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1© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
Femto-on-the-GoTM
for
Cellular Services over Wi-Fi
Contact:
contact@yoctocomm.com
Fem...
2
• Poor Cellular signal indoors (Coverage issue).
• Slow Cellular connection outdoors (Capacity issue).
• Communication d...
3
• Femto-on-the-GoTM for Cellular Services over Wi-Fi
 3G: 3GPP CS-Voice using WB AMR Vocoder.
 LTE: VoLTE.
 SMS.
 Da...
4
[1] It is assumed that Small-Cell/Femtocell (3GPP HNB/HeNB) service already exists
as part of the operator’s service.
yo...
Target Devices Wi-Fi Only for
NW Access Only
Contain Cellular Modem
for NW Access Only
Contain Cellular Modem
for NW Acces...
3G
6© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
7
Solution
Architecture
3GPP Interfaces
IP Mobility
CS-Voice
Soft-HO
© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
Supported
Unsupp...
3G
Access-Only Architectures
8© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
Iuh
9
Ext. CSN
Wi-Fi AP
MGW
Client
over
Wi-Fi
PSTN
HNB-GW MSC
Mc
Iuh
Over Wi-Fi
CN Ext. NWRAN
Iu-CS
I-WLAN Device
yoctoCom...
Iuh
10
WAG Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Wn
/Wu
Wi
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
GGSN
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Gi
HNB-GW
Wn/Wu
Over Wi-...
Iuh
11
Ext. CSN
Wi-Fi AP
MGW
Client
over
Wi-Fi
PSTN
HNB-GW MSC
Mc
Iuh
Over Wi-Fi
CN Ext. NWRAN
Iu-CS
UMA Device
yoctoComm ...
Iuh
12
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
GGSN
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Gi
HNB-GW SGSN
Gn
Iuh
Over Wi-Fi
CN Ext. NWRAN
Iu-PS
UMA Device
yoctoComm ...
3G
Access & Handover Architectures
13© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
Iuh
14
Uu
Ext. CSN
Wi-Fi AP
NB MGWRNC
Cellular
Iub
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manager
PSTN
HNB-GW
Iur
Femto-on-the-GoTM:
SHO...
Femto-on-the-GoTM:
SHO
Femto-on-the-GoTM:
“Tight” HHO
Iuh
Iu-PS
15
WAG
Uu
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
NB GGSN/ARRNC
Cellular
Iub
Cli...
Iuh
16
Ext. CSN
Wi-Fi AP
NB MGWRNC
Cellular
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manager
PSTN
HNB-GW
MSC
Mc
CN Ext. NWRANUMA Device
yo...
Iuh
17
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
NB GGSNRNC
Cellular
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manager
Gi
HNB-GW
SGSN
Gn
CN Ext. NWRAN
Iu-PS
Iu-PS
...
3G
M2M Architectures
18© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
Redundancy for
Disaster recovery
HNB-GW
Core-NWAccess/Backhaul
H
Telemedicine
Device “Address”:
1-800-xxx-xxxx
Device Addr...
LTE
20© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
21
Solution
Architecture
3GPP Interfaces
IP Mobility
Voice (Wi-Fi/LTE)
Trusted AP
Untrusted AP
RAN-based HO
CN-based HO
S...
LTE
Access-Only Architectures
22© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
S1
23
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Trusted)
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Any)
PDN-GW
Client
over
Wi-Fi
SGi
HeNB-GW
SWw
Over ...
S1
24
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Untrusted)
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Any)
PDN-GW
Client
over
Wi-Fi
SGi
HeNB-GW
SWn/SWu...
LTE
Access & Handover Architectures
25© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
S1
S1
/S2c
26
Ext. PDNeNB PDN-GW
Cellular
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manager
SGi
Uu
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Any)
PDN-GWeNB
Cellul...
S1
27
Ext. PDNeNB PDN-GW
Cellular
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manager
SGi
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Any)
PDN-GWeNB
Cellular
Client
o...
LTE
Carrier Aggregation Architectures
28© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
29
Solution
CA Type
RAT
Pri-Cell type
Sec-Cell type
Sec-Cell
Protocol/Air-Interface
Pri-Cell  Sec-Cell
interconnect
CA L...
