Talvndr .challenges facing distance education in the 21st century
challenges facing in
is a field of education that focuses on
teaching methods and technology with the aim
of delivering teaching often an individual basis
to students who are not physically present in a
traditional setting such as classroom.
is the process to create and provide assess to
learning when the source of information and the
learners are separated by time and distance.
Conventional system of education at
any level - secondary or tertiary.
Teaching-learning takes place in
where the students and
teachers meet regularly
at fixed timings.
Terms related to distance
Non-formal education: it is an education free from formalities or with
relaxed formalities to make education more accessible to different
kinds or types of learners.
2. Correspondence education: it is a education conducted by the postal
services without face to face contact between teacher and learners
through written or tape-recorder materials.
3. Open education: education given to more flexible methods of study and
teaching in which there is openness in access, content, delivering
system and assessment.
Distance education in other terms is also known as home study, independent
study, off- campus, extra mural studies, university without walls, external
Mission of distance
Providing second chance students the
opportunities to pursue academic or
Second chance parameters
Lack of entry qualifications.
Being a woman.
access to higher education.
Emergence of the ICT.
Blurring of boundaries between distance
education and conventional universities.
Size and mode of
Case study on reviews including
comparison of distance education versus
Final course grades and grade distributions
Student satisfaction and attitude surveys
Final course grades and
GPA of students in 18 sections where 604 students were in
telecourses and 368 students were in conventional courses.(John
Calhoun community college in 1993)
Another study in the same year in northern Virginia community
college shown equivalent final grades but retention rates were
notably higher in the conventional education(Manning)
Examination or test
University of California in 1998 concluded that cyber
learners can learn as well as, or better than conventional
regardless of characteristics such as gender, ethnicity,
academic background, computer skills etc.
The study of 1993 compile that students
enrolled in courses offered through the use of
distance education had a successful
matriculation than their campus- based
counterparts by the beginning of fall term 1998.
Typical research topic
Comparison with outcomes in conventional education
Perseverance in studies.
Explanations of drop- out rates.
Use of diverse technologies.
Impact of support services.
Economies of scale.
Challenges facing DE in
the digital age
a cost effective model.
Restructuring the overall operation and
underlying premises of the industrial mode.
Utilizing the open educational resources.
Enhancing collaborative ventures.
challenges of DE
Defining clear missions of each DE institution.
Enhancing academic reputation of DTUs.
Finding an optimal balance between promoting equity
and assuring quality.
Establishing efficient support systems.
Launching closer interfaces with labor markets.
Minimizing the digital divide.
Creating fruitful collaborations with other HE
provide a diverse, highly qualified,
dynamic faculty and staff.
Should develop and acquire adequate fiscal,
capital resources and use them effectively.
Should provide quality support services.
Should provide an instructional programs.