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Shakehand with Life     Research Methodology     Systematized effort to gain new knowledge     Notes for MBA III Sem. Maha...
Few wordsTo All Management and Engineering Professionals………………                                                            ...
Few Motivational words                                                                                   Train-ed To be a ...
Santa’s Research Story on a Frog                                                                    Mr. Santa has got a ch...
“ If all four Legs of the Frog are cut down then Frog stops listening.”                      Types of ResearchesThis was t...
Significance of Research in Business decisions making                                       Research, thus, replaces intui...
for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his               Quite often a research hypothesis i...
Estimation of variance                                                                      Two Errors in Hypothesis Testi...
b) Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the problem               Model For Identification and Formul...
Research Design :                                                                         “A Research design is the arrang...
Need for Research design                                                                   2. Extraneous variable : Indepe...
Research design in case of exploratory research studies                                    transition from one stage to an...
The difference between research design in respect of the above two types of               example , suppose we are to exam...
The principle of Randomization: This principle provide protection, when we                    Design of Survey Researchcon...
Data Collection: Universe, population, sampling and sampling                               Population/Universe: is the who...
Steps in sampling design                                                                                       Types of Sa...
Simple Random Samples     Every Individual or Item from the Frame Has an Equal Chance of                            Strat...
Advantages and Disadvantages     Simple Random Sample & Systematic Sample                                                ...
The methods of collecting primary and secondary data differ since primary                  Merits of observation Methoddat...
Personal Interview                                                                            beliefs and of the frame of ...
6) Under the interview method the organization required for selecting ,                    Questionnaire Method   training...
Question Sequence                                                                         Wording of the questions:The que...
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
MBA Notes Research Methodology
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MBA Notes Research Methodology

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Unit I
Introduction; meaning and nature of research; significance of research in business decision making, identification and formulation of research problem, setting objectives and formulation of hypotheses.
Unit-II
Research design and data collection; research designs – exploratory, descriptive, diagnostic and experimental data collection; universe, survey population, sampling and sampling designs. data collection tools- schedule, questionnaire, interview and observation, use of SPSS.
Unit-III
Scaling techniques; need for scaling, problems of scaling, reliability and validity of scales, scale construction techniques- arbitrary approach, consensus scale approach (Thurston), item analysis approach (Likert) and cumulative scales (Gut man’s Scalogram)
Unit-IV
Interpretation and report writing; introduction, meaning of interpretation, techniques and precautions in interpretation and generalization report writing- purpose, steps and format of research report and final presentation of the research report.

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  • Good day sir, kindly share your slides to my email address; jjanoj2@gmail.com. Thank you in anticipation
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  • Hello sir, could you share your slides to my email address: anhtran1412@gmail.com. Thanks in advance
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  • sir plz send the notes at skjhans@gmail.com am preparing for MBA sem exam, i need them
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MBA Notes Research Methodology

  1. 1. Shakehand with Life Research Methodology Systematized effort to gain new knowledge Notes for MBA III Sem. Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak, (DDE) Prepared By Narender Sharma Quality Professional in a leading Container Glass Manufacturing Organization HNG Industries Ltd , Bahadurgarh Prepared By Narender Sharma Quality Professional in a leading Container Glass Manufacturing Organization
  2. 2. Few wordsTo All Management and Engineering Professionals……………… Course JourneyAll of you have studied about the Software and Hardware as these Research Methodologyunderstand as a heavy source of earning but I believe in Humanware and in (MBA , Sem. III, M.D. University, Rohtak)my view “Nothing costly than a human mind as it has unlimited capabilities.” Unit I : Page 3 - 8so my Mission statement is Introduction “Shakehand with Life” Meaning and nature of research. Significance of research in business decision making.The notes are strictly according to the syllabus of Maharishi Dayanand Identification and formulation of research problems , SettingUniversity, Rohtak under distance education mode for MBA ,Sem. III. objectives and formulation of hypothesis. Unit II : Page 9 - 22As a quality professional It is my effort to give the quality in my work which Research designs and data collectionwill give the maximum output through minimum input from the user end so Research designs – Exploratory , descriptive, diagnostic, andthat he can get maximum marks in his examination. experimental data collection. Universe , survey population , and sampling designs.I always seeking the feedback from your side so that, I can continuously Data collection tools –Schedule, questionnaire, interview andmake improvement in my work. observation, use of SPSSWith Regards Unit III : Page 23 - 34 Scaling Techniques Need for scaling, problems of scaling , reliability and validity of scales. Scale construction techniques- Arbitrary approach , consensus scaleNarender Sharma approach ( Thurston), Item analysis approach (Likert) and cumulative scales ( Gut man’s Scalogram) Working As A Quality Professional In A Leading Container Glass Manufacturing Organization Since July 2001 To Till Date. Unit IV: Page 35 - 44 Visiting Faculty in Leading Management Institutes in Delhi. Interpretation and Report writing Six –Sigma Green Belt. Introduction , meaning of interpretation Group Member “Benchmark Six Sigma” , “Leaders Think Tank” on Linkedin. Techniques and precautions in interpretation and generalization. M.B.A. (Production And Operation Management). Report writing – purpose, steps and format of research report and B.Sc. (Electronics, Physics, Mathematics). final presentation of the research reportShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 1www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  3. 