30
Ext. PDNeNB/RRH PDN-GW
Cellular
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manager
SGi
Uu
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Any)
PDN-GWeNB
Cellular
Clie...
31
Ext. PDN
eNB/RRH
Licensed
PDN-GW
Cellular
SGi
Ext. PDN
Wi-Fi AP
(Any)
PDN-GWeNB
Cellular
Client
over
Wi-Fi
Access Manag...
• GGSN: Gateway GPRS support node (3GPP 3G PS NW node).
• GPRS: General Packet Radio Service (3GPP TS 23.060).
• GTP: GPRS...
• SaMOG: S2a Mobility based On GTP (3GPP TS 23.402).
• SCC-AS: Service Centralization and Continuity - Application Server
...
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yoctoComm - Cellular Services over Wi-Fi

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yoctoComm solution for "Cellular Services over Wi-Fi", using existing NW nodes & interfaces.
Updated version with comparisons to UMA, LTE-U/LAA & LTE-H/LWA.

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yoctoComm - Cellular Services over Wi-Fi

  1. 1. 1© yoctoComm Communication Solutions Femto-on-the-GoTM for Cellular Services over Wi-Fi Contact: contact@yoctocomm.com Femto =10-15 Atto =10-18 Zepto =10-21 Yocto =10-24
  2. 2. 2 • Poor Cellular signal indoors (Coverage issue). • Slow Cellular connection outdoors (Capacity issue). • Communication disruption after natural or man-made disasters, when mostly needed by civilians and relief agencies. Market Pains © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  3. 3. 3 • Femto-on-the-GoTM for Cellular Services over Wi-Fi  3G: 3GPP CS-Voice using WB AMR Vocoder.  LTE: VoLTE.  SMS.  Data/Video.  Supplementary Services. • True seamless experience Cellular  Wi-Fi without interruption  3G: 3GPP Soft-Handovers (Iuh/Iurh Interfaces).  LTE: 3GPP RAN based mobility (S1/X2 Interfaces). • Cellular grade privacy & security  USIM authentication (Non-SIM authentication-Optional).  Secure connection via IPSec tunnel. yoctoComm’s Solution: © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  4. 4. 4 [1] It is assumed that Small-Cell/Femtocell (3GPP HNB/HeNB) service already exists as part of the operator’s service. yoctoComm’s Unique Selling Proposition: The Femto-on-the-GoTM Clients will provide native integration with the mobile core and will not require additional NW nodes and/or interfaces ! [1] =+ yoctoComm’s Solution: Carry your own personal SW-Femtocell !!! HW-Femto  SW-Femto © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  5. 5. Target Devices Wi-Fi Only for NW Access Only Contain Cellular Modem for NW Access Only Contain Cellular Modem for NW Access & Cellular  Wi-Fi Handovers Consumer M2M 5 Product Roadmap Telemedicine H © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  6. 6. 3G 6© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  7. 7. 7 Solution Architecture 3GPP Interfaces IP Mobility CS-Voice Soft-HO © yoctoComm Communication Solutions Supported Unsupported Supported, only if IMS stack added to device and IMS-CN added to NW yoctoComm Vs. Market Solutions (3G) Femto-on-the-GoTM UTRAN Iuh/Iurh GPRS I-WLAN IFOM H1/H3 DSMIP UMA GAN Up GPRS
  8. 8. 3G Access-Only Architectures 8© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  9. 9. Iuh 9 Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP MGW Client over Wi-Fi PSTN HNB-GW MSC Mc Iuh Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Iu-CS I-WLAN Device yoctoComm Device 3G CS Architecture for Access: yoctoComm Vs. I-WLAN Client over Wi-Fi WAG Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP MGW PSTN Wn /Wu MSC Mc Wn/Wu Over Wi-Fi PDG Wp /Wu I1/GmIMS Stack IMS-CN (SCC-AS/CSCF /ATCF/TAS) I2/I3 Wi YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Legend XXX External NW nodes XXX Modified NW nodes © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  10. 