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Obligatory knowledge in islam

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obligatory matters, benefecial and non benefecial knowledge, rewards for seeking knowledge, (reference- uthool-e-thalatha, the excellence of knowledge by al-Hafiz ibn Rajab al-Hanali)

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Obligatory knowledge in islam

  1. 1. OBLIGATORY KNOWLEDGE IN ISLAM
  2. 2. Information & awareness gained through experience or education (oxford) DEFINITION OF KNOWLEDGE
  3. 3. Allah mentions knowledge(ilm) in two ways Praisworthy - Beneficial knowledge – ilm naafi Blame worthy- Non-beneficial knowledge – Gair naafi
  4. 4. “Allah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and so do the angels and those firmly endowed with knowledge” Surah Zumar:9 Evidence for Benefecial knowledge
  5. 5. • “And say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge”Surah Imran:13 • “It is only the learned amongst His servants who truly fear Allah.” Surah Taha:114 • “Glory be to You! We have no knowledge except that which you have given us. You alone are the knowing Wise.” Surah Baqarah:32
  6. 6. In all the above verses it is the beneficial knowledge which is being talked of & that is Al –Ilm-al- Sharia
  7. 7. Non-Benefecial knowledge Is the one from which the Prophet has asked refuge with Allah in a beautiful supplication reported in sahih Muslim-2722 “ O Allah! I take refuge with you from knowledge that does not benefit, from a heart that has no fear, from a soul that is never content, from an invocation that is not responded to.”
  8. 8. BRANCHES Magic-sihr (Baqarah: 102) Bayan (Abu Dawood- 5012) Geneology (Partially) Discussion of Qadr Astronomy (Partially) Dhat of Allah (swt) Excessive debating about religion
  9. 9. Bayan Intended meaning expressed clearly Intended meaning expressed with such a level of eloquence & cleverly modified phrases such that they captivate the hearts Commendable- directed to the truth or aid the truth Blameworthy- directed toward falsehood or confusion such that truth appears to be false or vice versa Magic Magic
  10. 10. It was said to the Prophet “Messenger of Allah! How astonishing is the knowledge of such and such a person!” He inquired “Of what?” They replied “Of people’s geneologies.’ He remarked “Knowledge that is of no benefit, the ignorance of which causes no harm.”
  11. 11. “Learn of your geneologies such amount as would allow you to join the ties of kinship, then desist. Learn of the Arabic language such amount as would allow you to understand the Book of Allah, then desist. Learn of astronomy such amount as would allow you to travel in the darkness of land and sea, then desist.” (Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al_iman #1723)
  12. 12. Umar bin Al Khattab said “Learn of astronomy such amount as would allow you to travel thorough land and sea, then refrain. Learn of geneologies such amount as would allow you to join the ties of kinship and would teach you which women are lawful for you and which are not, then refrain” ( Suyuti, al-Durr al- Manthur, vol. 3)
  13. 13. “Whoever acquires knowledge from the stars has acquired a branch of magic.” (Abu Dawud)
  14. 14. Using parts of the Quran to contradict other parts such that the one who affirms the divine decree quotes a particular verse while the one who denies it quotes another verse and they start quarrelling. It is reported that such an event occurred at the time of the Prophet whereupon he became angry and prohibited it Such matters are to be considered as disputing about the Quran and this has been prohibited
  15. 15. Discussing Qadr either by affirmation or negation by rationalizing & employing logical arguements
  16. 16. Prohibited Probing into the workings of Qadr Because humans will never be able to understand its true reality
  17. 17. • Negate many of Allah’s attributes because of likeness between the Creation & the Creator • Like As-Samee, Al-Baseer as in their view this is attributing Allah with attributes of seeing and hearing which is His creations’ • Eg- Mu’tazila & Jahmiyyah • Affirm Allah’s attributes through their logics and as a result derive fabricated names & attributes • Like “movement” – an attribute they believe to be a natural outcome of His established attributes • Eg- Karaamiyyah
  18. 18. “A nation never went astray after being guided except by means of disputation” (Tirmidhi,Ibn Majah) “They only say this to you for argument’s sake, they are indeed a disputatious people” (Zukhruf:58) “They ask you about the soul, say: the soul is my Lord’s concern” (Isra:85) Numerous evidences against asking excessive questions, asking tricky questions and also about events that have yet to occur” (Bukhari,Muslim) Evidences against excessive debating
  19. 19. Benefecial knowledge Obligatory (fard-e-Ayn) Optional/ recommended (Fard-e-Kifayah) Islamic faith/Usool-ad deen/ilm tawheed/aqeedah Fiqh Al Ahkam/Fiqh Al ibadah/acts of worship Optional Islamic knowledge (ilm ash-sharia) Wordly knowledge (ilm-ad-dunya)
  20. 20. Seeking religious knowledge is a collective obligation (Fard –e- Kifayah) except that which is individually incumbent. (fard-e- ayn) (Majmoo ul Fatawa). IBN TAYMIYYAH
  21. 21. It is the responsibility of every accountable person (sane, adult muslim; male or female; rich or poor) OBLIGATORY KNOWLEDGE
  22. 22.  According to Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal: it is obligatory on every individual to seek that type of knowledge which will allow him to practice his religion properly Fiqh Al Ahkam/Fiqh Al ibadah/acts of worship
  23. 23. FiqhAl-Ibadah Acts of worship/all aspects & rulings of pillars of islam/iman like rulings related to salah, zakah etc. Necessary transaction of business dealings Knowledge of daily issues like marriage, tarbiyah of children, divorce Knowledge of sins of heart, tongue, limbs, private parts etc.
