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tomas

  1. 1. Selected Sites of Jordan Military Life in East & West Summer Semester 2013/14 Professor Dr. Thomas M. Weber
  2. 2. Germany Walls of Separation
  3. 3. Jordan/Palestine Wall of Separation
  4. 4. Natural Zones of Separation Rivers
  5. 5. Natural Zones of Separation Mountains
  6. 6. Natural Zones of Separation Desert
  7. 7. Roman Separation Wall: The Limes
  8. 8. Roman Separation Wall: The Limes
  9. 9. Roman Separation Wall: The Limes
  10. 10. Moguntiacum / Mainz / Mayence THEThe Roman Empire ROMAN EMPIRE Philadelphia / Amman Limes Germanicus Limes Orientalis (Arabicus) Limes Britannicus Limes Africanus
  11. 11. The Limes Germanicus
  12. 12. The Limes Germanicus
  13. 13. The Limes Germanicus Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
  14. 14. The Limes Germanicus Mogontiacum – Mainz / Mayence
  15. 15. The Limes Germanicus Jagsthausen UNESCO Word-Heritage Site
  16. 16. The Limes Germanicus Aalen
  17. 17. The Limes Germanicus Regensburg
  18. 18. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section The Strata Diocletiana
  19. 19. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Dura Europos
  20. 20. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Zenobia
  21. 21. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Sergioupolis / Rusafa
  22. 22. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Palmyra / Tadmor
  23. 23. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Khan al-Hallabat
  24. 24. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Khan Aneiybeh
  25. 25. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Khan Manqoura
  26. 26. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Djebel Seis
  27. 27. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Dmeir
  28. 28. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section The Via Nova Traiana and The Strata Diocletiana
  29. 29. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Ed-Dhyatheh
  30. 30. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet al-Beidha
  31. 31. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Nemara
  32. 32. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Bostra / Bosra Sham Capital of Provincia Arabia from AD 106
  33. 33. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Speluncae ?/ Dair al Kahf
  34. 34. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Ba’jikh
  35. 35. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Ba’ijkh
  36. 36. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Ba’ijkh
  37. 37. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Umm id-Djimal
  38. 38. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Umm id-Djimal
  39. 39. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Dair al Qinn
  40. 40. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  41. 41. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  42. 42. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  43. 43. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  44. 44. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  45. 45. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  46. 46. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  47. 47. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Azraq
  48. 48. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  49. 49. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  50. 50. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  51. 51. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  52. 52. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Aseikheen
  53. 53. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Aseikheen
  54. 54. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Aseikheen
  55. 55. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr al-’Uweinid
  56. 56. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr al-’Uweinid
  57. 57. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet as-Samra
  58. 58. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet Khaw
  59. 59. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Azeima
  60. 60. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qastal: Ummayad Qasr, no traces of Roman fort
  61. 61. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Zozion/Zizia Auxiliary Unit: Equites Dalmat[ae] Illyriciani = The Dalmatian Illyrian Cavalry Year?????
  62. 62. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Umm al-Waleed
  63. 63. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Kastron Mefaa/Umm ar-Rsas
  64. 64. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Kastron Mefaa/Umm ar-Rsas
  65. 65. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr al-Al
  66. 66. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Abu Kharaq
  67. 67. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Abu Rukhba
  68. 68. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Bscheer
  69. 69. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Bscheer
  70. 70. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Bscheer
  71. 71. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun
  72. 72. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun
  73. 73. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun Plan before 263 AD (Phase I) Plan after 263 AD (Phase II)
  74. 74. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun
  75. 75. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun The Western Gate
  76. 76. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun The Northern Gate Porta Principalis dextra
  77. 77. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun The Southern Gate Porta Principalis sinistra
  78. 78. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun Constructional details of two-storeyed three-quarter circular corner towers
  79. 79. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Djurf al-Darweesh
  80. 80. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section ‘Udruh
  81. 81. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section ‘Udruh
  82. 82. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Humayma
  83. 83. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet Khalde / Praesidium
  84. 84. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet Khalidi
  85. 85. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Aila / Aqaba
  86. 86. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Hegra / Mada’in Salih
  87. 87. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Hegra / Mada’in Salih
  88. 88. Auf das Wohlergehen des Kaisers Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus Armeniacus Parthicus Medicus Germanicus Sarmaticus Maximus restaurierte die Gemeinschaft der Hegrener die Mauer (?), die durch Alter zerstört worden ist auf eigene Kosten unter Iulius Firmanus, legatus Augusti pro pretore. Die Arbeit wurde ausgeführt (?) unter Pomponius Victor, Centurio der legio III Cyrenaica und Numisius Clemens, seinem Kollegen, und die Ausführung wurde beaufsichtigt von Amrus, dem Sohn des Haian, des Ersten der Gemeinde. Präsenz der Römer in Hegra (Summer 175 – [177?] 17. March 180 AD
  89. 89. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section “To the Welfare of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus Armeniacus Medicus Germanicus Sarmaticus Maximus the community (civitas) of the People of Hegra rebuilt the wall (? vallum???) which was collapsed by its age, on their own expenses under the rule of Iulius Firmanus, the governor representing the emperor (“legatus Augusti pro praetore”). This work was executed (?) under Pomponius Victor, Centurio of the Legio III Cyrenaica, and his colleague Numisius Clemens, and the construction was supervised by ‘Amr (Amrus), the son of Hayyan, the first of the community.”
