow time for team members to mentor and help each otherto meet project goals and develop human resources.
  60. 60. Reward and Recognition Systems• Team-based reward and recognition systems can promoteteamwork.• Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals.• Allow time for team members to mentor and help each otherto meet project goals and develop human resources.
  61. 61. Develop Project Team (Tools & Techniques)• Interpersonal skills (soft skills)• Training– Can be formal (classroom, online) or non-formal (on-jobtraining, mentoring, coaching)• Ground rules– Guidelines that establish clear expectation regarding acceptable behaviorby teams– Discussion to create it by all team members• Co-location– Placing many or all the most active team members in the same physicallocation– Can be temporary for strategy to enhance communication & build sense ofcommunity• Recognition & reward– It will only be effective if it is satisfies/valued by individual.– Plans concerning how to do it are developed during Develop HumanResource Plan.
  62. 62. 4. Manage Project Team• The process of tracking team member performance, providingfeedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimizeproject performance.Inputs1. Project staffassignments2. Project managementplan3. Team performanceassessments4. Performance reports5. Organizational processassetsTools &Techniques1. Observation andconversation2. Project performanceappraisals3. Conflict management4. Issue log5. Interpersonal skillsOutputs1. Enterpriseenvironmental factorsupdates2. Organizational processassets updates3. Change requests4. Project managementplan updates.
  63. 63. • Project managers must lead their teams in performing variousproject activities.• After assessing team performance and related information,the project manager must decide:– If changes should be requested to the project.– If corrective or preventive actions should berecommended.– If updates are needed to the project management plan ororganizational process assets.4. Manage Project Team
  64. 64. • Observation and conversation• Project performance appraisals• Conflict management• Issue logsTools and Techniques for Managing ProjectTeams
  65. 65. • Be patient and kind with your team.• Fix the problem instead of blaming people.• Establish regular, effective meetings.• Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-buildingstages.• Limit the size of work teams to three to seven members.General Advice on Teams
  66. 66. • Plan some social activities to help project team members andother stakeholders get to know each other better.• Stress team identity.• Nurture team members and encourage them to help eachother.• Take additional actions to work with virtual team members.General Advice on Teams
  67. 67. • Software can help produce RAMS and resource histograms.• By using project management software for human resourcemanagement, you can:– Assign resources.– Identify potential resource shortages or underutilization.– Level resources.Using Software to Assist in Human ResourceManagement
  68. 68. • Project managers must:– Treat people with consideration and respect.– Understand what motivates people.– Communicate carefully with people.• Focus on your goal of enabling project team members todeliver their best work.Project Resource Management InvolvesMuch More Than Using Software
  69. 69. • Project human resource management includes the processesrequired to make the most effective use of the peopleinvolved with a project.• Main processes include:– Human resource planning– Acquiring the project team– Developing the project team– Managing the project teamSUMMARY
  70. 70. Thank You!