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  1. 1. Report by: Shaina Mavreen D.Villaroza
  2. 2.  Tetanus is from the Greek word which means “to stretch”.  Characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers
  3. 3.  Serious infectious disease of the nervous system, in which a bacterial toxin causes severe muscle spasm.  Found everywhere but which is especially likely to be present in street dirt
  4. 4.  The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive ,rod-shaped, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani.
  5. 5.  The first symptoms are usually headache and depression  Difficulty in swallowing  Difficulty in opening the jaws  Stiffness of the neck  Spasms (involuntary muscle contraction) starting on the cheek and eventually spread to other muscles of the body
  6. 6.  Prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful, and painful contractions of muscle groups.This is called tetany.
  7. 7.  Other symptoms include drooling, excessive sweating, fever, hand or foot spasms, irritability, swallowing difficulty, uncontrolled urination or defecation.
  8. 8.  Generalized tetanus is the most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of cases.  Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns. Infants who have not acquired passive immunity because the mother has never been immunized are at risk. An infant suffering from NeonatalTetanus.
  9. 9.  Local tetanus is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area as the injury.  Cephalic tetanus is a rare form of the disease, occasionally occurring with otitis media (ear infections) in which C. tetani is present in the flora of the middle ear, or following injuries to the head.
  10. 10.  Tetanus was well known to ancient people who recognized the relationship between wounds and fatal muscle spasms.  In 1884, Arthur Nicolaier isolated the strychnine-like toxin of tetanus from free- living, anaerobic soil bacteria.
  11. 11.  In 1889, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim by Kitasato Shibasaburō, who later showed that the organism could produce disease when injected into animals, and that the toxin could be neutralized by specific antibodies.
  12. 12.  In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and treatment.  In 1924, tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by P. Descombey.
  13. 13.  Tetanus is often associated with rust, especially rusty nails, but this concept is somewhat misleading.  Objects that accumulate rust are often found outdoors, or in places that harbor anaerobic bacteria, but the rust itself does not cause tetanus nor does it contain more C. tetani bacteria.  Because C. tetani is an anaerobic bacterium, it and its endospores survive well in an environment that lacks oxygen.
  14. 14.  Hence, stepping on a nail (rusty or not) may result in a tetanus infection, as the low-oxygen (anaerobic) environment is provided by the same object that causes a puncture wound, delivering endospores to a suitable environment for growth.
  15. 15. Clostridium tetani
  16. 16.  Infection in open wounds  Occurs both in deep, penetrating wounds and in crushing wounds with extensive tissue destruction
  17. 17.  When introduced into human tissue, usually at the time of an injury, it can multiply where the oxygen is deficient  The incubation period varies from two weeks to several months, but generally is about two weeks
  18. 18.  Cleaning the wound  Eliminating the bacilli both surgically and with antibiotics  Using antitoxin to neutralize exotoxins released by the bacteria  To reduce muscle spasms, and to support respiration
  19. 19.  Active immunization with tetanus tozoid before the injury  Periodic immunizations or booster injections  Series of three injections is recommended if the tetanus toxoid is combined with both diphtheria and toxoid pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine in the commonly administered DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) injections.
  20. 20.  Supplementary booster injections should be given one year after completion of the primary immunization series and every five to ten years thereafter.
  21. 21.  Mild cases of tetanus can be treated with: Tetanus immunoglobulin IV or IM metronidazole IV for 10 days Diazepam In order to survive a tetanus infection, the maintenance of an airway and proper nutrition are required.An intake of 3500-4000 calories, and at least 150 g of protein per day, is often given in liquid form through a tube directly into the stomach or through a drip into a vein.
  22. 22.  Severe cases will require admission to intensive care. In addition to the measures listed above for mild tetanus: human tetanus immunoglobulin injected intrathecally (increases clinical improvement from 4% to 35%)
  23. 23. tracheotomy and mechanical ventilation for 3 to 4 weeks magnesium, as an intravenous (IV) infusion, to prevent muscle spasm diazepam as a continuous IV infusion the autonomic effects of tetanus can be difficult to manage (alternating hyper- and hypotension hyperpyrexia/hypothermia) and may require IV labetalol, magnesium, clonidine, or nifedipine.