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Israel ext


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Isreal's Extension System and its comparison with Indian Extension System..

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Israel ext

  1. 1. ISRAEL The State of Israel covers an area of approximately 20,000 Km but only 20% of it is arable land. 60% of Israel is desert and just 10% of the population lives there. The remaining 40% of the country is semi-arid land. It is densely populated, and holds 90% of the population Israel's population has a relatively high standard of living with an annual GNP of nearly US$ 18,000 per capita. The society is mostly urban, with some 92% of the population living in cities. Although 8% of the population live in rural areas, only 2.7% of the total national work force is engaged in agricultural production. Most of Israel's agriculture is irrigated, although water is the most limiting factor. Agricultural production in the desert takes advantage of some unique conditions: abundance of land, high temperatures and intensive radiation.
  2. 2. The main water source is either saline water or recycled sewage water. The crops are winter vegetables and flowers in greenhouses, dates, grapes and olives irrigated with saline water. Also dairy cattle are raised under reduced heat stress. The climate in the north of Israel is different which enables a great variety of crops to be grown: citrus, avocado, mango, grapes, apples, peaches, banana, dates, wheat, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, vegetables, flowers, flower bulbs, etc. Animal husbandry consists mostly of dairy cattle, poultry and fish culture. Farming in Israel is highly sophisticated, capital intensive, and based on a high level of technology. One third of the agricultural production is for export, while two third of the production is for the local market. Agricultural production in Israel is market oriented and geared mostly to supply the demand of the urban population.
  3. 3. Following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, among the various professional departments of the newly established, Ministry of Agriculture began providing, systematically organized extension to all agricultural producers. In parallel, the Settlement Department of the Jewish Agency greatly strengthened its pre-statehood extension department into a full-blown extension service that provided extension to the tens of thousands of new immigrants who were settled in new agricultural villages. They needed very basic type of extension services: how to invest, seed, cultivate, and how to feed and milk a cow. This parallel system recruited from established villages hundreds of young farmers who would serve as village level instructors, living in the village among their farmers. Each village of 60-100 farm families would receive three of these para- professionals:
  4. 4. History Israel has a long history of agricultural extension. It began in fact with the establishment in the 1880s of the first modern agricultural villages, and was provided by agronomists of the first agricultural school (established in 1870) and of thesettlement bodies. At the start of the 20th Century, researchers of newly established research farms (later developed into stations) also provided extension. At the termination of the Ottoman Empire control and the taking over by Britain, the Jewish Agency Settlement Department established an extension unit that operated from the research stations.
  5. 5. In parallel, the British Mandate Government set up a Ministry with professional departments that among their responsibilities, was the provision of extension. a) Social -- to teach how to organize and manage a democratic village cooperative and run it both socially and economically; b) Home economics and management, working with the women of the household; and c) Agricultural - a generalist, to teach and follow very closely all the agricultural operations of each farmer. The latter received professional backing from regionally based Subject Matter Specialists of the Agency, mostly ex-Kibbutz branch managers and agricultural high school graduates. In 1960 the specialists of these two systems were united under one overall umbrella to form the "Unified Extension Authority" (UEA), with 12 regional centers.
  6. 6. •In 1965 the Ministry of Agriculture adopted the Agency Subject Matter Specialists and formed one national service -- "The Extension and Professional Service" the IES of today. •This organizational effort included the Soil and Irrigation Field Service with its 14 laboratories. It was also a large unit established to enhance water use efficiency. •The model for IES was based on the USDA Extension service with an input of experience from the Netherlands providing a professional, specialized service to reach all the farmers through regional centers. • A variety of extension methods and communication media were developed with a strong emphasis on personal on-farm visits. •Strong ties with research were established from the start including involvement of extension specialists in R&D. •Over time farmers, through their local, regional and national organizations were associated as part time and eventually full time partners in planning of Extension steered by a National Extension Assembly, chaired by the Minister of Agriculture. •Farmer representatives formed the majority in the council.
  7. 7. The IES is a semi independent unit within the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The short and long term IES goals are derived from national agricultural and rural policies. The 2009-2010 IES goals are focused on  continued replacement of labor with capital, efficient use of water,  adoption of innovative best practices to peripheral areas,  promoting the export of the agricultural sector's products,  environmental conservation,  improving product quality and  product diversification. All this within improvement of internal IES efficiency The basic IES organizational structure concurs with the Ministry framework of regional offices supported by the various Ministry departments at the Beit Dagan headquarters located near Tel Aviv. Beit Dagan also hosts the headquarters of the national Agricultural Research Organization.
  8. 8. Regardless governmental funding constraints and political dictates resulted in drastic staff reductions – from 1980 the ARO was reduced from 1800 to 800 individuals and IES from 640 to about 150 (2008). The inevitable need to update equipment, facilities and capabilities improved this situation forcing both the ARO and the IES to seek additional sources of funding, partnership and commercialization. Partners included growers' associations, production and marketing boards, agricultural committees, regional councils, regional enterprises, packing houses, food processing industries, seed companies, fertilizer and chemical producers and agencies, irrigation equipment industries, machinery firms, and more – in Israel and abroad The IES has a long and successful record of promoting technological innovation in agriculture, in many cases being the facilitator of technology transfer from research to the field and providing feed back to research.
