Isreal final ppt.

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Isreal final ppt.

  1. 1. B/WB/W ExtENSIONExtENSION SyStEMSyStEM OfOf INdIA &INdIA & ISRAElISRAEl
  2. 2. HISTORYHISTORY  Dry farming on a subsistence level was practiced in the LandDry farming on a subsistence level was practiced in the Land of Israel for over 2000 years.of Israel for over 2000 years.  The forerunners of agricultural research in Palestine were theThe forerunners of agricultural research in Palestine were the teachers and instructors of the Mikveh Israel agriculturalteachers and instructors of the Mikveh Israel agricultural school, established in 1870.school, established in 1870.  After the Balfour declaration by Great Britain in 1917 and theAfter the Balfour declaration by Great Britain in 1917 and the award of the mandate to Palestine by the League of Nations toaward of the mandate to Palestine by the League of Nations to Britain, the Jewis Agency established in 1921 the AgriculturalBritain, the Jewis Agency established in 1921 the Agricultural Experiment Station. Their mission was to conduct researchExperiment Station. Their mission was to conduct research leading to small farms with intensive agriculture, specializing inleading to small farms with intensive agriculture, specializing in mixed farming of fruit trees, cattle, chicken, vegetables andmixed farming of fruit trees, cattle, chicken, vegetables and cereals.cereals.  The station had an extension department and results of itsThe station had an extension department and results of its research were quickly passed on to the farmers.research were quickly passed on to the farmers.  In 1942 the Hebrew University in Jerusalem decided toIn 1942 the Hebrew University in Jerusalem decided to establish the Institute for Agricultural Studies.establish the Institute for Agricultural Studies.
  3. 3. Cntd...Cntd...  The British government also established a small agriculturalThe British government also established a small agricultural research department with several stations in both Arab and Jewishresearch department with several stations in both Arab and Jewish areas.areas.  After 1948, with the establishment of the State of Israel, the twoAfter 1948, with the establishment of the State of Israel, the two research stations were merged into the Agricultural Researchresearch stations were merged into the Agricultural Research Station within the Ministry of Agriculture. However, the extensionStation within the Ministry of Agriculture. However, the extension and advisory service, previously part of the research station, nowand advisory service, previously part of the research station, now became an independent branch within the Ministry.became an independent branch within the Ministry.  In 1960 an attempt was made to merge the Agricultural ResearchIn 1960 an attempt was made to merge the Agricultural Research Station with the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University,Station with the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University, to form theto form the National and University Institute of Agriculture, but was estb. with the namewith the name UNIFIED EXTENSIONUNIFIED EXTENSION AUTHORITY" (UEA)AUTHORITY" (UEA),, with 12 regional centres.with 12 regional centres.  The idea was based on the US model of the Land Grant Colleges,The idea was based on the US model of the Land Grant Colleges, but this attempt failedbut this attempt failed..
  4. 4. Cntd…Cntd…  In 1965 the Ministry of Agriculture adopted the Agency SubjectIn 1965 the Ministry of Agriculture adopted the Agency Subject Matter Specialists and formed one national service -- "TheMatter Specialists and formed one national service -- "The Extension and Professional Service" the IES of todayExtension and Professional Service" the IES of today  Nevertheless, a close cooperation exists between the twoNevertheless, a close cooperation exists between the two institutions. ARO was established in 1971, incorporating allinstitutions. ARO was established in 1971, incorporating all agricultural research within the Ministry of Agriculture.agricultural research within the Ministry of Agriculture.  The senior researchers of the ARO serve the teaching staff &The senior researchers of the ARO serve the teaching staff & Students do research for M.Sc. and Ph.D. theses at the ResearchStudents do research for M.Sc. and Ph.D. theses at the Research Station.Station.  Now the structure comprise of :-Now the structure comprise of :- 1.1. Agricultural Research Organization (ARO)Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) 2.2. Public-funded researchPublic-funded research 3.3. UniversitiesUniversities 4.4. Regional research centersRegional research centers 5.5. Government and Private OrganizationsGovernment and Private Organizations
  5. 5. AGRICULTURE INAGRICULTURE IN ISRAEL: ChallengesISRAEL: Challenges And ChallengesAnd Challenges 1.1. With a total surface area of about 20 000 square kilometers,With a total surface area of about 20 000 square kilometers, half of which is desert, the State of Israel is small. Only 20half of which is desert, the State of Israel is small. Only 20 per cent of its land can be cultivated. Precipitation variesper cent of its land can be cultivated. Precipitation varies from 50 millimeters a year in the south to 1000 millimetersfrom 50 millimeters a year in the south to 1000 millimeters a year in the north.a year in the north. 2.2. Thus, the fact that a large part of the Israeli land area is aThus, the fact that a large part of the Israeli land area is a desert, the uneven distribution of natural water suppliesdesert, the uneven distribution of natural water supplies between regions and the relatively unfavorable climaticbetween regions and the relatively unfavorable climatic conditions constitute the three main limiting factors withconditions constitute the three main limiting factors with regard to agricultural production in Israel.regard to agricultural production in Israel.