  24. 24. Optional knowledge(Fard-e- kifayah) Al ilm al-Sharia (Optional Islamic knowledge) Al Ilm al-Dunya (wordly knowledge)
  25. 25. Wajib al kifayan (The communal obligations)  Knowledge of rulings of trading, dealings & transactions  Knowledge of religious endowments  Knowledge of laws of inheritance  Knowledge of universal, physical & material sciences etc
  26. 26.  In todays world we are more inclined towards dunyawi ilm rather than the ilm obligatory upon every person Even a doctor or a professor of world fame is considered a jahil and is at loss if he is not aware of how to attain taharah or correctly perform salah
  27. 27. I. SEEKING KNOWLEDGE (Al-ilm ash sharee) The legislative Islamic knowledge (Ignorance) Sin 39:9,7:138,46:23 Worship ILM JAHL
  28. 28. KNOWLEDGE OF ALLAH – Ma’arif-Allah OBLIGATORY KNOWLEDGE : AL-ILM- Uthool-e-thalatha Fundamentals of ISLAMIC FAITH (ILM USUL UD- DEEN/Ilm al Tawheed, Aqeedah) (fard ayn) KNOWLEDGE OF DEEN- Ma’arifad-Deen KNOWLEDGE OF PROPHET – Ma’arifa-Rasool
  29. 29. USOOL- E- THALATHA Root word- Asl meaning root/foundation Three – Rabb, deen, rasoo Three fundamental principles on which deen rests
  30. 30. Sent (73:16) messengers KNOWLEDGE OF ALLAH Our Lord(1:1) Creator (7:11) (39:62) Gave us purpose of life ((23:115) Worship Him alone (2:21) All types of worship only for Him (Islam,Eeman,Ihsan,Dua etc.) (72:18)
  31. 31. Knowledge of Allah Iman/Belief In Allah His Existence His Lordship (Rubbobiyah) His names & attributes (Asma was-Sifat) His Godhood “Ilah” (Uloohiyah)
  32. 32. KNOWLEDGE OF ALLAH’S EXISTENCE INTELLECTUAL PROOF “Were they created of nothing or were they themselves creators?” (52:3)
  33. 33. Allah is our only Lord , creator, Sustainer, Planner, Controller of all affairs None has share in His dominion (1:1,7:11,39:62) TAWHEED RUBOOBIYAH
  34. 34. (Quran 51:58) (Quran 1:2) (Quran23:116) (Quran 6:102)
  35. 35. AR-RABB (TARBIYAH) TAKING CARE OF EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR DEVELOPMENT- from beginning to completion “From a sperm- drop He had created him, and then moulds him in due proportion [Quran 80:19] OUR LORD THE NURTURER “And Who sends down rain from the sky in due measure, then We revived a dead land therewith, and so you will be brought forth from the graves.” (Quran 43:11)
  36. 36. Allah provides sustenance for us Didn’t leave us without purpose Rather He sent messengers with the message of Tawheed to worship only Him and direct all worships towards Him “Indeed, it is Allah who is the (continual) Provider, the firm possessor of strength (Dhariyat:58) “Then did you think that We created you uselessly and that to Us you would not be returned” (Muminoon:115) “Indeed, We have sent to you a Messenger as a witness upon you just as We sent to Pharoah a messenger” (Al-Muzzammil:15)
  37. 37. Knowledge of His beautiful names & attributes (Asma-ul-husna was sifat) TAWHEED ASMA WAS- SIFAT
  38. 38. None is worthy of worship except Him and all worships only for Him. He is the only “ILAH” TAWHEED ULOOHIYAH/UBOODIYAH
  39. 39. Thus with such awareness of our creator , the most powerful, the Al Mighty , one will denounce all imperfections that ignorant and deviant people attribute to Allah (sw) and so will refrain from shirk and bidaah.