3. Few Motivational words Train-ed To be a Leader “ I know you are going People are often like a Train, Some are like its Engine to make it ……….. Leading the train forward, It may take time Some are like bogies chugging along, following the leader and hard work While few others are likes the brakes, putting a stop to its motion You may become frustrated and Therefore the leader is like the Engine of this train at times you will feel A man who will lead with trust and honesty, like giving up with speed and also ensure that there are no accidents. Sometimes you may even wonder if it’s really worth it Narender Sharma But I have confidence in you Lead India MAILBOX, My Times, My Voice and I know you’ll make it, Times of India, New Delhi, If you try.” Aug24, 2007, p. 2 ……………..Ananda PierceShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 2www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  4. 4. Santa’s Research Story on a Frog Mr. Santa has got a chance to become a researcher and he went to America and did a interesting research on a Frog. Here is the research story of the Santa Mr. Santa caught a Frog and put the Frog on a table and asked to the Frog, “Daddu, my son, jump!”Unit I : Introduction Meaning and nature of research. Significance of research in business Frog jumped about six feet. decision making. Then Mr. Santa cut one rear leg of the Frog and then put the Frog again on the table and asked to the Frog, “Daddu, my son, jump!” Identification and formulation of research Frog used the force of all three legs and jumped about three feet. Then Mr. Santa cut one more leg of the Frog , that was his right front leg. problems, Setting objectives and Now Mr. Santa put the Frog on the table and again asked the Frog , “Daddu, formulation of hypothesis. my son, jump!” Frog used the force of his two legs and jumped about one feet. Now Mr. Santa cut one more leg of the Frog , that was the second rear leg of the Frog. Then put the Frog again on the table and asked the Frog , “Daddu, my son, jump!” Frog somehow using the force of his remaining last leg and try to jump but managed to scrawl himself just about two inches. Now at last Mr. Santa cut the last leg of the Frog and put the Frog on the table and asked him again, “Daddu, my son, jump!” But this time the Frog even collecting the whole inner strength of his body failed to even scrawl himself. Now Mr. Santa find the result from his study and made a generalization thatShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 3www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  5. 5. “ If all four Legs of the Frog are cut down then Frog stops listening.” Types of ResearchesThis was the research done by Mr. Santa. Descriptive vs AnalyticalBut Actually, What is Research? Descriptive research includes surveys and fact finding enquiries ofWhat is the significance of the research? different kind. The major purpose of descriptive research is descriptionHow the research progress? of the state of affairs as it exists at present.How do we identify and formulate the research problem? Analytical research on the other hand , the researcher has to use facts orAll these are discussed in this subject named as information already available , and analyze these to make a criticalResearch Methodology evaluation of the material.Meaning and Nature of Research Applied vs FundamentalWe all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problemconfronts us , we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain facing a society or an industrial/ business organization.full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the Fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalization and withmother of all knowledge and the method , which man employs for obtaining the formulation of theory.the knowledge of whatever the unknown , can be termed as research. Quantitative vs Qualitative Quantitative research is based in the measurement of quantity or Research is an art of scientific investigation. amount. Systematized effort to gain new knowledge –Redman and Morry Qualitative research , is concerned with qualitative involving quality or Research is movement of known to unknown. kind. For instance , when we are interested in investigating the reasons It is actually a voyage of discovery. for human behavior. Research comprises defining and redefining problems , formulating Conceptual vs Emperical hypothesis or suggested solutions ; collecting , organizing and evaluating Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea or theory. It is data; making deductions and reaching conclusions ; and at last carefully generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating to reinterpret existing ones. hypothesis. Empirical research relies on the experience or observation alone, often The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of without due regard for system and theory. It is data based research, generalization to extend , correct or verify knowledge, whether that coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by knowledge, aids in construction of theory or in the practice of art.- D. observation or experiment. Slesinger and M. Stephenson Some Other types of ResearchesConclusion : Research as such terms refers to the systematic method One time or longitudinal researchconsisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the Laboratory or simulation researchfacts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the Clinical or diagnostic researchform of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations Historical researchfor some theoretical formulation.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 4www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Significance of Research in Business decisions making Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and“ All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, scientific decisions.for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention.”- Hudson Maxim in Types of research problems.context of significance of research. There are two types if research problems, viz., Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the 1. Those which relate to states of nature. development of logical habits of thinking and organization. 2. Those which relate to relationships between variables. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our Process of Identification and formulation of research economic system. problems. Decision- making may not be a part of research, but research certainly Single out the problem : At the very outset the researcher must single facilitates the decision of the policy maker. out the problem he wants to study, i.e., he must decide the general area of Research has its special significance in solving various operational and interest or aspect of a subject –matter that he would like to inquire into. planning problems of business and industry. Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem be resolved. a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, Feasibility of a particular solution : The feasibility of a particular production and sales. solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the Operational research refers to the application of mathematical, logical problem can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost research problem, viz., understanding the problem thoroughly, and minimization or of profit maximization or what can be termed as rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of optimization problems. view. Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is Understanding the problem : The best way of understanding the mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is problem is to discuss it with one’s own colleagues or with those having concerned with the determination of motivations underlying the some expertise in the matter. In private business units or in consumer (market) behaviour. governmental organizations, the problem is usually earmarked by the Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in administrative agencies with whom the researcher can discusses as to business. Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult how the problem originally came about and what considerations are for a firm, or for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limit involved in its possible solutions. of its projected capacity. Study the available literature related to the problem : The researcher Market analysis has become an integral tool of business policy these days. must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself Business budgeting , which ultimately results in a projected profit and acquainted with the selected problem. He may review two types of loss account , is based mainly on sales estimates which in turn depends literature – the conceptual literature concerning the concepts and on business research. Once sales forecasting is done, efficient production theories, and the empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier and investment programmes can be set up around which are grouped the which are similar to the one proposed. The basic outcome of this review purchasing and financing plans. will be the knowledge as to what data and other materials are availableShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 5www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  7. 7. for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his Quite often a research hypothesis is a predictive statement, capable of being own research problem in a meaningful context. tested by scientific methods, that relates an independent variable to some Rephrases the problem into analytical or operational terms : After dependent variable. this the researcher rephrases the problem into analytical or operational For example consider the statements like the following ones: terms i.e., to put the problem in as specific terms as possible. “Students who receive counseling will show a greater increase in creativityThis task of formulating, or defining , a research problem is a step of greatest than students not receiving counseling”importance in the entire research process. The problem to be investigated Or “A girl and a boy lead their married life successfully if they allowed tomust be defined unambiguously for that will help discriminating relevant talk before their marriage for better understanding in comparison to thosedata from irrelevant ones. Care must, however, be taken to verify the who are not to be allowed to do so.”objectivity and validity of the background facts concerning the problem. In “The automobile A is performing as well as automobile B.”fact, formulation of the problem often follows a sequential pattern where a These are hypothesis capable of being objectively verified and tested. Thus,number of formulations are set up, each formulation more specific than the we may conclude that a hypothesis states what we are looking for and it is apreceding one, each one phrased in more analytical terms, and each more proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity.realistic in terms of the available data and resources. Basic concept of hypothesis testing Develop the hypothesis of population and make statistical decision bySetting of Objectives determining the acceptance of hypothesis using sample data. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights Null hypothesis (H0): Argument made so far, or hypothesis saying that there into it (Exploratory or Formulative research studies). is no change or difference To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, Alternative Hypothesis (H1): New argument, that is a hypothesis that you situation or a group (Descriptive research studies) want to prove with solid ground obtained from sample To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with Example : Medicine B for headache that is newly developed by a which it is associated with something else ( Diagnostic research pharmaceutical company has 30 minutes longer effects than existing studies) Medicine A. To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables H0 =Medicine A and B has same effect. (Hypothesis testing research studies) H1= Medicine B has 30 minutes longer effects than medicine A.Formulation of Hypothesis Example : The following is data on yield of old process and improved process.What is Hypothesis? Process B is improved process.Ordinarily, when one talks about hypothesis, one simply means a mere Process before improvementassumption or some supposition to be proved or disapproved. But for Process 89.7 81.4 84.5 84.8 87.3 79.7 85.1 81.7 83.7 84.5researcher hypothesis is a formal question that he intends to resolve. AThus a hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a set of proposition set Process after improvementforth an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomenaeither asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation Process 84.7 86.1 83.2 91.9 86.3 79.3 82.6 89.1 83.7 88.5 Bor accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. Is there real difference between Process A and Process B ?Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 6www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Estimation of variance Two Errors in Hypothesis TestingVariance : Amount that shows degree of data spread. Small variation . Data is concentrated around mean. It is desirable Actual distribution. Testing Result Right decision Type II Error Large variation Data scattered around mean. Such process needs to be β improved. Type I Error Right decisionReal Question : αCan we say that the yield of improved Process B is greater than the oldProcess A? Type I Error : Error that you rejects null hypothesis although null Descriptive Statistics hypothesis is true. Variable Process N Mean Std. Dev. risk : Maximum Probability of committing type I Error Yield A 10 84.24 2.90 Type II Error : Error that you accept null hypothesis although null B 10 85.54 3.65 hypothesis is faultStatistical Question: risk : Probability of committing type II ErrorIs there a statistically significant difference between mean of ProcessB(85.54) and mean of Process A(84.24)? or , is this difference in mean justdue to time variation? Example: A TrialAssumption Statistical interpretation: Population mean of process A and Hypothesis Jury’s Decision process B is same. Testing He is not He is Guilty Practical Interpretation : There is no difference in yield between two Guilty processes. Actually Type I Error ( α- Risk) Innocent Correct Innocent Man goes TruthArgument to Prove to jail Statistical interpretation: Population mean of process A and Actually Type II Error process B is different. Guilty (β-Risk) Correct Practical Interpretation : Avg. yield of Process A and Avg. yield of Criminal Goes Free Process B are different.Objective : Determine whether the yield of improved Process B and the Using the following approach one can formulate the hypothesisyield of old Process A are different using sample. a) Discussion with colleagues and experts about the problem, its originTest Statistic and the objectives in seeking a solution;Statistic that is used as criteria for selecting null or alternative hypothesisNeed to set appropriate test statistic such as Z, t, F distribution if necessary.