10. Iuh 10 WAG Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP Client over Wi-Fi Wn /Wu Wi Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP GGSN Client over Wi-Fi Gi HNB-GW Wn/Wu Over Wi-Fi SGSN Gn Iuh Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Iu-PS I-WLAN Device yoctoComm Device PDG Wp /Wu YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Legend XXX External NW nodes 3G PS Architecture for Access: yoctoComm Vs. I-WLAN © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  11. 11. Iuh 11 Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP MGW Client over Wi-Fi PSTN HNB-GW MSC Mc Iuh Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Iu-CS UMA Device yoctoComm Device YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Legend XXX External NW nodes Up Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP MGW Client over Wi-Fi PSTN GANC MSC Mc Up Over Wi-Fi Iu-CS 3G CS Architecture for Access: yoctoComm Vs. UMA © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  12. 12. Iuh 12 Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP GGSN Client over Wi-Fi Gi HNB-GW SGSN Gn Iuh Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Iu-PS UMA Device yoctoComm Device YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Legend XXX External NW nodes Up Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP GGSN Client over Wi-Fi Gi GANC SGSN Gn Up Over Wi-Fi Iu-PS 3G PS Architecture for Access: yoctoComm Vs. UMA © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  13. 13. 3G Access & Handover Architectures 13© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  14. 14. Iuh 14 Uu Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP NB MGWRNC Cellular Iub Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager PSTN HNB-GW Iur Femto-on-the-GoTM: SHO Iurh MSC Mc Iuh/Iurh Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Cellular I-WLAN Device yoctoComm Device Femto-on-the-GoTM: “Tight” HHO Iu-CS Iu-CS 3G CS Architecture for Access & Handovers: yoctoComm Vs. I-WLAN WAG Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP MGW PSTN Wn /Wu MSC Mc Wn/Wu Over Wi-Fi PDG Wp /Wu IMS-CN (SCC-AS/CSCF /ATCF/TAS) I2/I3 Wi I1/GmIMS Stack Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager Uu NB RNC Iub Iu-CS I-WLAN: SHO-no support I-WLAN: “Loose” HHO © yoctoComm Communication Solutions YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Hard Handover (HHO) Soft Handover (SHO) Soft/Hard Handover Legend Access only XXX External NW nodes XXX Modified NW nodes Mobility Loop
  15. 15. Femto-on-the-GoTM: SHO Femto-on-the-GoTM: “Tight” HHO Iuh Iu-PS 15 WAG Uu Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP NB GGSN/ARRNC Cellular Iub Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager Gi H1/Wn /Wu H1/H3 Uu Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP NB GGSNRNC Cellular Iub Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager Gi HNB-GW Iur Iurh SGSN Gn H1/Wn/Wu Over Wi-Fi SGSN Gn Iuh/Iurh Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Iu-PS Iu-PS I-WLAN: “Loose” HHO I-WLAN Device yoctoComm Device PDG/AR H1 /Wp /Wu HA H3 3G PS Architecture for Access & Handovers: yoctoComm Vs. I-WLAN I-WLAN: SHO-no support © yoctoComm Communication Solutions YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Hard Handover (HHO) Soft Handover (SHO) Soft/Hard Handover Legend Access only XXX External NW nodes XXX Modified NW nodes Mobility Loop