  9. 9. During its short history, agriculture in Israel has gone through different stages: from improved productivity in traditional agriculture, to diversified agriculture, to (at present) specialized agriculture geared towards a market for local consumption and export. Throughout this period, Israel's agriculture has been characterized most by rapid socioeconomic and technological adaptation. This adaptation can be attributed to • the introduction and integration of knowledge, • modern technology, • government support, • credit and extension services, • a highly skilled workforce, • the use of farmers' experience, and most important, • the sustainable management of natural resources. Agricultural production in Israel - an industrial country - accounts for only about 3 per cent of GNP. The agricultural workforce in Israel is small: only 2.5 per cent of the population is engaged in agriculture, compared with 20 per cent some 25 years ago. The professional level of farmers is high, and they invest in high-level agricultural inputs and the use of advanced technologies.
  10. 10. Extension In ISRAEL The agency responsible for the agril extension service is the “Joint centre for Agril extension” run jointly by the govt (ministry of Agril) and the settlement Dept of the Jewish Agency. The representative of govt is the HEAD of the Ext service. The main sections of the Centre are: A. Training and guidance section in new settlements B. Publications division C. Audio visual aids D. Home Economics and E. Auxiliary farms Training and guidance section in new settlements After independence in 1948, there was much immigration and the agril graduates were very less in number. Govt met the situation in the following ways: 1. By engaging volunteer farmers to act as instructors in the new villages: the young people with their families from well settled villages were shifted to new villages and worked as instructors.
  11. 11. Training of new instructors: Arrangements were made at the Rupin Agril college in which departmental instructors and even new persons, were trained to act as instructors in the new settlements. With the cooperation of U.S.O.M (United States Operation Mission), one training centre for training farm managers and branch managers at Ibim farm has been started. Title of the course: Farm management (3days theory and 3days practical on six subjects) four months . Techniques of economic production in crops like vegetables, industrial crops, orange groves and irrigation, mechanisation. In service training of Instructors: Every instructor undergoes this training in order to refresh knowledge and to get more basic knowledge also. It is of 14-18 days duration. Some days for training and others for demonstration work. Courses in writing: Lectures are prepared and sent to the instructors. The instructors are given question papers to be answered with the help of the postal lectures. There is a library for this purpose at the agril research institute, Rehovot. 75% of the expenditure incurred on the course is repaid by the Govt.
  12. 12. Publications division Four types of publications : • Leaflets for the new settlers. Who do not know anything about agriculture. It is short, concise and in simple Hebrew language with coloured pictures. These are on corn, peas, manures, onion, goats, horse, tobacco, peanuts, potato, pastures etc., •Bulletins for the old settlers are sort of books giving more detailed information. • •Advanced publications like ”Farming Instructors News sheet” : It is a monthly publication and its intention is to help the village instructor in his day to day work as well as seasonal news. Other advanced publications are studies with more depth on the subject and with a research background.
  13. 13. Audio-Visual Aids Section: The U.S.O.M supplied equipment for preparing the recorded talks and coloured slides. They have special visual cars and with the cooperation of the General Information Bureau of Israel, they go the villages. The slides and talks cover topics like preparation of compost, grading of vegetables etc., Different topics based on the region will be prepared. Other activities: Evening discussions with farmers Demonstration plots in the villages Organising village exhibitions Contests and Awards of prizes Agricultural Excursions Home Economics section This section deals with the training of women in the areas of home, family, child, cooking etc., There is one advisory Council consisting of Representatives from the Ministry of Agril, the Jewish Agency, the National organisations of the different types of settlements. The council decides the programme for the villages. It has extension workers in home Economics who are professionals.
  14. 14. For training the instructors, in-service courses and study days are arranged where training is given in utilising the surplus vegetables by making tomato sauce, juice and other fruits preservation. After training, the instructors demonstrate it in the villages where they work. Recorded lectures, slides and charts showing the use of kitchen gardening, care of babies etc., are arranged. Auxiliary farms: Under this non-agriculturists or persons having some area in their compound are persuaded to grow vegetables and fruits, maintain poultry etc., 1.National Education: As many of the immigrants who come to Israel are not agriculturists hence in order to create a contact between these families and soil, this system was introduced. 2. Economic: It promotes livelihood, partial employment, and ensures a varied supply of fresh agricultural produce in all seasons, and thus reduces the household expenses on these items. If there is a surplus, the family can sell it. 3.Health: It makes the urban workers, the artisans, factory workers or any indoor workers, etc., to come out into the fresh air and enables them to exercise for at least one hour a day.