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 7www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  9. 9. b) Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the problem Model For Identification and Formulation of Research for possible trends, peculiarities and other clues; c) Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on the similar problems; and 1.Define Research d) Exploratory personal investigation which involves original field 2. Review Literature problem interviews on a limited scale with interested parties and individuals with a view to secure greater insight into the practical aspects of the problem.Thus , hypothesis arise as a result of a priori thinking about the subject,examination of available data and material including related studies and thecounsel of experts and interested parties. 4. Design Research 3. Formulate (including sample Hypothesis design) 6. Analysis Data 5. Collect Data (execution) ( Test Hypothesis if Any) 7. Interpret and ReportShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 8www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Research Design : “A Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” “The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted ; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection , measurement and analysis of data.” Research Design may split into the following parts: a) The sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study;Unit II : Research design and data collection b) The observational design which relates to the conditions under which observations are to be made; Research designs-exploratory, descriptive, c) The statistical design which concern with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be diagnostic and experimental. analyzed; and Data collection: Universe, population, d) The operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational sampling and sampling designs. designs can be carried out. Data Collection tools-schedule, questionnaire, Important feature of research design as under interview and observation. (i) It is a plan that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the research problem. (ii) It is a strategy specifying which approach will be used for gathering and analyzing the data. (iii) It includes the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these two constraints. In brief , research design must , at least , contain – a) Clear statement of the research problem; b) Procedure and techniques to be used for gathering information; c) The population to be studied; d) Methods to be used in processing and analyzing data.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 9www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Need for Research design 2. Extraneous variable : Independent variables that are not related to theI) Research Design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are termed the various research operations , thereby making research as efficient as extraneous variable. as possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure 3. Control : The term ‘Control’ is used when we design the study minimizing of effort, time and money . the effects of extraneous independent variables.II) We need a research design of plan in advance of data collection and 4. Confounded Relationship: When the dependent variable is not free from analysis for our research project. the influence of extraneous variable, the relationship between theIII) Preparation of the research design should be done with great care as dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by any error in it may upset the entire project. Research design , in fact, extraneous variable. has a great bearing on the reliability of the results arrived at and as 5. Research Hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is such constitutes the firm foundation of the entire edifice of the to be tested by scientific methods, it is termed as research hypothesis. research work. 6. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research:IV) The design helps the researcher to organize his ideas in a form Research in which the independent variable is manipulated is termed whereby it will be possible for him to look for flaws and ‘experimental hypothesis-testing research’ and a research in which an inadequacies. Such a design can even be given to others for their independent variable is not manipulated is called ‘non-experimental comments and critical evaluation. hypothesis-testing research’.V) In the absence of such a course of action , it will be difficult for the 7. Experimental and control groups: In an experimental hypothesis-testing critic to provide a comprehensive review of the proposed study. research when a group is exposed to usual conditions, it is termed a ‘control group’ , but when the group is exposed to some novel or specialFeature of Good Research Design condition , it is termed an ‘experimental group’.I) Flexible 8. Treatments: The different conditions under which experimental andII) Appropriate control groups are put are usually referred to as ‘treatments’.III) Efficient 9. Experiment: The process of examining the truth of a statisticalIV) Economical hypothesis, relating to some research problem, is known as anV) Minimises biasness, Maximises reliability of the data experiment.VI) Gives smallest experimental error and supposed to be the best design 10. Experimental unit(s): The pre-determined plots or the blocks, where in many investigation. different treatments are used , are known as experimental units. SuchVII) Yields maximal information and provides an opportunity for experimental units must be selected (defined) very carefully. considering many different aspects of a problem. Different Research DesignsImportant Concepts Relating to Research Design Research design in case of exploratory research studies1. Dependent and Independent variables: If one variable depends upon or is Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research consequence of the other variable , it is termed as dependent variable, studies and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is termed as an independent variable. e.g. if we say that height depends upon age, Research design in case of Experimental studies then height is a dependent variable and age is an independent variable.