In gardening, annual often refers to a plant grown outdoors in the spring and summer and surviving just for one growing season. Many food plants are, or are grown as, annuals, including virtually all domesticated grains A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle. In the first year the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a period of dormancy over the colder months. Usually the stem remains very short and the leaves are low to the ground, forming a rosette. Many biennials require a cold treatment, or vernalization, before they will flower. During the next spring or summer, the stem of the biennial plant elongates greatly, or &quot;bolts&quot;. The plant then flowers, producing fruits and seeds before it finally dies. There are far fewer biennials than either perennial plants or annual plants. A perennial plant or simply perennial (Latin per, &quot;through&quot;, annus, &quot;year&quot;) is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter lived annuals and biennials. The term is sometimes misused by commercial gardeners or horticulturalists to describe only herbaceous perennials. More correctly, woody plants like shrubs and trees are also perennials.
Lec 1 intro to botany
FUNDAMENTALS OFFUNDAMENTALS OF
PLANT BIOLOGYPLANT BIOLOGY
(Bio 103)(Bio 103)
Nanette Hope N. Sumaya, MSc
Department of Biological Sciences
CSM, MSU-IIT, Iligan City ,
COURSE DESCRIPTIONCOURSE DESCRIPTION
Overview of plant body, plant
functioning, reproduction and
embryonic development, growth and
1- Brief Introduction
- Forms of Plants
2- Microscopy (lab part)
3- Cells and Tissues
is a branch of biology whichis a branch of biology which
deals with the study of PLANTS.deals with the study of PLANTS.
Modern plantsModern plants
Over 325, 000 species of plants known
Have different characteristics with different sizes
ranging from microscopic to macroscopic
Diversity of plant forms leads to classification
Various classification scheme
- based on water requirements
- based on habitat or environment location
-based on life duration
-based on natural system classification
-based on their habit of body appearance
FORM OF PLANTS
Autotrophic or independent plants
- Can manufacture their own food
- Include ALL green plants which make
their organic food
- Also few non-green plants just like
bacteria which manufacture their
A. Based on Water
1. Mesophytes – those which require
moderate supply of water.
2. Xerophytes – those which live in deserts
or dry places and can withstand
scanty supply of water.
3. Hydrophytes – those which thrive in
watery or moist places and require
abundant supply of water.
4. Halophytes- those which live in watery
places, but in which the water is
Leucanthemum vulgareSolidago canadensis
Water lilies Nymphaea alba
Seagrasses are found on the
seaward edges of lagoons
B. Based on their habitat or
1. Aquatic plants- live in water
2. Terrestrial plants- live on land
3. Aerial plants- are above-
ground and attached to
C. Based on their life
1. Annual plants – live for one year or only one
2. Biennial plants – live for two years. The first
year is mainly limited to
vegetative growth, and the
second year is its reproductive
3. Perennial plants – live from year to year or
more than two years
annual plants - corn, wheat, rice, lettuce, peas,
watermelon, beans, zinnia, marigold and etc.
biennial plants - onion, parsley, carrot, and etc.
perennial plants – fruits like avocado,pineapple,
strawberry, banana,apple,tomato and etc..
-herbs like garlic, basil, oregano,
ginger, black pepper and etc...
-vegetables like okra, potato, gabi,
camote, eggplant and etc
- shrubs and trees
D. Based on their habit of
1. Trees – woody plants with single main
stem which is commonly about
20 ft in length
2. Shrubs– woody plants in a relatively short
3. Herbs – plants with soft or succulent
4. Vines- climbing or twining plants, with
stems which may be tender or
Nonvascular Plants- lack vascular plants´
specialized means of transporting water and
organic nutrients, do not have true roots, stems
a. Division Hepatophyta (liverworts)
b. Division Bryophyta (mosses)
c. Division Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
E. Based on natural
systems of classification
Seedless Vascular Plants:
a. Division Psilotophyta (whisk ferns)
b. Division Lycopodophyta (club mosses)
c. Division Equisetophyta (horsetails)
d. Division Pteridophyta (ferns)
Seed Vascular Plants:
a. Division Pinophyta (conifers)
b. Division Cycadophyta (cycads)
c. Division Gingkophyta (maidenhair tree)
d. Division Gnetphyta (gnetophytes)
a. Division Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)
Class Liliopsida (monocots)
Divisions Bryophyta, Hepatophyta,
mosses, hornworts. All are non-
vascular and non-seed.
Pinophyta is the largest and most
diverse division of the gymnosperms.
Most are evergreen – keeping their
A very few are deciduous – dropping all
of their leaves at
the same time
Angiosperms include one division -
Though there is only one division of
angiosperms, Magnoliophyta ….
It is the largest and most diverse group
of seed plants on Earth.
Magnoliophytes produce flowers, then
seeds enclosed in a fruit.
Magnoliophytes can be annuals,
biennials, or perennials.