  16. 16. Iuh 16 Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP NB MGWRNC Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager PSTN HNB-GW MSC Mc CN Ext. NWRANUMA Device yoctoComm Device Iu-CS Iu-CS Up Uu Ext. CSN Wi-Fi AP NB MGWRNC Cellular Iub Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager PSTN GANC MSC Mc Up Over Wi-Fi Iu-CS Iu-CSUMA: SHO-no support 3G CS Architecture for Access & Handovers: yoctoComm Vs. UMA UMA: “Tight” HHO Femto-on-the-GoTM: SHO Femto-on-the-GoTM: “Tight” HHO Uu Iub Iur Iurh Iuh/Iurh Over Wi-Fi YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Hard Handover (HHO) Soft Handover (SHO) Soft/Hard Handover Legend Access only XXX External NW nodes Mobility Loop © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  17. 17. Iuh 17 Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP NB GGSNRNC Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager Gi HNB-GW SGSN Gn CN Ext. NWRAN Iu-PS Iu-PS UMA Device yoctoComm Device Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP NB GGSNRNC Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager Gi GANC SGSN Gn 3G PS Architecture for Access & Handovers: yoctoComm Vs. UMA Uu Iub Up Over Wi-Fi Iu-PS Iu-PSUMA: SHO-no support UMA: “Tight” HHO Femto-on-the-GoTM: SHO Femto-on-the-GoTM: “Tight” HHO Uu Iub Iur Iurh Iuh/Iurh Over Wi-Fi YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Hard Handover (HHO) Soft Handover (SHO) Soft/Hard Handover Legend Access only XXX External NW nodes Mobility Loop © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  18. 18. 3G M2M Architectures 18© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  19. 19. Redundancy for Disaster recovery HNB-GW Core-NWAccess/Backhaul H Telemedicine Device “Address”: 1-800-xxx-xxxx Device Address: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Wireline Access 3G Uninterrupted Service for M2M devices Command & ControlM2M Device 19 Cellular Access MNO CN Competition Devices MSO CN H Telemedicine Device “Address”: 1-800-xxx-xxxx NB/RNC MNO CN yoctoComm Devices Iur Uu Iu-CS/PS Iu-CS/PS • Dual-Operator • Dual-Address • MSO CS ??? • Handovers ??? • Single-Operator • Single-Address • Full CS / PS service • Soft Handovers Iuh /IurhWireline Access Redundancy for Disaster recovery Redundancy for Disaster recovery Redundancy for Disaster recovery Cellular Access © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  20. 20. LTE 20© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  21. 21. 21 Solution Architecture 3GPP Interfaces IP Mobility Voice (Wi-Fi/LTE) Trusted AP Untrusted AP RAN-based HO CN-based HO Supported Unsupported Supported; “Loose” connection (refer to NW architecture diagrams) yoctoComm Vs. Market Solutions (LTE) © yoctoComm Communication Solutions Femto-on-the-GoTM E-UTRAN S1/X2 GPRS (Enhanced) VoLTE/VoLTE Trusted Non-3GPP SaMOG S2a GTP/PMIP VoWiFi/VoLTE Untrusted Non-3GPP SMOG S2b GTP/PMIP VoWiFi/VoLTE LTE-IFOM IFOM S2c DSMIP VoWiFi/VoLTE
  22. 22. LTE Access-Only Architectures 22© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  23. 23. S1 23 Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Trusted) Client over Wi-Fi Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Any) PDN-GW Client over Wi-Fi SGi HeNB-GW SWw Over Wi-Fi MME /S-GW S5 S1 Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN S1 Non-3GPP Device yoctoComm Device TWAG YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Legend XXX External NW nodes SWw SGi PDN-GW S2a LTE Architecture for Access: yoctoComm Vs. Trusted Non-3GPP © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  24. 24. S1 24 Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Untrusted) Client over Wi-Fi Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Any) PDN-GW Client over Wi-Fi SGi HeNB-GW SWn/SWu Over Wi-Fi MME /S-GW S5 CN Ext. NWRAN S1 Non-3GPP Device yoctoComm Device ePDG YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Legend XXX External NW nodes SWn /SWu SGi PDN-GW S2b S1 Over Wi-Fi LTE Architecture for Access: yoctoComm Vs. Untrusted Non-3GPP © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  25. 