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 10www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Research design in case of exploratory research studies transition from one stage to another, the reactions of individuals from Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research different social strata and the like.studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies:more precise investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned withoperational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. Thediscovery of ideas and insights. studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts andGenerally, the following three methods in the context of research design for characteristics concerning individual, group or situation all are examples ofsuch studies are talked about: descriptive research studies. Most of the social research comes under this category.a) The survey of concerning literature: It happens to be the most simple and Diagnostics research studies determine the frequency with which fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or something occurs or its association with something else. The studies developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be concerning whether certain variables are associated are examples of reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further diagnostic research studies. research. It may also be considered whether the already stated From the point of view of the research design, the descriptive as well as hypothesis suggest new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should diagnostic studies share common requirements and as such we may group review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases together these two types of research studies. In descriptive as well as in where hypotheses have not yet been formulated , his task is to review the diagnostic studies, the researcher must be able to define clearly, what he available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. wants to measure and find adequate methods for measuring it along with ab) Experience Survey : Experience survey means the survey of people who clear cut definition of ‘population’ he wants to study. Since the aim is to have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. The object obtain complete and accurate information in the said studies, the procedure of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between to be used must be carefully planned. The research design must make variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a enough provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability, survey people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be with due concern for the economical completion of the research study. The carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention types of experience. The respondents so selected may then be on the following : interviewed by the investigator. a) Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about andAnalysis of Insight stimulating examples: It is also a fruitful method for why is it being made?)suggesting method consists of the intensive study of selected instances of the b) Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques ofphenomenon in which one is interested. For this purpose the existing gathering data will be adopted?)records, if any, may be examined, the unstructured interviewing may take c) Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed?)place , or some other approach may be adopted. One can mention few d) Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and withexamples of ‘insight- stimulating’ cases such as the reactions of strangers, the what time period should the data be related?)reactions of marginal individuals, the study of individuals who are in e) Processing and analyzing the data. f) Reporting the findings.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 11www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  13. 13. The difference between research design in respect of the above two types of example , suppose we are to examine the effect of two varieties of rice. Forresearch studies can be conveniently summarized in tabular form as under: this purpose we may divide the field into two parts and grow one variety in one part and the other variety in the other part. We can then compare the Type of study yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. Research Design Exploratory or Descriptive or Diagnostic Rice of Variety ‘A’ Rice of Variety ‘B’ Formulative aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Flexible design (design Rigid design (design must aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb must provide opportunity make enough provision aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Overall design for considering different for protection against aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb aspects of the problem) bias and must maximize aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb reliability) i) Sampling Non –Probability Probability sampling But if we are to apply the principle of replication to this experiment, then we design sampling design design (random first divide the field into several parts, grow one variety in half of these parts (purposive or judgement sampling) and the other variety in the remaining parts. We can then collect the data of sampling ) yield of the two varieties and draw conclusion by comparing the same. The result so obtained will be more reliable in comparison to the conclusion we ii) Statistical No pre-planned design for Pre- planned design for draw without applying the principle of replication. design analysis analysis Rice of Variety ‘A’ Rice of Variety ‘B’ iii) Observational Unstructured instruments Structured or well design for collection of data thought instruments for aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb collection of data aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb iv) Operational No fixed decisions about Advanced decisions about aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb design the operational operational procedures. aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb procedures aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbbResearch design in case of Experimental studies The entire experiment can even be repeated several times for better results.Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs : Conceptually replication does not present any difficulty, but computationally it does. For example, if an experiment requiring a two –way analysis of I) The principle of replication variance is replicated, it will then require a three –way analysis of variance II) The principle of Randomization and since replication itself may be a source of variation in the data . However, it III) Principle of Local Control. should be remembered that replication is introduced in order to increase theThe principle of replication : The experiment should be repeated more than precision of a study; that is to say, to increase the accuracy with which theonce . Thus , each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of main effects and interactions can be estimated.one. By doing so the statistical accuracy of the experiments is increased. ForShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 12www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  14. 