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Master’s Thesis Defense           Shakira G. Quiñones Lebrón  Do calves matter?: The effect of dolphin  watching on the ac...
OVERVIEW • Introduction to whale watching • Chapter 1: Importance of calves when studying impacts   of whale watching • Ch...
WHALE AND DOLPHIN-               WATCHINGHistory:• From whaling to watching.  IWC 1994• 119 Countries• WW generates $2.1 b...
THE EFFECTS OF WHALE -             WATCHINGShort-term                      Long-termconsequences                    conseq...
POPULATION CONSEQUENCES OF ACOUSTIC     DISTURBANCES (PCAD) MODEL    What factors influence behavior    changes?
CETACEAN SOUNDSCetaceans rely almost entirely on sound to communicate.Baleen whales: Low frequency modulated soundsSperm w...
WHALE WATCHING AND NOISEThe noise produced by theengines overlaps with thecommunication signals ofmany marine mammalspecie...
RESPONSES TO BOAT APPROACHESBehavior responses                             Acoustic responses•   Behavior state           ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING RESPONSES       TO DISTURBANCE• Experience            • Group size• Received levels (RL) • Group compo...
CHAPTER 1:  DO CALVES MATTER?:ADDRESSING THE    IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING CALFPRESENCE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF WHALE-          ...
Introduction• Calves are more susceptible to boat approaches.• Having calves could affect mother’s responses to whale  wat...
Table 1. Summary of published work on whale and dolphin watching showing the proportion of publications where calves areco...
RESULTS - BEHAVIOR                           STATESotalia guianensis         Pantropical spotted          Bottlense dolphi...
RESULTS - DIRECTION AND SPEED OF                       MOVEMENTBottlenose dolphins - Steckenreuter et al.   Humpback whale...
RESULTS - INTER-BREATH INTERVALSBottlenose dolphins - Nowacek et al.     Humpback whales - Stamation et2001, Lusseau 2003 ...
RESULTS - SWIMMING SYNCHRONYNot enough evidence. Groups with calves are generallyless synchronized.Synchronization increas...
RESULTS - ACOUSTIC RESPONSES               Production of communication               signals               Groups with cal...
CONCLUSIONSDo calves matter?• Yes. Average of response vs. targeting vulnerable groups.• Better prediction of long-term co...
CHAPTER 2:DOLPHIN-WATCHING BOAT INFLUENCE   DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION: THE EFFECT OF NUMBER OF BOATS AND  MODE OF APPROACH ON ...
INTRODUCTION         DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION SIGNALSWhistles are frequency modulated signals used forcommunication.         ...
Dolphins canpotentially increasetheir whistle repetitionto compensate for themasking noise.Separation betweenmothers and c...
DOLPHIN WATCHING IN BOCAS DEL            TORO               Small resident population of bottlenose               dolphins...
PREVIOUS STUDIES IN BOCAS                                  Change in frequency and                                  durati...
Questions:Does dolphin-watching have an effect on whistlerate?Is it different for group with calves?
Challenges: Noise received levels (dB)? Too many boats at the same time Few dolphinsSolution:Use type of approach andnumbe...
MEASURING DISTURBANCE                                                    # Boats Type of                   Descriptionappr...
FIELD METHODS 2012                              Acoustic &                              Behavior                          ...
FIELD METHODS 2012A RESON hydrophone wasdeployed at 2 m depthwhen the engine was off torecord and listen thedolphins’ whis...
FIELD METHODS 2012Photo ID                                    Acoustic &recorder                                    Behavi...
RESULTSDo calves matter?Presence vs. absenceof boats(Whitney U-test X2 =2210,p-value = 0.070)Presence vs. absenceof boats ...
Mother-calf spatial relationship could be importantSupermessy and baby:
RESULTSNumber of boatsNo clear pattern of response to number of boats.Groups with calves always had a higher whistleemissi...
RESULTSType of approachAggressive approaches showed higher whistleemission rates for both groups with and withoutcalves.  ...
RESULTSBehavior stateBehaviors that require group coordinationshow a higher whistle emission rate
CONCLUSIONS Do calves matter? Yes. • Groups with calves show a different response to the   presence of boats. • Aggressive...
OUTREACHWebpage                Facebook                         page          Local TV          interview                S...
FUTURE WORKRecommendations for         Future work:management:                 • Continue with• Slower speeds             ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS       Thesis           Funding and support:     Committee:Dr. Laura May Collado   Dr. Mitch Aide  Dr. Alb...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSField assistants                  Presentation & Manuscript                                 Friends & Fami...