25. LTE Access & Handover Architectures 25© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  26. 26. S1 S1 /S2c 26 Ext. PDNeNB PDN-GW Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi Uu Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Any) PDN-GWeNB Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi HeNB-GW/ X2-GW X2 X2 MME/ S-GW S5 /S2c SWw/S2c Over Wi-Fi MME/ S-GW S5 S1/X2 Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRAN Femto-on-the-GoTM: RAN HO Non-3GPP Device yoctoComm Device Femto-on-the-GoTM: “Tight” CN HO S1 S1 Wi-Fi AP (Trusted) TWAG SWw /S2c S2a/S2c Uu /S2c Non-3GPP: “Loose” CN HO Non-3GPP: RAN HO-no support LTE Architecture for Access & Handovers: yoctoComm Vs. Trusted Non-3GPP © yoctoComm Communication Solutions YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces CN based Handover RAN based Handover RAN/CN Handover Legend Access only XXX External NW nodes Mobility Loop
  27. 27. S1 27 Ext. PDNeNB PDN-GW Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Any) PDN-GWeNB Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi HeNB-GW/ X2-GW MME/ S-GW MME/ S-GW S5 CN Ext. NWRANNon-3GPP Device yoctoComm Device S1 Wi-Fi AP (Untrusted) ePDG LTE Architecture for Access & Handovers: yoctoComm Vs. Untrusted Non-3GPP © yoctoComm Communication Solutions S1 /S2c S5 /S2c S2b/S2c Uu /S2c Non-3GPP: “Loose” CN HO Non-3GPP: RAN HO-no support SWn/SWu/S2c Over Wi-Fi SWn /SWu /S2c Uu X2 X2 S1/X2 Over Wi-Fi Femto-on-the-GoTM: RAN HO Femto-on-the-GoTM: “Tight” CN HO S1 YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces CN based Handover RAN based Handover RAN/CN Handover Legend Access only XXX External NW nodes Mobility Loop
  28. 28. LTE Carrier Aggregation Architectures 28© yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  29. 29. 29 Solution CA Type RAT Pri-Cell type Sec-Cell type Sec-Cell Protocol/Air-Interface Pri-Cell  Sec-Cell interconnect CA Link Level yoctoComm Vs. CA Propositions (LTE) © yoctoComm Communication Solutions LTE-H/LWA Using licensed LTE & unlicensed Wi-Fi bands Multi (LTE & Wi-Fi) Licensed LTE “X2/PDCP-aware” unlicensed Wi-Fi ??? (PDCP Packets) Over 802.11 “X2-like”-Interface PDCP layer LTE-U/LAA Using licensed LTE & unlicensed LTE bands Single (LTE only) Licensed LTE Unlicensed LTE LTE-Uu X2-Interface MAC layer Femto-on-the-GoTM Using licensed LTE & unlicensed Wi-Fi bands Multi (LTE & Wi-Fi) Licensed LTE Any unlicensed Wi-Fi S1/X2 over 802.11 X2-Interface PDCP layer LTE-A CA Using licensed LTE bands Single (LTE only) Licensed LTE Any licensed LTE LTE-Uu X2-Interface MAC layer
  30. 30. 30 Ext. PDNeNB/RRH PDN-GW Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi Uu Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Any) PDN-GWeNB Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi X2 MME/ S-GW PDCP Packets Over Wi-Fi MME/ S-GW S5 S1/X2 Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRANLTE-H/LWA Device yoctoComm Device S1 S1 Wi-Fi AP LTE Architecture for Carrier Aggregation: yoctoComm Vs. LTE-H/LWA © yoctoComm Communication Solutions YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Pri-Cell Flow Pri-Cell  Sec-Cell I/F Sec-Cell Flow Legend Combined Flow XXX External NW nodes XXX Modified NW nodes “X2” eNB/BBU S1 S5 GE CPRI Uu
  31. 31. 31 Ext. PDN eNB/RRH Licensed PDN-GW Cellular SGi Ext. PDN Wi-Fi AP (Any) PDN-GWeNB Cellular Client over Wi-Fi Access Manager SGi X2 MME/ S-GW MME/ S-GW S5 S1/X2 Over Wi-Fi CN Ext. NWRANLTE-U/LAA Device yoctoComm Device S1 S1 eNB/RRH Unlicensed LTE Architecture for Carrier Aggregation: yoctoComm Vs. LTE-U/LAA © yoctoComm Communication Solutions YYY Additional NW interfaces XXX XXX Existing NW nodes Additional NW nodes YYY Existing NW interfaces Pri-Cell Flow Pri-Cell  Sec-Cell I/F Sec-Cell Flow Legend Combined Flow XXX External NW nodes XXX Modified NW nodes X2 eNB/BBU S1 S5 CPRI CPRI LBT-Uu Over Unlicensed Uu Over Licensed Uu Over Licensed