  6. 6.  Israel agriculture sector’s high level of development is dueIsrael agriculture sector’s high level of development is due to the close cooperation and interaction between scientists,to the close cooperation and interaction between scientists, extension advisers, farmers, and agriculture-relatedextension advisers, farmers, and agriculture-related industries.industries.  These four elements have joined together to promoteThese four elements have joined together to promote advanced technologies in all agricultural branches.advanced technologies in all agricultural branches.  The result is modern agriculture in a country, half of whichThe result is modern agriculture in a country, half of which is defined as desert.is defined as desert.
  7. 7.  Nodal agency- Ministry of Agriculture.Nodal agency- Ministry of Agriculture.  To facilitate the administration of the extension service, theTo facilitate the administration of the extension service, the country has been divided into 11 districts or regional bureaus.country has been divided into 11 districts or regional bureaus.  The participation of farmers in district level extension serviceThe participation of farmers in district level extension service planning is ensured by farmers’ representatives on advisoryplanning is ensured by farmers’ representatives on advisory boards.boards.  The main sections of the centre are:-The main sections of the centre are:- 1.1. Training & Guidance SettlementTraining & Guidance Settlement 2.2. Publication DivisionPublication Division 3.3. Audio-Visual AidsAudio-Visual Aids 4.4. Home EconomicsHome Economics 5.5. Auxiliary FarmsAuxiliary Farms
  8. 8. Agricultural Extension System Training Farmers Professional Training Producing Applied Knowledge Professional Counseling
  9. 9. Diversifying Species Promoting Agril. Subjects Decreasing Pesticide use Improving Quality of Agril. Produce Integrating tech. & Mechanizing Water Core areas of Interest
  10. 10. DEPUTY DIRECTOR DEPUTY DIRECTOR (R& D) Central Specialist Departments Central Specialist Departments Field crops MechanisationMechanisation Home economics Home economics Foreign training Foreign training Agriculture economics Field irrigation Field irrigation Plant Protection Plant Protection orchardsorchards LivestockLivestock At National Level
  11. 11. DirectorDirector 20-60 Extension agents 20-60 Extension agents In communication with Specialists of Central Specialist Department Specialists of Central Specialist Department Coordinating work of
  12. 12. •Continuous, application-oriented research and development (R&D) has been carried out in the country since the beginning of the century. •The agricultural sector, based almost entirely on science-linked technology, with government agencies, academic institutions, industry and cooperative bodies working together to seek solutions to problems and meet new challenges. •Dealing with subjects ranging from plant genetics and blight control to arid-zone cultivation, Israel's agricultural R&D has developed science-based technologies which have dramatically enhanced the quantity and quality of the country's produce.
  13. 13.  The key to this success lies in the two-way flow of informationThe key to this success lies in the two-way flow of information between research personnel and farmers.between research personnel and farmers.  Through a network of extension services (and active farmers'Through a network of extension services (and active farmers' involvement in all R&D stages), problems in the field areinvolvement in all R&D stages), problems in the field are brought directly to the researcher for solutions, and scientificbrought directly to the researcher for solutions, and scientific results are quickly transmitted to the field for trial, adaptationresults are quickly transmitted to the field for trial, adaptation and implementation.and implementation.  The drive to achieve maximum yields and crop quality has ledThe drive to achieve maximum yields and crop quality has led to new plant varieties, to breeding of improved animal speciesto new plant varieties, to breeding of improved animal species and to a wide range of innovations in irrigation and fertigation,and to a wide range of innovations in irrigation and fertigation, machinery, automation, chemicals, cultivation and harvesting.machinery, automation, chemicals, cultivation and harvesting. Many of these innovations are also exported.Many of these innovations are also exported.