  90. 90. The Roman Army Units: The Types of Legions
  91. 91. Roman Army Command Structure
  92. 92. The Roman Army General Army Units 1. Land Army 2. Sea Army - navy 3. Aviation Army – Air Force 1a. Combat Units -Infantry – heavy -- light -cavalry – heavy -- light -artillery – heavy -- light 1c. General Staff - Generals and Ordonances - Corps of Officers - Signals 1b. Supply Units - pioneers - scouts - ambulance - suppliers
  93. 93. The Roman Navy General Army Units 2. Sea Army - Roman navy
  94. 94. The Roman Army Legionary Army Units Important terms Legio (Imperial) - A legion was composed of nine cohorts and one first cohort. The legion's overall commander was the legatus legionis, assisted by the praefectus castrorum and other senior officers. Cohors (Cohortes) - A cohort consisted of 480 men. The most senior ranking centurion of the six centuria commanded the entire cohort. First Cohort (Cohors Prima) - The first cohort was a double strength cohort (consisting of five double-strength centuria) with a size of 800 men (excluding officers). The centurion of its first centuria, the Primus Pilus, commanded the first cohort and was also the most senior Centurion in the legion. Centuria - A centuria consisted of 80 men under the command of a Centurion and his Optio. Six centuria formed a cohort. Contubernium - The smallest organized unit of soldiers in the Roman Army. It was composed of eight legionaries led by a non-commissioned officer called a decanus. Ten contubernia formed a centuria. Vexillatio - These were temporary task forces composed of one or multiple centuria deta- ched from the legion for a specific purpose. Vexillations were under the command of an officer appointed by the Legatus.
  95. 95. The Roman Army Army Units The Centuria
  96. 96. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units Ala : The ala was composed entirely of cavalry. The name is Latin for wing and derives from the use of horsemen on the flanks of an army, where they gave protection to the infantry centre. The alae were normally of a strength of roughly five hundred (quingenaria), but there were a few of the strength of roughly a thousand (millaria) Turma : By the second century the ala quingenaria were arranged into section of sixteen turmae, whereas the ala millaria were partitioned into twenty four turmae. So a turma was not necessarily always of the same size. Commander: praefectus alae
  97. 97. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Parthorum et Araborum (Mainz)
  98. 98. Arabs from Amman serving in the Roman army
  99. 99. The Roman Army General Army Units Arabian Auxiliary Troops in Service of the Roman Army
  100. 100. The Roman Army General Army Units Auxiliary Cavalry Troops in Service in exerise
  101. 101. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Hamiorum (Syria)
  102. 102. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Augusta
  103. 103. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Ituraeorum Sagittariorum
  104. 104. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Ituraeorum Assyriae
  105. 105. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Infantry Cohors Ituraeorum Assyriae
  106. 106. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Infantry Cohors Dalmatorum
  107. 107. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  108. 108. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  109. 109. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  110. 110. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  111. 111. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  112. 112. The Roman Army Army Units: Early Arab Dromedar Archers
  113. 113. The Roman Army Auxiliary Units The Nabataeans D. Graf: The Nabataean Army and the Cohortes Ulpiae Petraeorum, in: Rome from the Nabataeans to the Saracenes, Aldershot 1997: X-XI. Chapter V.