14. The principle of Randomization: This principle provide protection, when we Design of Survey Researchconduct an experiment, against the effect of extraneous factors byrandomization. In other words, this principle indicates that we should design Choose an Appropriate Mode of Responseor plan the experiment in such a way that the variations caused by  Reliable primary modesextraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of“chance.” For instance, if we grow one variety of rice , say, in the first half of Personal interviewthe parts of a fields and the other variety is grown in the other half, then it is Telephone interviewjust possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in Mail surveycomparison to the other half. If this is so, our results would not be realistic. Insuch a situation, we may assign the variety of rice to be grown in different  Less reliable self-selection modes (not appropriate for makingparts of the field on the basis of some random sampling technique i.e. we may inferences about the population)apply randomization principle and protect ourselves against the effects of the Television surveyextraneous factors (soil fertility differences in the given case). As such, Internet surveythrough the application of the principle of randomization, we can have a Printed survey on newspapers and magazinesbetter estimate of the experimental error. Product or service questionnairesPrinciple of Local Control : It is another important principle of experimental  Identify Broad Categoriesdesigns. Under it the extraneous factor , the known source of variability, is List complete and non-overlapping categories that reflectmade to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this needs to the themebe done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured andhence eliminated from the experimental error. This means that we should  Formulating Accurate Questionsplan the experiment in a manner that we can perform a two –way analysis of Clear and unambiguous questions use clear operationalvariance, in which the total variability of the data is divided into three definitions – universally accepted definitionscomponents attributed to treatments( varieties of rice in our case), theextraneous factor (soil fertility in our case ) and experimental error. In other  Testing the Surveywords, according to the principle of local control, we first divide the field into Pilot test on small group of participants to assess clarityseveral homogeneous parts, known as blocks, and then each such block is and lengthdivided into parts equal to the number of treatments. Then the treatments  Writing a Cover Letterare randomly assigned to these parts of a block. Dividing the field into severalhomogenous parts is known as ‘blocking’. In general , blocks are the levels at State the goal and purpose of the surveywhich we hold an extraneous factor fixed, so that we can measure itscontribution to the total variability of the data by means of a two –way Explain the importance of a responseanalysis of variance. In brief, through the principle of local control we can Provide assurance of respondent anonymityeliminate the variability due to extraneous factor(s) from the experimental Offer incentive gift for respondent participationerror.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 13www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  15. 15. Data Collection: Universe, population, sampling and sampling Population/Universe: is the whole collection of things under considerationdesigns. Sample : is a portion of the population selected for analysisWhy We Need Data Parameter: is a summary measure computed to describe a characteristic of  To Provide Input to Survey the population  To Provide Input to Study Statistic : is a summary measure computed to describe a characteristic of the  To Measure Performance of Ongoing Service or Production Process sample  To Evaluate Conformance to Standards Population and Sample  To Assist in Formulating Alternative Courses of Action  To Satisfy Curiosity Population/Universe Sample Types of Data Use statistics to summarize Use parameter to features summarize features Data Reasons for Drawing a Sample Categorical Numerical  Less Time Consuming Than a Census (Qualitative) (Quantitative)  Less Costly to Administer Than a Census  Less Cumbersome and More Practical to Administer Than a Census of the Targeted Population Discrete ContinuousShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 14www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Steps in sampling design Types of Sampling Methods 1.Type of Universe 2. Sampling unit Samples Non-Probability Probability Samples Samples (Convenience) 4. Size of Sample 3. Source list Simple Random Stratified Judgement Chunk Cluster Systematic Quota 5. Parameters of 6. Budgetary interest Constraints Probability Sampling  Subjects of the Sample are Chosen Based on Known Probabilities 7. Sampling Procedure Probability Samples Simple Systematic Stratified Cluster RandomShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 15www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Simple Random Samples  Every Individual or Item from the Frame Has an Equal Chance of Stratified Samples Being Selected  Selection May be With Replacement or Without Replacement  Population Divided into 2 or more Groups according to Some Common Characteristic  One May Use Table of Random Numbers or Computer Random  Simple Random Sample Selected from Each Number Generators to Obtain Samples Group  The Two or More Samples are Combined into OneSystematic Samples  Decide on Sample Size: n  Divide Frame of N individuals into Groups of k Individuals: k=N/n  Randomly Select One Individual from the 1st Group Cluster Samples  Select Every k-th Individual thereafter  Population Divided into Several “Clusters,” Each n=8 Representative of the Population  A Random Sampling of Clusters is Taken k=8  All Items in the Selected Clusters are Studied Randomly Population selected 2 divided clusters. into 4 clusters.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 16www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages  Simple Random Sample & Systematic Sample Types of Survey Errors  Simple to use  May not be a good representation of the population’s Excluded from underlying characteristics  Coverage Error frame.  Stratified Sample  Non response Error Follow up on  Ensures representation of individuals across the entire nonresponse. population  Sampling Error  Cluster Sample Chance differences from  More cost effective sample to sample.  Measurement Error  Less efficient (need larger sample to acquire the same level of precision) Bad Question!Evaluating Survey Worthiness  What Is the Purpose of the Survey? Data Collection tools-schedule, questionnaire,  Is the Survey Based on a Probability Sample? interview and observation.  Coverage Error – Appropriate Frame The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design/plan chalked out. While deciding about the method of  Non response Error – Follow up data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind  Measurement Error – Good Questions Elicit Good Responses two types of data viz., Primary and Secondary.  Sampling Error – Always Exists Primary data : are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. Secondary data : on the other hand , are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 17www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  19. 19. The methods of collecting primary and secondary data differ since primary Merits of observation Methoddata are to be originally collected , while in case of secondary data the nature 1. Subjective biasness is eliminated by using this method if observationof data collection work is merely that of compilation. is done accurately. 2. The information obtained under this method relates to what isWe below try to understand the tools of data collection with merits and currently happening; it is not complicated by either the past behaviordemerits of each tool. or future intentions or attitudes. 