Motivation theories


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Motivation theories

  1. 1. MOTIVATION Presented BY- SHRUTIKA PANDEY (definition and nature of motivation) SRISHTI DIXIT (importance of motivation) SHALVII SHARMA ( Maslow ’s theory ) SAKSHI SHUKLA (theory x and y)
  2. 2. Traced from Latin word movere, which means ‘to move’. 1. MOTIVE 2. MOTIVATING 3. MOTIVATION WHAT IS MOTIVATION?? “Motivation is a general inspiration process which gets the member or the team to pull their right effectively to give their loyalty to the group to carry out properly the tasks that they have expected and generally to play on effective plan in the job that the group has undertaken .“ -E.F.L BREECH
  3. 3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVE,MOTIVATING,MOTIVATION Motive Motivating Motivation Needs in Individuals Activating needs and providing need satisfaction environment Engagement in work behaviour
  5. 5. 1- BASED ON MOTIVE : Motivation is based on individuals motive .These motives are in the form of feelings that the individuals lacks something. To overcome this feeling of lackness ; the person tries to behave in a manner which helps in overcoming this feelings. 2- GOAL DIRECTED BEHAVIOUR : Motives impel an individual to behave in such a way as to achieve certain goals and derive satisfaction from it . Such as needs fulfillment , want satisfaction etc .
  6. 6. 3- RELATED TO SATISFACTION : It is related to satisfaction, satisfaction refers to the contentment experiences of an individual which he derives out of need fulfillment. Thus, satisfaction is a consequence of rewards & punishments associated with past experience. 4- PERSON MOTIVATED IN TOTALITY : A person is motivated in totality and not in part. Each individual in the organization is a self contained unit. These affect his behavior in different way. Moreover, feelings of needs and their satisfaction is a continuous process. Hence, an employee cannot be motivated partly by fulfilling some of his needs.
  7. 7. 5-CONTINOUS PROCESS- Satisfaction of one needs leads to feeling of another and the process continues. 6-MOTIVATION IS AN INTERNAL FEELING- Motivation is psychological phenomena which generates an internal feeling in a human being. Need is a feeling in the mind of a person which creates tension to satisfy the need by directing his behavior.
  9. 9. Improves the efficiency of work performance Ensures achievement of organizational goals Creates friendly & supportive relationships Leads to the stability in the work force Acceptance of organizational goals Influenced by social & cultural norms
  10. 10. It influences the level of performance of employees which depends on the ability & willingness of an individual. Thus, it helps in increasing productivity, reducing the cost of operations & securing overall efficiency.
  11. 11. Management can achieve the goals effectively by motivating subordinates to contribute their best efforts towards the fulfilment of the assigned tasks through rewards system, the management can secure the co-operation of subordinate towards the accomplishment of organisational goals.
  12. 12. 3. Creates friendly & supportive relationships It brings employees satisfaction through rewards, incentives, recognition of efficient work & promotional opportunities. Industrial disputes are reduced & there is high morale. 4. Leads to the stability in the work force Motivation creates confidence in the subordinates & secures their loyalty to the organization. In this way the rate of absenteeism & turnover is reduced, results organization builds a better image & is able to attract qualified & competent people.
  13. 13. 5. Acceptance of organisational changes When the changes, created by society, technology or value system, has to incorporate these changes to cope up with the requirement of the time. If these changes are properly motivated, they accept, introduce & implemented & keep the organization on right path of progress. 6. Influenced by social & cultural norms As human wants are unlimited, so with the satisfaction of one want, another want preferably of the higher order is created. Hence, motivation is also a continuous & unending process.
  14. 14. All the evidences that we have indicate that it is reasonable to assume in practically every human being and certainly in almost every newborn baby, that there is an active will towards health, an impulse towards growth, or towards the actualization ~ABRAHAM MASLOW
  15. 15. TYPES OF NEEDS PRIMARY NEEDS: Also known as physiological, biological , basic needs. These are animal drives which are essential for survival. SECONDARY NEEDS: These are also called as learned or derived needs; such as- •POWER •ACHIEVEMENT •STATUS •AFFILIATION GENERAL NEEDS : In this category, a need must not be learned but at the same time, its not completely physiological. Eg:Competence -Curiosity -Affection
  17. 17. SAFETY NEEDS • Living in a safe area • Medical insurance • Financial reserves
  18. 18. SOCIAL NEEDS
  22. 22. • High Employee Performance • Low employee turnover and absenteeism • Better Organizational Image • Better Industrial relations • Acceptability to change : Better Productivity IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION IN SERVICE INDUSTRY
  23. 23.  Researchers have proved that there is lack of hierarchical structure of needs as suggested by Maslow. Some people may have deprived of lower level needs but strive for self actualization.  There is lack of direct cause and effect relationship between need and behavior.  Sometimes peoples are not aware of their own needs.  Measurement of satisfaction of needs is not possible. Criticism
  24. 24. CONCLUSION The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs." As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.
  25. 25. McGregor developed a philosophical view of human kind with his Theory X and Theory Y in 1960 . His work is based upon Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, where he grouped the hierarchy into lower-order needs ( THEORY X ) and higher-order needs ( THEORY Y ) . He suggested that management could use either use set of needs to motivate employees, but better results would be gained by the use of Theory Y, rather than Theory X . These 2 views theorized how people view human behavior at work and organizational life . INTRODUCTION
  26. 26. THEORY XTheory x assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working and this encourages an authoritarian style of management . According to this view, management must actively intervene to get things done . This style of management assumes that workers :  Dislike working  Avoid responsibility  Have to be controlled, forced and threatened to deliver what’s needed  Need to be supervised at every step , with controls put in place  Need to be enticed to produce results, otherwise they have no ambition or motivation to work .
  27. 27. THEORY Y • Theory Y shows a participation style of management that is de-centralized . It assumes that employees are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility . It assumes that workers :  Take responsibility and are motivated to fulfill the goals they are given  Seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction  Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively
  28. 28. CONCLUSION OF THEORY X AND THEORY Y • THEORY X : • X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers . There is little delegation of authority and control remains centralized . • THEORY Y : • This management style tends to be more widely appropriate . In Y-type organizations are involved in decision making and have more responsibility .
  29. 29. MCGREGOR X-Y THEORIESTheory X • People need close supervision • Will avoid work when possible • Will avoid responsibility • That they desire only money • People must be pushed to perform Theory Y *People want independence in work *People seek responsibility *People are motivated by self-fulfilment *People naturally want to work *People will drive themselves to perform
  30. 30. CONCLUSION OF THEORY X AND THEORY Y • THEORY X : • X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers . There is little delegation of authority and control remains centralized . • THEORY Y : • This management style tends to be more widely appropriate . In Y-type organizations are involved in decision making and have more responsibility .