  114. 114. The Roman Allies in Bilad al-Sham The Nabataeans Fancy Nabataean Military Costumes worn in actual “Petra-Show”
  115. 115. The Ghassanid Kings Allies of Byzantium in Syria and Arabia Jafnah I ibn `Amr (220-265) `Amr I ibn Jafnah (265-270) Tha'labah ibn Amr (270-287) al-Harith I ibn Th`alabah (287-307) Jabalah I ibn al-Harith I (307-317) al-Harith II ibn Jabalah "ibn Maria" (317-327) al-Mundhir I Senior ibn al-Harith II (327-330) with... al-Aiham ibn al-Harith II (327-330) and... al-Mundhir II Junior ibn al-Harith II (327-340) and... al-Nu'man I ibn al-Harith II (327-342) and... `Amr II ibn al-Harith II (330-356) and... Jabalah II ibn al-Harith II (327-361) Jafnah II ibn al-Mundhir I (361-391) with... al-Nu'man II ibn al-Mundhir I (361-362) al-Nu'man III ibn 'Amr ibn al-Mundhir I (391-418) Jabalah III ibn al-Nu'man (418-434) al-Nu'man IV ibn al-Aiham (434-455) with... al-Harith III ibn al-Aiham (434-456) and... al-Nu'man V ibn al-Harith (434-453) al-Mundhir II ibn al-Nu'man (453-472) with... `Amr III ibn al-Nu'man (453-486) and... Hijr ibn al-Nu'man (453-465) al-Harith IV ibn Hijr (486-512) Jabalah IV ibn al-Harith (512-529) al- Amr IV ibn Machi (Mah’shee) (529) al-Harith V ibn Jabalah (529-569) al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith (569-581) with... Abu Kirab al-Nu'man ibn al-Harith (570-582) al-Nu'man VI ibn al-Mundhir (581-583) al-Harith VI ibn al-Harith (583) al-Nu'man VII ibn al-Harith Abu Kirab (583- ?) al-Aiham ibn Jabalah (? -614) al-Mundhir IV ibn Jabalah (614- ?) Sharahil ibn Jabalah (61 -618) Amr IV ibn Jabalah (628) Jabalah V ibn al-Harith (628-632) Jabalah VI ibn al-Aiham (632-638) Ghassan Al-Hourani (638-712)
  116. 116. The Ghassanid Kingdom Ghassanid King Al-Harith in his tent, speaking with Abu Zayd to the right in the 26th maqamat. Al-Harith was a popular character of Arab history, folktales, and sagas, book illustration about AD 1335, Vienna National Library
  117. 117. The Roman Allies in Bilad al-Sham The Ghassanids (Beni Ghassan) http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php?185336-Lahkmid-Arabs- amp-Ghassanid-Auxiliaries Fancy Computer-Game Ghassanid Soldiers (without any historic and archaeological evidence)
  118. 118. The Roman Army Command Structure
  119. 119. The Roman Army Military Ranks
  120. 120. The Roman Army Command Structure
  121. 121. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Legatus Militum – Magister Militum per Orientem Emperor Traian in the Dacian wars with his Generals
  122. 122. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Highest Commander Legatus Militum (or legionis) – Magister Militum per Orientem Possible Portrait (unsecure!!!) of the Magister Militum Flavius Belisarius (Belisarios , Βελισάριος * around 405 AD, † 565 AD
  123. 123. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Legatus Militum – Magister Militum per Orientem ca. 347: Flavius Eusebius, magister utriusquae militiae[15] 349–359: Ursicinus, magister equitum under Constantius[13] 359–360: Sabinianus, magister equitum under Constantius[13] 363–367: Lupicinus, magister equitum under Jovian and Valens[9] 371–378: Iulius, magister equitum et Peditum under Valens[9] 383: Flavius Richomeres, magister equitum et peditum[1] 383–388: Ellebichus, magister equitum et peditum[1] 392: Eutherius, magister equitum et peditum[1] 393–396: Addaeus, magister equitum et peditum[1] 395/400: Fravitta 433–446: Anatolius 447–451: Zeno 460s: Flavius Ardabur Aspar -469: Iordanes
  124. 124. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Legatus Militum – Magister Militum per Orientem 469–471: Zeno 483–498: Ioannes Scytha c.503–505: Areobindus Dagalaiphus Areobindus 505–506: Pharesmanes ?516-?518: Hypatius ?518–529: Diogenianus 520-525/526: Hypatius 527: Libelarius 527–529: Hypatius 529–531: Belisarius 531: Mundus 532–533: Belisarius 540: Buzes 542: Belisarius 543–544: Martinus 549–551: Belisarius 555: Amantius 556: Valerianus 569: Zemarchus 572–573: Marcian 573: Theodorus 574: Eusebius 574/574-577: Justinian 577–582: Maurice 582–583: John Mystacon 584-587/588: Philippicus 588: Priscus 588–589: Philippicus 589–591: Comentiolus 591–603: Narses 603-604 Germanus 604-605 Leontius 605-610 Domentziolus