3. This method is independent of respondents’ willingness to respondObservation Method and as such is relatively less demanding of active cooperation on theUnder observation method, the information is sought by way of investigator’s part of respondents as happens to be the case in the interview or theown direct observation without asking from the respondent. For instance, in questionnaire method.a study relating to consumer behavior, the investigator instead of asking the 4. This method is particularly suitable in studies which deal withbrand of wrist watch used by the respondent, may himself look at the watch. subjects (i.e. respondents) who are not capable of giving verbal reports of their feeling for one reason or the other.Types of Observation Structured observation : In case the observation is characterized by a Demerits of observation Method careful definition of the units to be observed, the style of recording the 1. It is an expensive method. observed information , standardized conditions of observation and the 2. The information provided by this method is very limited. selection of pertinent data of observation, then the observation is called as structured observation. 3. Sometime unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational Unstructured observation : When observation is to take place without task. these characteristics to be thought of in advance, the same is termed as 4. Sometimes , some people are rarely accessible to direct observation unstructured observation. creates obstacle for this method to collect data effectively. Participant observation : If the observer observes by making himself, more or less, a member of the group he is observing so that he can Interview Method experience what the members of the group experience , the observation is called as the participant observation. The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral –verbal Non-Participant observation : When the observer is observing in such a stimuli and reply in terms of oral –verbal responses. This method can be used manner that his presence may be unknown to the people he is observing, through personal interviews and , if possible, through telephone interviews. such an observation is described as non – participation or disguised observation. Personal Uncontrolled observation: If the observation takes place in the natural Interview setting, it may be termed as uncontrolled observation. No attempt is Types of made to use precision instruments. Interview Controlled observation: When observation takes place according to Telephonic definite pre- arranged plans, involving experimental procedure, the same Interview is then termed controlled observation.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 18www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  20. 20. Personal Interview beliefs and of the frame of reference within which such feelings andPersonal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer beliefs take on personal significance.asking questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or Major Advantages of Personal interviewpersons.( At times the interviewee may also ask certain questions and the 1) More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained.interviewer responds to these, but usually the interviewer initiates then 2) Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of theinterview and collects the information.) respondents.Types of personal Interview 3) Greater flexibility.a) Structured Interview : Such interviews involve the use of a set of 4) Observation method can as well be applied to recording verbal answers predetermined questions and of highly standardized techniques of to various questions. recording . Thus, the interviewer in a structured interview follows a rigid 5) Personal information can as well be obtained easily under this method. procedure laid down, asking questions in a form and order prescribed. 6) Samples can be controlled more effectively as there arises no difficulty ofb) Unstructured Interview: are characterized by a flexibility of approach to the missing returns; non –response generally remains very low. questioning. Unstructured interviews do not follow a system of pre – 7) Group discussions may also be held. determined questions and standardized techniques of recording 8) The language of the interview can be adopted to the ability or educational information. In a non –structured interview, the interviewer is allowed level of the person interviewed. much greater freedom to ask, in case of need, supplementary questions 9) The interviewer can collect supplementary information about the or at times he may omit certain questions if the situation so requires. He respondent’s personal characteristics and environment which is often of may even change the sequence of questions. He has relatively greater great value in interpreting results. freedom while recording the responses to include some aspects and Weaknesses of Personal Interview exclude others. 1) It is very expensive method, especially when large and widely spreadc) Focused Interview: is meant to focus attention on the given experience of geographical sample is taken. the respondent and its effects. The main task of the interviewer in case of 2) There remains the possibility of the bias of interviewer as well as that of a focused interview is to confine the respondent to a discussion of issues the respondent; there also remains the headache of supervision and with which he seeks conversance. Such interviews are used generally in control of interviewers. the development of hypothesis and constitute a major type of 3) Certain types of respondents such as important officials or executives or unstructured interviews. people in high income groups may not be easily approachable under thisd) Clinical Interview: is concerned with broad underlying feelings or method and to that extent the data may prove inadequate. motivations or with the course of individual’s life experience. The method 4) This method is relatively more –time –consuming, especially when the of eliciting information under it is generally left to the interviewer‘s sample is large and recalls upon the respondents are necessary. discretion. 5) The presence of the interviewer on the spot may over stimulate thee) Non –directive Interview: In this case, the interviewer’s function is respondent, sometimes even to the extent that he may give imaginary simply to encourage the respondent to talk about the given topic with a information just to make the interview interesting. bare minimum of direct questioning. The interviewer often acts as a catalyst to a comprehensive expression of the respondents’ feelings andShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 19www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  21. 21. 