  40. 40. II. ACTION based on KNOWLEDGE = FRUIT OF KNOWLEDGE  Action should be with eemaan in Allah (i.e., correct belief of heart, speech of tongue & action of the body parts)  Action is the establishment of obedience to him by-  Doing what He has commanded  Avoiding what He has forbidden
  41. 41. ACTION WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE BUT DOES NOT ACT PUNISHABLE
  42. 42. III. CALLING TOWARDS TRUTH 16:125  Debate  Wisdom  Fine admonition 12:108  Truth (Haqq)  Baseerah (evidences)  Sound knowledge
  43. 43. IV. PATIENT PERSEVERANCE
  44. 44. ISLAM (5 pillars) KNOWLEDGE OF DEEN EEMAN (6 pillars) (2:177) IHSAN (26:128)
  45. 45. ISLAM means complete submission to the will of Allah – the only God truly worthy of being worshipped without any partners
  46. 46. Evidence- Hadith of Jibreel (Umm-ul Hadith) Reported by Umar radi Allahu’anhu • One day while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi wa sallam) there appeared before us a man whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black, no signs of journey were to be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up and sat down in front of the Prophet with his knees touching against the Prophet’s and placing the palms of his hands on the thighs he said
  47. 47.  “O Muhammad”, tell me about Islaam.” The messenger of Allah said “ Islaam is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform prayers, to give zakah, to fast in Ramadan and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so.” He said: “You have spoken rightly” and we were amazed at him asking him and saying that he had spoken rightly.  Then he said, “Tell me what is Faith (Iman)?” He (upon him blessing and peace) answered, “To believe in Allah, His Angels, His books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe that no good or evil comes but by His Providence.” “You have spoken truthfully,” he said, and then, “Tell me what is Excellence (Ihsan)?” He SAW answered, “To worship Allah as if you see Him, for if you do not see Him, yet He sees you.” “You have spoken truthfully,” he said, and then, “Tell me of the Hour.” He (upon him blessing and peace) answered, “The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner.” He said, “Then tell me of its signs.” He (upon him blessing and peace) answered, “That the slave-girl shall give birth to her mistress, and those who were but barefoot, naked, needy herdsmen shall build buildings ever higher and higher.”
  48. 48. Then the stranger went away, and I stayed a while after he had gone, and the Prophet SAW said to me, “O Umar, do you know the questioner, who he was?” I said, “God and His Messenger (upon him blessing and peace)know best.” He (upon him blessing and peace) said, “It was Jibril (Gabriel). He came to teach you your religion.” This narration is from Sahih al-Bukhari
  49. 49. EEMAN SPEECH HEART TONGUE ACTION HEART TONGUE LIMBS Firm belief upon knowledge contained Confirmation & affirmation with the tongue Ibadah of the hearts (love, fear , hope etc.) Enjoining good & forbidding evil, dhikr, repentance Enjoining good, forbidding evil, salah, zakah, not cheating etc.
  50. 50. Worshipping Allah as if you were seeing Him & even though you do not see Him but He certainly sees you. (16:128,26:217-220,10:61) AL – IHSAAN (Perfection in Ibadah)
  51. 51. First level of Ihsaan Worship Him as if you were seeing Him directing your heart to Him & turn to Him & seek to draw near to Him yearning to the one you love.(Muslim 1/1-3/no.1) Second level of Ihsaan If not the first level of ihsan then worship Allah as though He was eeing you
  52. 52. KNOWLEDGE OF PROPHET Life & Lineage (lived for 63 yrs.) Prophet & Messenger to all mankind & Jinn (7:158) Sent as a mercy Purpose- Call to the light of ilm & tawheed from the darkness of shirk Religion completed through him (5:3)
  53. 53. He was also a human being but the chosen one Thus one will not elevate him to a divine status nor will he degrade him to a status that does not befit his prophethood He died (39:30) Knowledge of true status, functions and rights of the prophet
  54. 54. BENEFITS OF KNOWING THE PROPHET “Certainly you have in the life of the Messenger the 'Best Model' for him whose hope is in Allah and the last day, and who engages himself much in the remembrance of Allah.” (surah Ahzab:21)
  55. 55. BEST HUMAN BEING BEST OF ALL THE UMMAH BEST OF ALL THE RELIGIONS
  56. 56. Sourcesofknowledge(categorizationbyimam ash-shafi) Quran & authentic sunnah Unanimous agreement of scholars when proof is not found in book and sunnah. I)When some (one)sahabah said something and no opposition is found. I)Companions differed but Muhammed (saw) did’nt object. I)Anlytical deduction(Qiyas).