  32. 32. • GGSN: Gateway GPRS support node (3GPP 3G PS NW node). • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service (3GPP TS 23.060). • GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol (3GPP TS 29.060). • HA: Home Agent (3GPP 3G NW node). • HeNB-GW: Home evolved Node-B GateWay (3GPP LTE NW node). • HNB-GW: Home Node-B GateWay (3GPP 3G NW node). • HW: Hardware. • I/F: Interface. • IFOM: IP Flow Mobility (3GPP TS 23.261). • IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem. • IPSec: Internet Protocol Security. • I-WLAN: Interworking Wireless Access Network (3GPP TS 23.234, 23.261, 23.327). • LAA: Licensed Assisted Access (3GPP proposed std. for LTE-U). • LBT: Listen Before Talk. • LTE: Long Term Evolution. • LTE-A: LTE Advanced. • LTE-H: LTE HetNet. • LTE-U: LTE in Unlicensed Band. 32 Glossary • 3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project. • AMR: Adaptive Multi-Rate. • AP: Access Point. • AR: Access Router. • ATCF: Access Transfer Control Function (3GPP IMS-CN node). • BBU: Base-Band Unit. • CA: Carrier Aggregation. • CN: Core Network. • CPRI: Common Public Radio Interface. • CS: Circuit Switched. • CSCF: Call Session Control Function (3GPP IMS-CN node). • CSN: Circuit Switched Network. • DSMIP: Dual-Stack Mobile IP (3GPP TS 22.234, 23.402, 24.234, 24.302, 24.327). • eNB: evolved Node-B (3GPP LTE base-station/NW node). • ePDG: evolved Packet Data Gateway (3GPP LTE NW node). • E-UTRAN: Evolved UTRAN. • GAN: Generic Access Network (3GPP TS 43.318 for UMA). • GANC: Generic Access NW Controller (3GPP 3G NW node). • GE: Gigabit Ethernet. © yoctoComm Communication Solutions
  33. 33. • SaMOG: S2a Mobility based On GTP (3GPP TS 23.402). • SCC-AS: Service Centralization and Continuity - Application Server (3GPP IMS-CN node). • Sec-Cell: Secondary Cell. • SGSN: Serving GPRS support node (3GPP 3G PS NW node). • SIM: Subscriber Identity Module. • SMOG: S2b Mobility based On GTP (3GPP TS 23.402). • SMS: Short Message Service. • SW: Software. • S-GW: Serving – GateWay (3GPP LTE NW node). • TAS: Telephony - Application Server (3GPP IMS-CN node). • TWAG: Trusted Wireless Access Gateway (3GPP LTE NW node). • UMA: Universal (Unlicensed) Mobile Access. • USIM: Universal Subscriber Identity Module (3G/LTE SIM). • UTRAN: Universal (UMTS=Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network. • VoLTE: Voice over LTE (GSMA PRD IR.92). • VoWiFi: Voice over Wi-Fi (Various standards & proprietary solutions). • WAG: Wireless Access Gateway (3GPP 3G NW node). • WB: Wide-Band. • X2-GW: X2-Interface GateWay (3GPP LTE NW node). 33 Glossary (Cont.) • LWA: LTE + Wi-Fi link Aggregation (3GPP proposed std. for LTE-H). • MAC: Media Access Control (layer). • MGW: Media GW (3GPP 3G CS NW node). • MME: Mobility Management Entity (3GPP LTE NW node). • MNO: Mobile Network Operator. • MSC: Mobile Switching Center (3GPP 3G CS NW node). • MSO: Multiple System Operator. • NB: Node-B (3GPP 3G base-station). • NW: Network. • PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (layer). • PDG: Packet Data Gateway (3GPP 3G NW node). • PDN: Packet Data Network. • PDN-GW: Packet Data Network GateWay (3GPP LTE NW node). • PMIP: Proxy Mobile IP (3GPP TS 23.402). • Pri-Cell: Primary Cell. • PS: Packet Switched. • PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network. • RAN: Radio Access Network. • RAT: Radio Access Technology. • RNC: Radio NW Controller. • RRH: Remote Radio Head. © yoctoComm Communication Solutions

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