Warfare
Settlement & Monumental Archaeology
Religion
Etruscan Military
• -more organized and resource-rich.
• -adopted Greek military tactics and
weapons.
• -then improved on them.
• Their outb...
Etruscans excelled at adorning their
shields with a convincingly ferocious-
looking god. It was used to signal to the
oppo...
ROMAN MILITARY
STRATEGY AND TACTICS
“War can only end in eventual victory”
• Great soldiers
• Well-trained
• All volunteers
ROME: MILITARY ABILITY
ROME ADAPTS…
Completely reorganizes
army.
Tactics during battle still not
seen as important part of
warfare.
Cavalry still...
REALLY ADAPTS
New Helmets! New Shields!
ROME STILL MISSING
SOMETHING…
Up until the Second Punic War, Rome had
no generals that stood out from the crowd…
Until…
THE SHIELD AND SWORD OF ROME
Quintus Fabius Maximus
(Cunctator)
Roman politician and
general
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Fiv...
MORE IMPORTANTLY THOUGH…
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus
General in the Second Punic War
THE „CLASSIC‟ ROMAN LEGION
• Came into being largely due
to reforms of Caius Marius
• Any citizen could be a
soldier now, ...
WAY THE „CLASSIC‟ LEGION
OPERATED
• With many wars under
its belt the Roman
Empire held dominance
on the battlefield
• Rom...
NAVAL WARFARE
Quinquereme
Trireme
HOW COULD ROME LOSE?
• Even an army of
400,000 could not
keep these borders
safe forever.
• Remember
cavalry?
• The last c...
AN EMPIRE SPLIT, AN ARMY
REFORMED
“My mother bore a
general, not a
warrior”
• Rome‟s economy declines.
• Rome faces military upheaval.
• Roman politics decay.
• Bigger gap between the rich and poor....
• Economic
– Inflation
– Disruption of Trade
• Military
– Threats from Northern European tribes
– Decline of patriotism & ...
Etruscan Religion
Z Polytheistic.
Z Believed that the destiny of man
was determined by the whims of
the gods.
Z Believed i...
• Jupiter ( Zeus):king-
ruled the sky
– Central cella
– 4 horse chariot on roof
• Juno (Hera):goddess
of marriage
• Minerv...
• rustic Italian cults
• overlay of Greek religion
• Etruscan influences
• believed everything had a spirit
ROMAN RELIGION
• Walls with protective gates and
towers surrounded the cities
• Arcuated Gateway: Anticipates the
Roman use of the round ...
Reconstruction of an
Etruscan Temple
Etruscan Cemetery
Etruscan
Funeral
& Tomb
Etruscan
Tomb
Wall &
Tomb Fresco
Interior of an Etruscan Tomb
Sarcophagus of an
Etruscan Couple
The Gate of Volterra:
First known Archway in History!
• great skill
• engineers and architects
• roads, cities
• concrete
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
ROME: AQUEDUCTS –
structures, using the arch, that bring
water into the city
CIRCUS MAXIMUS – The chariot races were held at this track,
holding hundreds of thousands of people. The track was
designe...
PANTHEON - The place where Roman gods were
worshipped…. The ceiling is in a dome
shape, another significant development of...
THE COLOSSEUM
CATACOMBS
END.
THANKS FOR LISTENING! 
Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology
Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology
Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology
Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology
Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology
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Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology

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This is a powerpoint presentation on the topic Etruscans and Romans: Warfare, Religion, and Settlement & Monumental Archaeology. The reason these 3 more specific subtopics were the ones discussed in my powerpoint is because other topics such as Geography & Environment, History, Economy, Political Organization, and Technology & Trade were discussed by my groupmates. This was our group report.