  15. 15. Aesthetic look: Promotes an attractive appearance to the landscape with flowers, fruits, vegetables. Training for agricultural settlement: It has been experienced that many immigrants who formerly did not like to accept agriculture as their occupation and had no interest in in agril, after receiving training by working in their auxiliary farms, resolved to settle in villages as farmers. Planning of Auxiliary farms: Under this the area is one-third to half acre, Depending on the size of the family, health of the family and their inclination Towards the work. It should be near the house and protected from stray cattle and theft.Water facility should be available. Any crop can be taken up. The govt provides loans IL125 to IL425 as per the size of the farm. To provide agril ext service instructors are employed. It was found that women ext advisors are more successful, hence more women are employed (90%). The programme of agril schools includes a special subject “Instruction on Auxiliary Farms.” All the students in the elementary schools are given training in agril work, they work in their farm during spare time. It has been noticed that the majority of the auxiliary farms are being run by boys of 10to14 years of age.
  16. 16. The duty of the extension service is to help farmers advance through the introduction of more knowledge and better agro-technologies. Extension support is provided by the government via the Ministry of Agriculture and by the private sector through companies selling pesticides, fertilizers, machinery and auxiliary tools. Farming Branch Technical Committees (FBTCs) are headed by an Extension Officer, within the framework of the Ministry, and integrate all aspects of research, extension and other technical activities. Agricultural and commercial banks transfer money to farmers in the form of credits, loans or grants for development or working capital in the form of advance payments and so on. In addition, production and marketing boards provide farmers with advance credits for cultivating export crops on the basis of binding contracts. A government company covers export risks such as a price collapse on foreign markets.
  17. 17. The main organization in charge of all export activities in Israel is AGREXO. It was set up jointly by the government and the production and marketing boards, and operates on a fully commercial basis for both producers and potential buyers. It takes care of all the logistical requirements of its export activities: planning, providing guidelines for quality, credit allocations, sales, marketing, and organizational and financial management. The Insurance Fund for Natural Damages belongs jointly to the government and the farmers, and guarantees the reimbursement of lost inputs in the case of damage caused by natural disasters. The national and regional farmers' organization represents farmers in the Agricultural Branch Committee, the production and marketing boards, AGREXO, and so on. Its task is • to encourage the publication of professional material, • to maintain contacts with similar foreign organizations, and • to promote direct research and extension in accordance with farmers' needs.
  18. 18. Since Israel attained its independence in 1948, the total area under cultivation has increased from 1,65,000 ha. to some 4,20,000 ha., and the number of agricultural communities has grown from 400 to 900 (including 136 Arab villages). During the same period, agricultural production has grown sevenfold, keeping ahead of the population, which grew by a factor of six. Israel's varied climatic, topographical and soil conditions made it possible to grow a wide range of agricultural produce. The success of the country's agriculture stems from the determination and resourcefulness of farmers and scientists who have dedicated themselves to developing a flourishing agriculture in a country which is more than half desert, thus demonstrating that the real value of land is a function of how it is used.
  19. 19. The fact that agricultural production continued to grow despite severe water and land limitations was no accident. It was the result of a unique Israeli phenomenon: the close and ongoing cooperation between researchers, extension workers, farmers and agriculture-related services and industries. Continuous, application-oriented research and development (R&D) has been carried out in the country since the beginning of the last century. The agricultural sector today is based almost entirely on science-linked technology, with government agencies, academic institutions, industry and cooperative bodies working together to seek solutions and meet new challenges. The Ministry of Agriculture's research body, the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), accounts for nearly 75 percent of all nationwide agricultural research. As such, it is the primary driving force behind Israel's internationally-acclaimed agricultural achievements. The ARO incorporates seven institutes on its main campus, and four off- campus experimental stations. Numerous ARO developments, particularly in irrigation, arid zone agriculture and unique varieties of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals have been commercialized in Israel and abroad.
  20. 20. Israel's agricultural R&D has developed science-based technologies, which have dramatically enhanced the quantity and quality of the country's produce. The key to this success lies in the two-way flow of information between researchers and farmers. Through a network of extension services (and active farmers' involvement in all R&D stages), problems in the field are brought directly to the researcher for solutions, and scientific results are quickly transmitted to the field for trial adaptation and implementation. The drive to achieve maximum yields and crop quality has led to • new plant varieties, • to breeding of improved animal species and • to a wide range of innovations in irrigation, machinery, automation, chemicals, cultivation and harvesting. The telecommunications revolution of the late 1990s also made its mark on farming methods in some sectors, with more and more farmers employing mobile phones, the Internet and computer-guided farm supervision as basic working and marketing tools.
  21. 21. Adoption of ICT for Extension is a unique and illuminating example. The Israeli Extension Service's (IES) strategic decision to adopt Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) significantly enhanced Extension's capabilities and scope of activities. ICT empowered extension's ability • to develop, introduce and adopt innovative agricultural technologies and • collaborate with research and international partners. Adoption of ICT as one instance of technological innovation dramatically improved the transfer and management of information, production chain efficiencies and integration within and with the agricultural sector. These are critical Israeli Extension success factors enabling Research, Services and Farmers ability to sustain a profitable, thriving agriculture sector. This success is a major contribution to rural viability and a model for adoption of technological innovation.