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Adverbs

  1. 1. Adverbs /ædvərbz/ 28/1/2018
  2. 2. IN GOD WE TRUST Moustafa Mohammad Shalabi MA. Applied Linguistics PhD. Scholar Corpus Linguistics Awang Had Salleh School of Graduate Studies University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia mostafa.shalaby1970@gmail.com
  3. 3. What are adverbs? Adverbs are words like now, then, today, tomorrow and carefully. An adverb modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Read the following sentences: Noor smiled sweetly. Those mangoes were very sweet. Nada spoke quite loudly. In sentence 1, the adverb quickly shows how (or in what manner), Noor smiled. It modifies the verb smiled. In sentence 2, the adverb very says something about the sweetness of the mangoes. It modifies the adjective sweet. In sentence 3, quite says something about the manner in which he spoke. It modifies the adverb loudly. Notethat adverbs standing at the beginning of sentences sometimes modify the whole sentence, rather than a particular word.
  4. 4. What are adverbs? • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs • Many adverbs end with /ly/ • Most adverbs answer the question “How?” “When?” “Where?” “How often?” “To what extent”
  5. 5. What are adverbs? • These are adverbs • Eating quickly . (modifying a verb) • Trying very hard. (modifying an adverb) • A really big show. (modifying an adjective) • “How?” “When?” “Where?” “How often?” “To what extent” Nagham went to the store yesterday. (when) Noor lefts the teddy bear on the desk. (where) Nada eats ice cream everyday. (how often) The boat was extremely large. (to what extent) • Most adverbs describe an action verb. Walk is a verb. You could: Walk fast Walk slow Walk backward Walk sideways Fast, slow, backward, sideways – these are all adverbs because they describe the action run.
  6. 6. What are adverbs? • Some adverbs describe adjectives. Pretty is an adjective. You could say: quite pretty really pretty not pretty definitely pretty Quite, really, not, definitely – these are all adverbs because they describe the adjective pretty.
  7. 7. What are adverbs? • Some adverbs also describe other adverbs. Cowardly is an adverb. You could say: very cowardly never cowardly always cowardly thoroughly cowardly Very, never, always, thoroughly – these are adverbs because they describe other adverbs.
  8. 8. Kindsofadverbs There are very many kinds of adverbs.
  9. 9. Adverbs of time • Adverbs of time answer the question ‘when’. Examples are: today, yesterday, now, before, daily, already, since, ago, never etc. • I met him yesterday. • His father died two years ago. • I have seen him before. • They have already come. • We will have to start now.
  10. 10. • Adverbs of frequency answer the question ‘How often’. Examples are: often, always, once, never, again, seldom, frequently etc. • We seldom go out on Sundays. • I have seen him only once. • He called again this morning. • We must always try to do our best. Adverbs of frequency
  11. 11. • Adverbs of place answer the question ‘Where’. Examples are: here, there, up, down, everywhere, out, in etc. • She sat down. • He looked up. • I searched for him everywhere. • Come in. Adverbs of place
  12. 12. Adverbs of manner Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘How’ or ‘in What manner’. Note that this class includes nearly all those adverbs ending in -ly. Examples are: quickly, carefully, sweetly, clearly, bravely, beautifully, well, fast etc. • The soldiers fought bravely. • This essay is well written. • She walked slowly. • The baby slept soundly.
  13. 13. Adverb or Adjective? • An ADVERB modifies verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. • An ADJECTIVE modifies nouns. Example: The fast car is racing. (Fast describes car(. Car is a noun. The kind of word that describes a noun is an adjective; therefore, in this sentence, fast is an adjective.) Example: The car races fast. (Fast describes how it races(. Races is a verb. The kind of word that describes a verb is an adverb; therefore, in this sentence, fast is an adverb.)
  14. 14. Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs • Many words have both an adjective and adverb form Adjective Adverb Happy kids Playing happily Smooth rock Running smoothly Good night Eating Well Efficient workers Working efficiently Casual dress Dressing casually Quick meeting Talking quickly hopeful children Waiting hopefully Real butter Really hot
  15. 15. People often mistakenly use adjectives when they should use an adverb and vice versa. For example, a sentence that reads: •He behaved very bad on the field trip. Is incorrect, because bad is modifying or describing behaved, which is a verb. It should read •He behaved very badly. On the other hand, if you said: •His behavior is bad. Common Errors with Adverbs and Adjectives
  16. 16. • Confusing adverbs and adjectives is a common error with the words good and well. Good and Well • Good is an adjective that should modify nouns (the good boy). • Well is an adverb that modifies a verb (he listens well), or even an adjective (the well educated boy).
  17. 17. Don’t use adjectives when adverbs are needed You did a real nice job – (an adjective can’t modify another adjective) You did a really nice job – (the adverb “really” modifies “nice”) He did good He did well or He did a good job Fuel injection helps the car run efficient Fuel injection helps the car run efficiently Come quick! Come quickly! Hopefully, it won’t rain – (an adverb explains how something will happen I hope that it won’t rain
  18. 18. Don’t use needless adverbs • Before using any of these words, check to see if they add anything to the sentence  Really, very, absolutely, extremely, quite, actually, somewhat, rather  I am really happy to see you  Grammar is very boring  You are absolutely correct  Her language was extremely crude  You are quite intelligent  Context will help you decide whether to retain the underlined words  Keep them only if they add to the meaning  Bill Gates is very rich. I hope he gives me some money.  Most college instructors are poor; their students are very poor.  Note: the terms “good success” and “real good success” have been reserved for sports broadcasters; do not use them
  19. 19. To practice what you've learned here, identify the adverb in each of the following sentences. AdverbPractice  Haneen wanted to be the great, big house.  Nada will miss the many wonderful people at work.  Noor walked slowly and steadily up the hill.  Nagham ate quickly and then felt sick.  Hamza is very late.
  20. 20. Answers Haneen wanted to be the great, big house. "Great" is an adverb modifying "big," which is an adjective modifying the noun "house." Nada will miss the many wonderful people at work. Many is the adverb, which modifies the adjective wonderful, which modifies the noun people. Noor walked slowly and steadily up the hill. "Slowly" and "steadily" are both adverbs here, describing the way Joe walked. Nagham ate quickly and then felt sick. "Quickly" is the adverb here, modifying the verb "ate." Hamza is very late. "Very" is an adverb modifying late which is an adjective modifying Joe.
  21. 21. References • http://grammar.yourdictionary.com • http://www.bbc.co.uk • https://www.englishgrammar.org

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