Most couples argue over
bills, debt, spending, and
other financial issues. How
they decide to deal with
money problems in your
marriage will determine
whether those problems
has a negative or positive
effect on their marriage.
Discipline, diet, and other parenting
issues can be sources of disagreement
between couples. A child is the number
one stressor in a marriage and can
accentuate differences in beliefs on
issues like how to discipline, who is
responsible for most of the child care
or what educational options to choose.
and infidelity are
sources of stres
and disharmony in
Time apart and
a lack of quality
serves to get
people out of
sync with each
Many couples argue over
equitable distribution of
household work, and how to
do it. Instead of sitting down
and dividing household chores
fairly they quibble over who
did or didn’t do what.
Not all friends are
relationships some of
them are toxic. One
must know the
difference between a
friend who will
relationship and one
who will break it
Many people are married
to someone who has one or
more habits they find
undesirable. My ex never
got angry with me.
In-laws, siblings, children and stepchildren can all create stress within a
marriage. When coping with negative issues
because of family step gently. The spouse
should come first but there are times when
one have to be willing to take a backseat
and bite your tongue.
All go into marriage with certain
expectations. Most of the
time, marriage is the opposite of
what they expected. They
romanticize marriage and become
disillusioned once those romantic
expectations aren’t met. Unmet
expectations are a major source
of conflict in marriages.
There are personality
traits that can doom a
marriage to failure. If
one trys to avoid the
conflict or neglect
the spouse then there
is a chance of conflict
Divorce rate in India is one of the lowest
across the globe. Out of 1,000 marriages in
India, 11 marriages terminates in a divorce.
Children are frightened and confused by the threat to the
Young children may react to divorce by becoming more
aggressive and uncooperated or withdrawing.
School work of children may also suffer due to marital
Children often exhibit a number of emotional and behavior
problems such as –
Sleeping or eating disorder.
Negative effect on growth of children.
Teenager and adult children of divorced parents often have
trouble with their own relationship and experience problem
with self esteem.
Suicide or depression of one partner.
Social comments on single parent especially female
Economic and financial instability.
Change in environment.
The family have to readjust itself in the environment and
society after discord.
•Poor sanitary conditions and poor quality of water
lead to illnesses like diarrhoea and other water
borne diseases, affecting the life expectancy of slum
• Among water borne diseases, diarrhoea
disproportionately affects children under the age of
five. Poor health among children adversely affects
the attendance rate at schools.
•In dense, overcrowded urban conditions it is often
difficult for people to find space to build latrines.
Many have to defecate in the open or share whatever
limited facilities are available which tend to offer no
Because of human waste and refuse collecting in stagnant pools
spread disease and contaminate water sources. The problem is
made worse during the rainy season when rubbish and
excrement are washed into cramped living areas.
In these conditions it is virtually impossible to remain healthy
and clean. Diseases spread rapidly among the crowded
conditions and the little money that slum dwellers earn often has
to be spent on medicines to help the sick recover.
Often these settlements are unofficial and so, without any legal
tenure, the people living there are not entitled to get connections
to basic facilities like water and sanitation. These settlements are
also vulnerable to demolition as governments reclaim the
illegally occupied land for other usages.
UNEMPLOYMENT - The slum environment is the
perfect breeding ground for a wide range of social
problems. High unemployment often causes men to
stay around the home growing increasingly frustrated
with their pathetic situation and the worsening
DOMESTIC VOILENCE - Cramped conditions mean
that there is nowhere to go when tensions rise, a
factor that regularly leads to domestic violence.
Sometimes the situation goes to the other extreme,
where people abandon their homes, lured by the
prospect of oblivion through alcohol or drug abuse.
Once people develop such problems the prospects of
finding work diminish. They fall deeper into poverty
and the cycle continues.
RISE OF SLUMLORDS -
LOW STATUS OF WOMEN
INTERFRENCE OF POLITICIANS
Some people manage to achieve a high status
within slums and establish themselves as slumlords. They are often allies of
certain politicians and gain control of sizeable chunks of the community land. By
renting out the land, they make huge financial gains while everyone living in the
slum struggles to survive on their meager earnings. The slumlords form elaborate
links with local politicians, government officials and the police, and slum dwellers
become dependent on them for the smallest of amenities. They have little
empathy with the slum residents and exploit them by charging highly inflated
prices for illegal electricity and water supplies or for constructing huts.
- The men do not like to see the women
becoming more powerful through forming women's groups as one of their main
concerns is keeping the slum dwellers helpless and under their control.
- The sheer volume of people
living in slums causes them to be obvious targets for politicians wanting to
increase their percentage of the vote. Slum inhabitants are often promised all
kinds of support and improvements in return for political allegiance, but their
trust is regularly abused.
Many children in the slums start work at a
very early age with no prospect of getting any
education. They make money by rag picking
(trawling through rubbish dumps to retrieve
anything that can be sold), selling
newspapers in traffic jams, peddling drugs or
begging. They are at risk of exploitation as
well as all the health problems that
accompany their lifestyles. Incest and abuse
can occur and child marriages are still
encouraged in some areas.