  14. 14.  Much of Israel’s agriculture is based on cooperative settlements, which wereMuch of Israel’s agriculture is based on cooperative settlements, which were developed in the early 20th century.developed in the early 20th century.  TheThe KIBBUTZKIBBUTZ is a large collective production unit. Kibbutz members jointlyis a large collective production unit. Kibbutz members jointly own the means of production and share social, cultural, and economic activities.own the means of production and share social, cultural, and economic activities. At present, most of the kibbutz income comes from industrial enterprisesAt present, most of the kibbutz income comes from industrial enterprises owned by the collective unit.owned by the collective unit.  Another type of settlement is theAnother type of settlement is the MOSHAV OVADIMMOSHAV OVADIM, which is based on, which is based on individual family farms yet organized as a cooperative society.individual family farms yet organized as a cooperative society.  The residents in both types of settlements are provided with a package ofThe residents in both types of settlements are provided with a package of municipal services.municipal services.  A third type of settlement is theA third type of settlement is the MOSHAV SHITUFIMOSHAV SHITUFI, which is a village of, which is a village of private farmers.private farmers.  In addition to the Jewish agricultural sector, Arab villages are located in Israel’sIn addition to the Jewish agricultural sector, Arab villages are located in Israel’s rural areas. These villages focus mainly on production of small livestock,rural areas. These villages focus mainly on production of small livestock, vegetables, field crops and olives.vegetables, field crops and olives.
  15. 15.  Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an apex bodyIndian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an apex body at the national level that supports research and extensionat the national level that supports research and extension activities to evolve effective Transfer of Technology (TOT)activities to evolve effective Transfer of Technology (TOT) models.models.  The State Agricultural Universities(SAUs) also contemplates toThe State Agricultural Universities(SAUs) also contemplates to develop extension models suitable to take up transfer ofdevelop extension models suitable to take up transfer of technology besides implementing the models evolved by ICARtechnology besides implementing the models evolved by ICAR system.system.
  16. 16.  The first programme was National Demonstration SchemeThe first programme was National Demonstration Scheme (1964) initiated during 1964-65 to demonstrate the(1964) initiated during 1964-65 to demonstrate the production potentiality of major crops in the farmers’ field.production potentiality of major crops in the farmers’ field.  The Operational Research Projects (ORPs) was startedThe Operational Research Projects (ORPs) was started during 1975 to identify technological as well as socio-during 1975 to identify technological as well as socio- economic constraints and to formulate and implement theeconomic constraints and to formulate and implement the problem solving technology modules on area/watershed/problem solving technology modules on area/watershed/ target group basis in operational area.target group basis in operational area.  Lab-to-Land programme was launched during 1979 toLab-to-Land programme was launched during 1979 to transfer low cost technologies in agriculture and alliedtransfer low cost technologies in agriculture and allied enterprises.enterprises.  Institution Village Linkage Programme was launched duringInstitution Village Linkage Programme was launched during 1995 which was funded under National Agricultural1995 which was funded under National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) during 1998-2004.Technology Project (NATP) during 1998-2004.
  17. 17.  Under innovation technology demonstration component ofUnder innovation technology demonstration component of NATP, the ICAR established Agriculture-Technology InformationNATP, the ICAR established Agriculture-Technology Information Centre (ATIC) in State Agricultural Universities.Centre (ATIC) in State Agricultural Universities.  ATIC work as a single window support system linking the variousATIC work as a single window support system linking the various units of research institution with intermediary users and farmers inunits of research institution with intermediary users and farmers in decision making and problem solving exercise through availabilitydecision making and problem solving exercise through availability of technology inputs, products, information and advisory servicesof technology inputs, products, information and advisory services under one roof.under one roof.  And now a new initiative with the name of PPP has also beenAnd now a new initiative with the name of PPP has also been incorporated in the system.incorporated in the system.