  57. 57. ETTIQUETES OF SEEKING KNOWLEDGE
  58. 58. • Firstly – Sincerity of intention for Allah • Hadith “Actions are but by intentions” • A sincere Intention is completely free from riyaa • Riya leads to loss of blessing from knowledge and is a sin RIYA – SHOW OFF
  59. 59. C RRUPT INTENTIONS! “Whoever seeks knowledge for the purpose of the wordly life will not smell the fragrance of paradise” (Abu Dawud)
  60. 60. Knowledge of Aqeedah at- Tawheed “ Know, that there is none worthy of worship (in truth except Allah..” (Surah Muhammad:19) “to know”- “to have knowledge” MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF KNOWLEDGE
  61. 61. 1. Excellence in asking questions in a good manner 2. Excellence in remaining quiet & listening attentively 3. Understanding 4. Memorising 5. Teaching 6. Fruit- Action upon it and keeping to its limit
  62. 62. REWARDS/GLAD TIDINGS FOR KNOWLEDGE SEEKERS
  63. 63. “Whoever Allah wants good for, He gives him understanding of the religion (Muslim , Bukhari) UNDERSTANDING OF RELIGION - Ability to address matters upon sound knowledge of Quran & Sunnah upon methodology of pious predecessors with wisdom
  64. 64. Three category of people saved from Allah’s curse (Tirmidhi) One who remembers Allah in a way that pleases Allah Religious scholars Talib-e-ilm/student of knowledge
  65. 65. Envy is permitted only in two cases: - A man whom Allah gives wealth and he disposes of it rightfully and - A man to whom Allah gives knowledge which he applies and teaches it” (Bukhari,Muslim)
  66. 66. Allah will exalt in degree (Mujadilah :11) Those who believe Those granted knowledge
  67. 67. Prophet has said : “The superiority of the learned over the devout worshipper is like my superiority over the most inferior amongst you (in good deeds).” He continued “Allah, His angels, the dwellers of the heaven and the earth and even the ant in its hole and the fish (in water) supplicate in favour of those who teach people knowledge.” (At-Tirmidhi)
  68. 68. Ilm before tawba & istighfaar (surah Muhammad:19) Importance of knowledge more than worship because - Light of knowledge benefits all - Worship if not done with the correct knowledge is worthless
  69. 69. “It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah” He who calls others to follow the right guidance will have a reward equal to the reward of those who follow him, without their reward being diminished in any respect on that account Surah Fatir:28 Muslim
  70. 70. “Verily the scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets . And verily prophets do not leave behind gold or silver as inheritance but rather they leave behind knowledge so whoever takes hold of it has taken hold of a large share” (Abu Dawud) Prophet is reported to have said “ Verily, Allah does not take away knowledge by snatching it from the people but He takes away by taking away (the lives) of the religious scholars till none of the scholars stays alive. Then the people will take ignorant ones as their leaders who when asked to deliver religious verdicts will issue them without knowledge , the result being that they will go astray and will lead others astray.” (Bukhari, Muslim)
  71. 71. Once a muslim has corrected his beliefs and ibadah through knowledge and cleansed his devotion from shirk, it becomes his responsibility to call others to it “O you who believe, ward off from yourselves and your families a fire whose fuel is men and stones” (surah Tahrim:6) And this is only possible with ilm al sharia. Prophet has said “Every one of you is a steward and is accountable for that which is committed to his charge.” (Bukhari , Muslim) Prophet has said- “Whoever is asked about the knowledge that he knows and then he hides it and keeps it away, he will be bridled on the day of judgement with a bridle of fire.(Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Al tirmidhi) Calling others to knowledge
  72. 72. Prophet is reported to have said: May Allah freshen the affairs of a person who hears something from us and communicates it to others as he heard it. Many a recipient of knowledge understands it better than the one who has heard it” (At-Tirmidhi)
  73. 73. May Allah make our journey journey of seeking knowledge, acting upon that and calling others to that easy for us and safeguard us from all the

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