6) Under the interview method the organization required for selecting , Questionnaire Method training and supervising the field –staff is more complex with formidable This method of data collection is quite popular , particularly in case of big problems. enquiries. It is being adopted by private individuals , research workers ,7) Interviewing at times may also introduce systematic errors. private and public organizations and even by governments . In this method a8) Effective interview presupposes proper rapport with respondents that questionnaire is sent (usually by post) to the persons concerned with a would facilitate free and frank responses. This is often a very difficult request to answer the questions and return the questionnaire. A requirement. questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definiteTelephonic Interview order on a form or set or forms . The questionnaire is mailed to respondentsThis method of collecting information consists in containing respondents on who are expected to read and understand the questions and write down thetelephone itself. It is not a very widely used method, but plays important part reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself. Thein industrial surveys, particularly in developed regions. respondents have to answer the questions on their own.Chief merits of this method Three main aspects of a questionnaire1) More flexible than mailing method.2) Faster than other methods. 1. General form3) Cheaper than personal interviewing method 2. Question Sequence4) Recall is easy; callbacks are simple and economical. 3. Question formulation and wording5) There is a higher rate of response than what we have in mailing method; General form:6) Replies can be recorded without causing embarrassment to respondents. It can either be structured or unstructured questionnaire. Structured7) Interviewer can explain requirements more easily. questionnaire are those questionnaire in which there are definite, concrete8) At times, access can be gained to respondents who otherwise cannot be and pre –determined questions. The questions are presented with exactly the contacted for one reason or the other. same wording and in the same order to all respondents. Resorts is taken to9) No field staff is required. this sort of standardization to ensure that all respondents reply to the same10) Representative and wider distribution of sample is possible. set of questions. The form of the questions may be either closed (i.e. of theDrawbacks of this method type ‘yes’ or ‘no’ ) or open (i.e. inviting free response) but should be stated in1) Little time is given to respondents for considered answers; interview advance and not constructed during questioning. When these characteristics period is not likely to exceed five minutes in most cases. are not present in a questionnaire , it can be termed as unstructured2) Surveys are restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities. questionnaire. More specifically, we can say that in an unstructured3) Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost questionnaire, the interviewer is provided with a general guide on the type of considerations. information to be obtained , but the exact question formulation is largely his4) It is not suitable for intensive surveys where comprehensive answers are own responsibility and the replies are to be taken down in the respondent’s required to various questions. own words to the extent possible; in some situations tape recorders may be5) Possibility of the bias of the interviewer is relatively more. used to achieve this goal.6) Questions have to be short and to the point ; probes are difficult to handle.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 20www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  22. 22. Question Sequence Wording of the questions:The question –sequence must be clear and smoothly –moving , meaning Researcher must pay proper attention to the wordings of questions sincethereby that the relation of one question to another should be readily reliable and meaningful returns depend on it to a large extent.apparent to the respondent, questions that are easiest to answer being put in Since words are likely to affect responses, they should be properlythe beginning. The first few questions are particularly important because chosen.they are likely to influence the attitude of the respondent and in seeking his Simple words, which are familiar to all respondents should be employed.desired cooperation. The opening question should be such as to arouse Words with ambiguous meaning must be avoided.human interest. The following type of questions should generally be avoided Similarly, danger words, catch –words or words with emotionalas opening question in a questionnaire ; connotations should be avoided.1. Question that put too great a strain on the memory or intellect of the Caution must also be exercised in the use if phrases which reflects upon respondent; the prestige of the respondent.2. Question of a personal character; Question wording no case , should bias the answer. In fact, question3. Question related to personal wealth, etc. wording and formulation is an art and can only be learnt by practice.Question sequence should usually go from the general to the more specificand the researcher must always remember that the answer to a given Essentials of a good Questionnaire:question is a function not only of the question itself, but of all previous Size of the questionnaire should be kept to the minimum.questions as well. For instance, if one question deals with the price usuallypaid for coffee and the next with reason for preferring that particular brand, Questions should proceed in logical sequence moving from easy to morethe answer to this latter question may be couched largely in terms of price difficult questions.differences. Personal and intimate questions should be left to the end.Question formulation and wording: Technical terms and vague expressions capable of differentWith regard to this aspect of questionnaire, the researcher should note that interpretations should be avoided in a questionnaire.all questions should meet the following standards – Questions may be dichotomous (yes or no answers), multiple choicea) Should be easily understood (alternative answers listed) or open –ended. The latter type of questionsb) Should be simple i.e. should convey only one thought at a time; are often difficult to analyze and hence should be avoided in ac) Should be concrete and conform as much as possible to the respondent’s questionnaire to the extent possible. way of thinking ( for instance , instead of asking, “How many pens do you There should be some control questions into questionnaire which use annually?” The more realistic question would be to ask, “How many indicate the reliability of the respondent. pens did you use last week?”) Questions affecting the sentiments of respondents should be avoided.Concerning the form of questions, we can talk about two principal forms viz., Adequate space for answers should be provide in the questionnaire to Multiple choice questions: respondents selects one of the alternative help editing and tabulation. possible answers put to him. Finally, the physical appearance of the questionnaire affects the Open ended questions: Respondents supply the answer in his own words . cooperation the researcher receives from the recipient and as such anThe question with only two possible answers (usually ‘Yes’ or ‘No’) can be attractive looking questionnaire, particularly in mail surveys, is plustaken as a special case of the multiple choice question, or can be named as a point for enlisting cooperation.‘closed question’. The quality of paper, along with its color must be good so that it may attract the attention of recipients.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 21www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com

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