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Thesis defense
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Thesis defense

  1. 1. Master’s Thesis Defense Shakira G. Quiñones Lebrón Do calves matter?: The effect of dolphin watching on the acoustic behavior of apopulation of bottlenose dolphins in Panamá Thesis Committee: Dr. Laura May Collado Dr. Alberto Sabat Dr. Mitch Aide Dr. David Logue
  2. 2. OVERVIEW • Introduction to whale watching • Chapter 1: Importance of calves when studying impacts of whale watching • Chapter 2: Case study – Acoustic behavior bottlenose dolphins of Bocas del Toro, Panamá • Conclusions • Outreach • Future work
  3. 3. WHALE AND DOLPHIN- WATCHINGHistory:• From whaling to watching. IWC 1994• 119 Countries• WW generates $2.1 billion• Recreational use ≠ = sustainable use
  4. 4. THE EFFECTS OF WHALE - WATCHINGShort-term Long-termconsequences consequences• Boat strikes • Increased death• Disruption of rates important behavior • Abandonment of the• Disruption of acoustic area communication. Bottlenose dolphins - – Doubtful Bottlenose dolphins Shark Bay Population Consequences of 2005) Sound, Acoustic (Bedjer NZ (Lusseau and Bejder 2007) Disturbances (PCAD) model
  5. 5. POPULATION CONSEQUENCES OF ACOUSTIC DISTURBANCES (PCAD) MODEL What factors influence behavior changes?
  6. 6. CETACEAN SOUNDSCetaceans rely almost entirely on sound to communicate.Baleen whales: Low frequency modulated soundsSperm whales: Clicks (Codas)Other odontocetes: Higher frequency modulatedsounds and pulses
  7. 7. WHALE WATCHING AND NOISEThe noise produced by theengines overlaps with thecommunication signals ofmany marine mammalspecies.Masking Erbe 2002 Clark et al. 2009
  8. 8. RESPONSES TO BOAT APPROACHESBehavior responses Acoustic responses• Behavior state • Rate of communication• Swimming synchrony signals• Inter-breath interval • Acoustic parameters of• Direction and speed of communication signals movement
  9. 9. FACTORS INFLUENCING RESPONSES TO DISTURBANCE• Experience • Group size• Received levels (RL) • Group composition of noise (mothers and calves).• Distance and speed of watching vessel
  10. 10. CHAPTER 1: DO CALVES MATTER?:ADDRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING CALFPRESENCE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF WHALE- WATCHING IMPACTS.
  11. 11. Introduction• Calves are more susceptible to boat approaches.• Having calves could affect mother’s responses to whale watching.• Is it important to consider responses by groups with calves?• Method: Literature review
  12. 12. Table 1. Summary of published work on whale and dolphin watching showing the proportion of publications where calves areconsidered as a factor for changes in responses. Calves responded No difference in Species Calves where not considered differently responseBehavioral responsesA. bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops Nowacek et al., 2001; ? Acevedo, 1991; Constantine, 2001,truncatus) Hastie, 2003; Lusseau 2004; Buckstaff, 2004*; Lusseau, 2003*; Akiyama et al 2007 2004,2006; Mattson et al. 2005; Arcangeli et al. 2009, Mattson et al. 2005; Janik, 1996)Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Stensland and Berggren ? ?(Tursiops aduncus) 2007; Hawkins and Gartside, 2010Pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella Montero-Cordero 2007 ? ?attenuate)Sotalia costero (Sotalia guinensis) Santos et al. 2006 Filla et al. 2009 ?Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Stockin et al. 2008 ? ?Killer whale (Orcinus orca) Williams et al. 2002* ? ?Irrawady dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) ? Hashim & Jaaman 2011Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) ? Hashim & Jaaman 2011
  13. 13. RESULTS - BEHAVIOR STATESotalia guianensis Pantropical spotted Bottlense dolphinsSantos et al. 2006 dolphins Stensland & Berggren Montero-Cordero 2007 2007 Lemon et al. 2006 Less resting and feeding during interactions with Arcangeli and Crosti boats for groups with calves. More traveling. Lusseau 2003 Lemon et al. only found changes from traveling to milling Lusseau found changes in female avoidance strategies
  14. 14. RESULTS - DIRECTION AND SPEED OF MOVEMENTBottlenose dolphins - Steckenreuter et al. Humpback whales- Stamation et al.2011 2009, Schaffar et al. 2008Killer whales - Williams et al. 2002 Gray whales??
  15. 15. RESULTS - INTER-BREATH INTERVALSBottlenose dolphins - Nowacek et al. Humpback whales - Stamation et2001, Lusseau 2003 al. 2009 Groups with calves spend more time underwater: Vertical avoidanceSotalia guianensis - Filla & Monteiro 2009
  16. 16. RESULTS - SWIMMING SYNCHRONYNot enough evidence. Groups with calves are generallyless synchronized.Synchronization increases with the presence of boats.
