Formal Groups

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Formal Groups

  1. 1. WINTER Template Formal Groups 01
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Oh no! Not another committee meeting,” the executive groaned as she looked at her calendar for the morning. “It’s only Wednesday, and I’ve been to 11 meeting already this week. When am I going to get my real work done?” </li></ul>02
  3. 3. Factors that contribute to negative attitudes towards meetings <ul><li>Lack of trust causes participants to withhold their true feelings </li></ul><ul><li>A negative mind-set exists that meetings aren’t “real work”, hence, people don’t take them seriously. (e.g. they come late or leave early, they miss them completely or they are distracted while there.) </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings are poorly run. </li></ul>03
  4. 4. MEETINGS <ul><li>are important part of daily organizational behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary, but they do introduce more complexity and more chances for problems when improperly used. </li></ul>04
  5. 5. COMMITTEES <ul><li>Specific type of group meeting in which members in their group role have been delegated the authority to handle the problem at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>The group’s authority usually is expressed in terms of one vote for each member. (If a supervisor and a worker serve as members of the same committee, both usually have equal committee roles) </li></ul>05
  6. 6. SYSTEMS FACTORS TO CONSIDER <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>The size of a group tends to affect the way it works. </li></ul><ul><li>If the membership rises above seven, communication tends to be focused within a few members, with others feeling like they do not have adequate opportunity to communicate directly with one another. </li></ul>WINTER Template 06
  7. 7. <ul><li>A group of 5 people seems to be preferred for typical situations. </li></ul><ul><li>A smaller group (e.g. three persons) sometimes has difficulty functioning because conflicts of power develop. </li></ul>07
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders need to consider various factors such as the committee’s objective, the member’s expertise, interest level, time available to serve and the past history of working relationships among potential members. </li></ul>08
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. Agendas </li></ul><ul><li>Two levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Surface agenda – official task of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden agenda – involves member’s private emotions and motives, which they have brought with them but kept hidden. When a group reaches a crisis in its surface agenda, these hidden agenda come to life to complicate the situation. </li></ul>09
  10. 10. Effective surface agendas should: <ul><li>Clearly specify the date, time, and place of the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate a primary purpose for the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>List presenters, the time allotted to them , and the time available for discussion </li></ul>10
  11. 11. <ul><li>Help the group to focus on decisions, not just discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Have room for new items to be added </li></ul><ul><li>Address items in priority order (highest to lowest) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the date, time and place for the next meeting </li></ul>WINTER Template 11
  12. 12. <ul><li>4. Leadership roles </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of leadership roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Task leader – help the group accomplish its objectives and stay on target. </li></ul><ul><li>Social leader – to restore and maintain group relationships by recognizing contributions, reconciling disagreements, and playing a supportive role to help the group develop. </li></ul>12
  13. 13. <ul><li>Difficulties sometimes arise because the task leader may irritate people and injure the unity of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Although one person can fill both the task and social roles, often they are separate. </li></ul><ul><li>When they are separate, it is important for the task leader to recognize the social leader and try to form a coalition so that the two leaders are working together for improved effectiveness of the group. </li></ul>13
  14. 14. 14 Task leader Social leader <ul><li>Define a problem or goal for the group </li></ul><ul><li>Request facts, ideas or opinions from members </li></ul><ul><li>Provide facts, ideas and opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify a confused situation; give examples; provide structure </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Determine whether agreement has been reached </li></ul><ul><li>Check for consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Test for ethicality </li></ul><ul><li>Support the contributions of others; encourage them by recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense the mood of the group and help members become aware of it </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the tension and reconcile disagreements </li></ul><ul><li>Modify your position; admit an error </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate participation of all members </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the group’s effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with team stress </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effective meetings are also facilitated by the application of a number of commonsense practices. These include: <ul><li>Carefully considering who should be present, and for what parts of the meeting, and who does not need to be there. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a good site for the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Using technology to help capture the ideas, allow for anonymous inputs, organize and expand upon them, record insights and criticisms, and create and edit documents before the participants leave. </li></ul>15
  16. 16. <ul><li>Giving appropriate credit to those who participated and drawing out those who didn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Using open questions to stimulate thought and directed questions to encourage focus on a particular topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing serious discussions with time for a bit of lighthearted fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing progress, identifying issues yet unresolved, and making necessary assignments for the future. </li></ul>WINTER Template 16
  17. 17. STRUCTURED APPROACHES <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectic inquiry </li></ul>17
  18. 18. Brainstorming <ul><li>A popular method for encouraging creative thinking in groups of about eight people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is built around four basic guidelines for participants; </li></ul><ul><li>Generate as many ideas as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative, freewheeling, and imaginative. </li></ul>18
  19. 19. <ul><li>Bullet points are like this </li></ul><ul><li>Text and lines are like this </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks like this </li></ul><ul><li>Visited hyperlinks like this </li></ul>19 Text box PowerPoint styles
  20. 20. Use of templates 20 You are free to use these templates for your personal and business presentations. <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Use these templates for your presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Display your presentation on a web site provided that it is not for the purpose of downloading the template. </li></ul><ul><li>If you like these templates, we would always appreciate a link back to our website. Many thanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t </li></ul><ul><li>Resell or distribute these templates </li></ul><ul><li>Put these templates on a website for download. This includes uploading them onto file sharing networks like Slideshare, Myspace, Facebook, bit torrent etc </li></ul><ul><li>Pass off any of our created content as your own work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can find many more free templates on the Presentation Magazine website www.presentationmagazine.com </li></ul></ul>We have put a lot of work into developing all these templates and retain the copyright in them. They are not Open Source templates. You can use them freely providing that you do not redistribute or sell them.
  21. 21. WINTER Template Formal & Informal Organizations 21
  22. 22. PowerPoint chart object 22
  23. 23. PowerPoint picture page 23
  24. 24. <ul><li>Bullet points are like this </li></ul><ul><li>Text and lines are like this </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks like this </li></ul><ul><li>Visited hyperlinks like this </li></ul>24 Text box PowerPoint styles
  25. 25. Use of templates 25 You are free to use these templates for your personal and business presentations. <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Use these templates for your presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Display your presentation on a web site provided that it is not for the purpose of downloading the template. </li></ul><ul><li>If you like these templates, we would always appreciate a link back to our website. Many thanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t </li></ul><ul><li>Resell or distribute these templates </li></ul><ul><li>Put these templates on a website for download. This includes uploading them onto file sharing networks like Slideshare, Myspace, Facebook, bit torrent etc </li></ul><ul><li>Pass off any of our created content as your own work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can find many more free templates on the Presentation Magazine website www.presentationmagazine.com </li></ul></ul>We have put a lot of work into developing all these templates and retain the copyright in them. They are not Open Source templates. You can use them freely providing that you do not redistribute or sell them.

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