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Etruscan and romans warfare, religion, settlement and monumental archaeology

  1. 1. Warfare Settlement & Monumental Archaeology Religion
  2. 2. Etruscan Military
  3. 3. • -more organized and resource-rich. • -adopted Greek military tactics and weapons. • -then improved on them. • Their outburst of energy lasted several centuries. Bit by bit they conquered others to the north, in the middle, and to the south. THE ETRUSCANS WERE
  4. 4. Etruscans excelled at adorning their shields with a convincingly ferocious- looking god. It was used to signal to the opponent that the gods were on the side of the Etruscans. Perhaps the God- On-Shield also served as psychological reinforcement for themselves.
  5. 5. ROMAN MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS “War can only end in eventual victory”
  6. 6. • Great soldiers • Well-trained • All volunteers ROME: MILITARY ABILITY
  7. 7. ROME ADAPTS… Completely reorganizes army. Tactics during battle still not seen as important part of warfare. Cavalry still not seen as an offensive unit… and will not be for a while.
  8. 8. REALLY ADAPTS New Helmets! New Shields!
  9. 9. ROME STILL MISSING SOMETHING… Up until the Second Punic War, Rome had no generals that stood out from the crowd… Until…
  10. 10. THE SHIELD AND SWORD OF ROME Quintus Fabius Maximus (Cunctator) Roman politician and general Marcus Claudius Marcellus Five times elected as consul of the Roman Republic, was an important Roman military leader
  11. 11. MORE IMPORTANTLY THOUGH… Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus General in the Second Punic War
  12. 12. THE „CLASSIC‟ ROMAN LEGION • Came into being largely due to reforms of Caius Marius • Any citizen could be a soldier now, so long as he was fit and willing to fight • Soldiers prepared for any situation • Pensions! Marius‟ Mules
  13. 13. WAY THE „CLASSIC‟ LEGION OPERATED • With many wars under its belt the Roman Empire held dominance on the battlefield • Rome had tactics that only it had the resources to pull off
  14. 14. NAVAL WARFARE Quinquereme Trireme
  15. 15. HOW COULD ROME LOSE? • Even an army of 400,000 could not keep these borders safe forever. • Remember cavalry? • The last competent general was Belsarius under Justinain.
  16. 16. AN EMPIRE SPLIT, AN ARMY REFORMED “My mother bore a general, not a warrior”
  17. 17. • Rome‟s economy declines. • Rome faces military upheaval. • Roman politics decay. • Bigger gap between the rich and poor. CAUSES OF THE DECLINE OF ROME Rome splits into East and West
  18. 18. • Economic – Inflation – Disruption of Trade • Military – Threats from Northern European tribes – Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers – Low funds for defense • Political – Division of the empire – Political office seen as a burden, not an honor • Social – Lack of confidence in the empire – Decline in interest of political affairs CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE…
  19. 19. Etruscan Religion Z Polytheistic. Z Believed that the destiny of man was determined by the whims of the gods. Z Believed in prophecy and reading the signs of nature by augurs. Z Believed in predestination.
  20. 20. • Jupiter ( Zeus):king- ruled the sky – Central cella – 4 horse chariot on roof • Juno (Hera):goddess of marriage • Minerva (Athena):wisdom and warfare ETRUSCAN GODS: MADE OF TERRA COTTA
  21. 21. • rustic Italian cults • overlay of Greek religion • Etruscan influences • believed everything had a spirit ROMAN RELIGION
  22. 22. • Walls with protective gates and towers surrounded the cities • Arcuated Gateway: Anticipates the Roman use of the round arch ETRUSCAN ARCHITECTURE
  23. 23. Reconstruction of an Etruscan Temple
  24. 24. Etruscan Cemetery
  25. 25. Etruscan Funeral & Tomb
  26. 26. Etruscan Tomb Wall & Tomb Fresco
  27. 27. Interior of an Etruscan Tomb
  28. 28. Sarcophagus of an Etruscan Couple
  29. 29. The Gate of Volterra: First known Archway in History!
  30. 30. • great skill • engineers and architects • roads, cities • concrete ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
  31. 31. ROME: AQUEDUCTS – structures, using the arch, that bring water into the city
  32. 32. CIRCUS MAXIMUS – The chariot races were held at this track, holding hundreds of thousands of people. The track was designed so that the emperor could watch from his palace.
  33. 33. PANTHEON - The place where Roman gods were worshipped…. The ceiling is in a dome shape, another significant development of the times.
  34. 34. THE COLOSSEUM
  35. 35. CATACOMBS
  36. 36. END. THANKS FOR LISTENING! 

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