  18. 18.  Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Farm Science Centre) is an innovativeKrishi Vigyan Kendra (Farm Science Centre) is an innovative institution of ICAR established at district level. The first KVK wasinstitution of ICAR established at district level. The first KVK was established during 1974 and has grown as a largest network in theestablished during 1974 and has grown as a largest network in the country with 611 KVKs during 2011.country with 611 KVKs during 2011.  Funded by ICAR and administered by ICAR institutes/SAUsFunded by ICAR and administered by ICAR institutes/SAUs /deemed universities/NGOs or state department of agriculture./deemed universities/NGOs or state department of agriculture.  Play a vital role in conducting on farm testing to identify locationPlay a vital role in conducting on farm testing to identify location specific agricultural technologies and demonstrating thespecific agricultural technologies and demonstrating the production potential of crops at farmers’ fields through FLDs.production potential of crops at farmers’ fields through FLDs.  Conduct need based training programmes for the benefit ofConduct need based training programmes for the benefit of farmers and farm women, rural youths and extension personnel tofarmers and farm women, rural youths and extension personnel to update their knowledge and skills and to orient them in the frontierupdate their knowledge and skills and to orient them in the frontier areas of technology development.areas of technology development.
  19. 19.  This system aimed at rectifying the defects of T & V system inThis system aimed at rectifying the defects of T & V system in some of the states. In the BBE :some of the states. In the BBE : 1.1. The role of subject matter specialists was amplified and theyThe role of subject matter specialists was amplified and they were invited to formulate messages suitable to their land basedwere invited to formulate messages suitable to their land based activities (agriculture, sericulture, animal husbandry, horticulture,activities (agriculture, sericulture, animal husbandry, horticulture, HRD, creating agriculture infrastructure etc.),HRD, creating agriculture infrastructure etc.), 2.2. Village extension workers had full time job by offering messagesVillage extension workers had full time job by offering messages during lean season alsoduring lean season also 3.3. The concept of broad based education laid emphasis onThe concept of broad based education laid emphasis on formulating and delivering composite messages to the farmers toformulating and delivering composite messages to the farmers to meet the needs of their full agricultural environment.meet the needs of their full agricultural environment.
  20. 20.  India has a lot to learn from Israeli expertise in the agricultureIndia has a lot to learn from Israeli expertise in the agriculture sector. Israel not only produces most of its own food, but alsosector. Israel not only produces most of its own food, but also exports $1.3 billion worth of agricultural produce annually.exports $1.3 billion worth of agricultural produce annually.  Although India has made significant achievement inAlthough India has made significant achievement in agriculture by increasing food production byagriculture by increasing food production by 4-folds4-folds during lastduring last six decades but the agricultural production ofsix decades but the agricultural production of 16-folds16-folds byby Israel, is still a far cry for IndiaIsrael, is still a far cry for India..  Development of greenhouse equipment, seed and livestockDevelopment of greenhouse equipment, seed and livestock propagation, fertilizers and pesticides have enabled Israelipropagation, fertilizers and pesticides have enabled Israeli agriculture to prosper in adversity.agriculture to prosper in adversity.
  21. 21. Cntd…Cntd…  In addition, Israeli farmers have learned to develop highIn addition, Israeli farmers have learned to develop high value-added and innovative farm products that enable themvalue-added and innovative farm products that enable them to compete in markets with lower-cost producers.to compete in markets with lower-cost producers.  Israel came up with most innovative development in waterIsrael came up with most innovative development in water utilization has been drip irrigation, conceived in Israel someutilization has been drip irrigation, conceived in Israel some 35 years ago. Today, networks of plastic pipes with small35 years ago. Today, networks of plastic pipes with small openings for each plant or tree are strategically placed acrossopenings for each plant or tree are strategically placed across fields. Via. drippers, controlled amounts of fertilizer can befields. Via. drippers, controlled amounts of fertilizer can be pumped through the irrigation pipes to the plants, a systempumped through the irrigation pipes to the plants, a system known as fertigation.known as fertigation.

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