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- refers to total sum and variations
over a large area for a long time.
-state of atmosphere over any area
at any time.
Distance from Sea
The differential heating and cooling of
land and water.
• This creates low pressure on the landmass,
while high pressure is created over the seas
around during day time, but is reversed during
the night time.
the shift in the position of Inter-
Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
• In summer, the equatorial trough normally
positioned about 5°N of the equator moves
over the Ganga plain creating a monsoon
trough during the monsoon season.
• It is approximately at 20°S over the Indian
Ocean. The intensity and position of this
high-pressure area affects the Indian
The Tibetan Plateau gets intensely
• resulting in strong vertical air currents and
high pressure over the plateau about 9 km
above sea level.
the movement of the westerly jet streams to
the north of the Himalayas and the presence of
the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian
• The advancing monsoon in India refers to the rainy season that
lasts for a period of four months from June to September. The
trade winds from the southern hemisphere, which originate over
the warm subtropical areas of the southern oceans, bring the
south-west monsoon winds into India.
• Another characteristic feature of the monsoon is the ‘breaks’ in
rainfall and refers to the alternating wet and dry spells of rains.
The Indian monsoon is very unpredictable. These breaks occur
due to the movement of the monsoon trough.
• The farming schedule of millions of farmers all over the country,
which is dependent on the monsoons, can sometimes get