  125. 125. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Second highest commander Tribunus Militum High ranked officer on a temporary limited term of duty, coming from the Roman nobility. 6 Tribuni per legion with commanding power. Two ranks must be distinguished by the purple stripes of the underwear tunics:
  126. 126. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Third highest commander Praefectus Castrorum Camp commander without combat command. He supervised the discipline in the camp. He was responsible for food and other material supply, especially on the Department of weaponry (armentaria), the field hospital, the Department of accounting and registration (tabulinarium), the Department of custody.
  127. 127. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Primus Pilus, Centurio and Optio
  128. 128. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Official Insignia: The Fasces and the Licores (Lictor)
  129. 129. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Official Insignia: The Fasces and the Licores (Lictor)
  130. 130. The Roman Army Army standards and tactical signs The Eagle (Aquila) and Roman Standard (vexillum)
  131. 131. Vexillarius The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs Aquilifer Signifer
  132. 132. The Roman Army Army standart and tactical signs Legionary standarts: The Vexilla
  133. 133. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project Bibliography: M.I. Rostovtzeff, "Vexillum and Victory," Journal of Roman Studies Vol. 32 (1942) pp. 92-106. A. Croom, The reconstruction of a Roman vexillum, in: The Arbeia Journal 2, 1993: 40-45 E. Dąbrowa, Le vexillum sur les monnaies coloniales (IIe - IIIe siècle après J.-C., in: Latomus 63, 2004: 394-405 Contact: Mona Reich 079-6922682
  134. 134. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project Bibliography: Contact: Mona Reich 079-6922682 Vexillarius in the company of the Military Tribune Terentius, Wall Painting from the Temple of Bel, Dura Europos, New Haven, Ct., Yale University
  135. 135. Original Vexillum found in Egypt, Moscow, Museum of Fine Arts The Roman Army The Vexillum Project
  136. 136. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project ATTENTION: The Symbol of the LEG III CYRENAICA was NOT the Victory, but the Ibex!!!!!
  137. 137. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project Croom, A., The reconstruction of a Roman vexillum, in: The Arbeia Journal 2, 1993: 40-45
  138. 138. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project
  139. 139. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project
  140. 140. The Roman Army The Aquila Project The ancient Sources Eagle Cameos, Vienna, Art Historian Museum
  141. 141. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Ancient Sources The Lorica of the statue of Augustus from Prima Porta Denarius of Marcus Antonius (32 BC) Coin of Augustus showing the Signa Militaria retrieved from the Parthians: Bare head of Augustus on the left and on the reverse (right) is a circular shield with aquila on its left. "S" and "P" is written on both left and right at the top of the shield, and "Q" and "R" on both sides at the bottom of the shield.(29 BC)
  142. 142. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Ancient Sources The Column of Trajan at Rome
  143. 143. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Ancient Sources Tombstones of Aquiliferi
  144. 144. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Modern Bronze Eagle Bought in Amman Downtown: Price 35 JD
  145. 145. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The SPQR-Tablet