Female babies in the slums of India can face discrimination and poor
treatment from their very first moments, if they are given a chance
of life at all; although gender specific abortion is illegal in India, it is
still practiced in some places.
Male children are seen as a blessing and indulged in many areas of
Indian society. Children born into the deprived and harsh
environment of the slums may not be as fortunate, but male babies
are still given better treatment than the girls. Boys tend to be
healthier as they are given better food in greater quantities, and
they are also more likely to be sent to school.
In contrast, girls are seen as a drain on precious resources as they
will one day get married and their contribution towards the family
will end. To make up for this, they are forced to work from an early
age and any ambitions regarding schooling or future careers are
With that kind of start in life, it's difficult for women within the
slums to find a voice. They are used to getting little support from
their embers and are not usually considered worth consulting on
Role of the government and the NGOs. In a usual
scenario a migrated laborer secures a job with
security agencies, waste management service
providers, contractors, householders etc. They
usually employ slum dwellers as rag
pickers, sweepers, construction
labors, masons, carpenters, domestic helps etc. For
such migrating labors there should be a centralized
labor registration center where they can register
themselves and secure their labor ID number. These
centers should have direct contact with prospective
employers and they should try to find suitable jobs
for these workers according to their skills.
Countries need to recognize that the urban poor
are active agents and can contribute to national
Local authorities and national governments should collaborate with the
organizations of the urban poor in upgrading slums and providing
alternatives to slum formation. Whenever a worker migrates to a city for
work his employer must ensure that he is provided with appropriate
accommodation. This should be the responsibility of all big and small
Managing cities require local solutions. Local authorities need to be
empowered with financial and human resources to deliver services and
infrastructure to the urban poor. Cities should draw up local long-term
strategies for improving the lives of slum dwellers.
Local governments should develop strategies to
prevent the formation of new slums. These
should include access to affordable land,
reasonably priced materials, employment
opportunities, and basic infrastructure and social
Public investments must focus on providing
access to basic services and
infrastructureWorking with the urban poor, cities
need to invest in housing, water, sanitation,
energy, and urban services, such as garbage
disposal. These services and infrastructure must
reach the poor living in informal settlements
ESI dispensaries and counseling services should be provided in dwelling
areas. All labors should be centrally registered
Strict rules should be formulated to prevent the misuse of funds.
Aim for 1 Lakh units of construction every six months.
Import high volume construction machinery from China for the speedy
Factories with a workforce of more than 100 labors should have
compulsory dwelling units. The accommodation facilities should be
made available before the commencement of any project
NGOs can play a vital role in improving the existing conditions of slums.
NGOs should work for the underprivileged in the slums. NGOs should
work in close coordination with government and make sure that the
following facilities are available to the slum dwellers:
Counselling services to minimize crime and other problems.
Basic amenities like schooling, proper sanitation, potable water, health
facilities and common electricity with minimal charges.
Free weekly medical and healthcare facilities.
Cause and effect
Slums symbolise urban poverty. For the families living in them,
they create hazardous and unsafe conditions that compound the
poverty which forced them to set up home there in the first
With lack of freely available safe clean water in the cities, families
living in slums have often no choice but to buy it at high cost
With inadequate sanitation, waste disposal or drainage facilities,
open sewers are created by rubbish and human defecation
alongside walkways between the densely packed shelters disease thrives and people, especially children become ill.
In these conditions simply being ill can have severe implications.
It can mean loss of livelihood, leaving families struggling to buy
food or water let alone medicines.
With weak ownership rights to the land, residents are
vulnerable and cannot build safe, sturdy homes, so they
become easy victims of weather conditions fire and crime.
With no voice to change policy decisions or demand
essential services, slum dwellers face an enormous
challenge in such uncertain and unfair circumstances.
In this environment, with no land, traditional coping
mechanisms like relying on extended family or smallholder farming falter. The result is that people's homes
and neighbourhoods become both a cause and an effect of
poverty and something that can be extremely difficult to
break out of.
Recognition of this growing problem culminated in 2000
when the world's richest governments pledged through the
Millennium Development Goals to improve the lives of 100
million slum dwellers by 2020.
Cities in the developing world will absorb 95% of
the world's expected population growth between
2000 and 2030.
According to recent estimates there are now over
900 million who people can be classified as slum
Based on 2001 estimates, 43% of the urban
population in the developing world lives in slums.
In the least developed countries, this percentage
rises to more than 78%.
If present trends continue, 1.5 billion people out of
3.3 billion urban residents will live in sums by the
Ministry of Urban Development and
Poverty Alleviation Government of India
, formulated The National Slum Policy in
The proposed Bihar Slum Policy has been
developed within the framework of the
National Slum Policy and is to guide the state
and local government in addressing slum
specific issues .
The key objectives of this policy are –
- To integrate slum settlements and guide
the process of slum development .
- To strengthen the legal and policy
framework to facilitate the process of slum
development and improvement on a
sustainable basis .
- To establish a framework for involving all
stakeholders for the efficient and smooth
implementation of policy objective.