  17. 17. RESULTS - ACOUSTIC RESPONSES Production of communication signals Groups with calves have a higher whistle production rate. For humpback dolphins, whistle rate increases when disturbed by boats, particularly when calves are present in the group. Lemon et al. 2006 found no reponse. Did not considered calves.
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONSDo calves matter?• Yes. Average of response vs. targeting vulnerable groups.• Better prediction of long-term consequences.
  19. 19. CHAPTER 2:DOLPHIN-WATCHING BOAT INFLUENCE DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION: THE EFFECT OF NUMBER OF BOATS AND MODE OF APPROACH ON WHISTLE EMISSION RATE FOR GROUPS WITH CALVES
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION SIGNALSWhistles are frequency modulated signals used forcommunication. 20Hz – 32kHzEach individual has its own “signature whistle” used forgroup cohesion. Whistle rate overall vocal behavior but can be used as a measure to noise impacts. Whistle rate = #whistles/#dolphins/time
  21. 21. Dolphins canpotentially increasetheir whistle repetitionto compensate for themasking noise.Separation betweenmothers and calveselicit a higher whistlerate. Buckstaff 2004
  22. 22. DOLPHIN WATCHING IN BOCAS DEL TORO Small resident population of bottlenose dolphins (~100 dolphins) Daily interactions with dolphin-watching tour boat. Feeding Social
  23. 23. PREVIOUS STUDIES IN BOCAS Change in frequency and duration of whistles. (May Collado & Wartzok 2008) Increase in call repetition. (Taubitz 2007)Ambient noise in Bocas del ToroMay Collado & Wartzok 2008 Changes in behavior (Barragán-Barrera 2007) Calves?
  24. 24. Questions:Does dolphin-watching have an effect on whistlerate?Is it different for group with calves?
  25. 25. Challenges: Noise received levels (dB)? Too many boats at the same time Few dolphinsSolution:Use type of approach andnumber of boats as arelative measure ofacoustic disturbance. Signal:Noise (dB) Distance from observation boat Buckstaff 2004
  26. 26. MEASURING DISTURBANCE # Boats Type of Descriptionapproach Aggressive. Boats approaching dolphins at high N speeds, perpendicular to the O # 1 dolphins’ swimming B direction, and/or circling the I O A group. Closer than 10m. S T Close approaches (<10m), 2 changes in speeds towards E S the group. Low speed. Non aggressive. Parallel approach at distances greater 3 than 20m. Slow speed or engine off.
  27. 27. FIELD METHODS 2012 Acoustic & Behavior recorderBehavioral Acoustic recordings (1 state min)
  28. 28. FIELD METHODS 2012A RESON hydrophone wasdeployed at 2 m depthwhen the engine was off torecord and listen thedolphins’ whistles.Sampling rate: 75kHzBroadband
  29. 29. FIELD METHODS 2012Photo ID Acoustic &recorder Behavior recorderBoatBehavior Grumpyrecorder captainSubjectswimmingaway Behavioral state Acoustic recordings (1 min) Pod size # boats present Presence of calves Type of boat approach
  30. 30. RESULTSDo calves matter?Presence vs. absenceof boats(Whitney U-test X2 =2210,p-value = 0.070)Presence vs. absenceof boats with andwithout calves(Friedman’s X2 = 73.91,df= 3, p-value = 0.000)
  31. 31. Mother-calf spatial relationship could be importantSupermessy and baby:
  32. 32. RESULTSNumber of boatsNo clear pattern of response to number of boats.Groups with calves always had a higher whistleemission rate. Num. of boats
  33. 33. RESULTSType of approachAggressive approaches showed higher whistleemission rates for both groups with and withoutcalves. AGGRESSIVENES
  34. 34. RESULTSBehavior stateBehaviors that require group coordinationshow a higher whistle emission rate
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS Do calves matter? Yes. • Groups with calves show a different response to the presence of boats. • Aggressive approaches elicit a higher whistle rate for both groups with and without calves. Can be a better measurement for relative noise disturbance. • Behaviors that require cohesion showed a significant acoustic response to presence of boats. • Enforcement of the regulations is required to avoid negative long-term consequences.
  36. 36. OUTREACHWebpage Facebook page Local TV interview STRI news
  37. 37. FUTURE WORKRecommendations for Future work:management: • Continue with• Slower speeds outreach work• Less boats at a time • Photo Identification of• Avoid groups with the population. calves. • Estimating population• Self-regulated size. industry by the • Playback experiments formation of alliances. (collaboration with Susan Parks – Syracuse University)
  38. 38. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thesis Funding and support: Committee:Dr. Laura May Collado Dr. Mitch Aide Dr. Alberto Sabat Dr. David Logue
  39. 39. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSField assistants Presentation & Manuscript Friends & Family: THANK YOU! – GRACIAS! “I have always depended on the kindness of strangers” – Blanche Dubois
  40. 40. QQuestions?

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