  146. 146. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: Modern Models of Aquila with SPQR Base
  147. 147. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: Construction plan of Base
  148. 148. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: Aqulia with wreath Standard for Aquila from wood and wreathed Aqula with SPQR table at Irbid
  149. 149. The Roman Army The Aquila Project Working on the Aqulia at Beni Kinaneh, April 26th, 2014
  150. 150. The Roman Army The Aquila Project Aquilifer Outfit
  151. 151. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen
  152. 152. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen
  153. 153. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen
  154. 154. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen: The Column of Traian, Rome
  155. 155. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Imago of the Emperor
  156. 156. The Roman Army • Modern Military Decorations
  157. 157. The Roman Army The Dona Militaria The Phalerae
  158. 158. The Roman Army The Dona Militaria: Distinctions The Phalerae M (arco) Caelio T (iti) f (ilio) Lem (onia tribV) Bon (onia) [ I ] o (rdini) leg (ionis) XIIX ann (orVm) LIII s (emissis) [ ce ] cidit bello Variano ossa [ lib (ertorVm) i ]nferre licebit P (VbliVs) CaeliVs T (iti) f (iliVs) Lem (onia tribV) frater fecit “For Marcus Caelius, son of Titus, from the Lemonia tribe at Bononia (Bologna), (Centurio) of the 1st order of the 18th Legion, who died in the war of Varus. The bones of his freedmen may be buried here. Publius Caelius, son of Titus, from the Lemonia tribe, his brother made it+Epitaph of Marcus Caelius (ca. 45 BC- 9 AD) Phalerae Torques Armllae
  159. 159. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Phalerae: The Lauersfort Treasure
  160. 160. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Signa Militaria
  161. 161. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Signa Militaria Defeat of the Romans in the battle of Carrhai (Syria) in 53 BC Marcus Licinius Crassus
  162. 162. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Signa Militaria Augustus from Primaporta: The return of the Signa Militaria from the Parthians (Persians)
  163. 163. Who were The Enemies of the Romans?
  164. 164. The Persians: Parthians and Sasanids Naqsh ar-Rustam / Iran
  165. 165. The Persians: Parthians and Sasanids Naqsh ar-Rustam / Iran
  166. 166. The Arcasid Dynasty (ca. 247 b.C.- 224 AD) Arsakes I. (ca. 247/38 -217 v.Chr.) Arsakes II. (ca. 217-191 v.Chr.) Phriapatios (ca. 191-176 v.Chr.) Phraates I. (176-171 v.Chr.) Mithridates I. (171-139/8 v.Chr.) Phraates II. (138/9-128 v.Chr.) Artabanos I. (128-124/3 v.Chr.) Mithridates II. (123-88 v.Chr.) Gotzares I. (91/0-81/0 v.Chr.) Orodes I. (81/0-76/5 v.Chr.) Sinatrukes (ca. 78/7-71/0 v.Chr.) [Artabanos II. (88-77 v.Chr.)] Phraates III. (71/0-58/7 v.Chr.) Mithridates III. (58/7 v.Chr.) Orodes II. (58/7-38 v.Chr.) Phraates IV. (38 – 2 v.Chr.) Phraates V. (3/2 v.Chr. – 4 n.Chr.) Orodes III. (4-6 n.Chr.) Vonones I. (8./9 -10/12 n.Chr.) Artabanos II. (10/1-38 n.Chr.) Gotzares II. (43/4-51 n.Chr.) Vologaises I. (51-77/78 n.Chr.) Pakoros (77/8-114/5 n.Chr.) Artabanos III. (79-81 n.Chr.) Osroes (108/9 – 127/8 n.Chr.) Vologaises III. (111/2 – 147/8 n.Chr.) Vologaises IV. (147/8-191/2 n.Chr.) Vologaises V. (191/2-207/8 n.Chr.) Vologaises VI. (207/8-221/2 oder 227/8 n.Chr.) Artabanos IV (213-224n.Chr.) Mithridates I. Phraates III. Vologaises I.Vonones I. Vologaises III. Vologaises IV.
  167. 167. The „new“-Persian Empire of the Sasanids (224-651 AD Shapur I. besiegt Valerian 260 n.Chr. Sardonyx-Cameo, 3.-4. Jh. n.Chr. Silberbüste Shapurs II. (?) Ardaxshir I. 224-239/40, Tod: 241/2 Shapur I. 240-270/72 Hormzid I. 270/2-273 Vahram I. 273-276 Vahram II. 276-293 Vahram III 293 Narseh 293-302 Hormzid II. 302-309 Shapur II. 309-379 Ardaxshir II. 379-383 Shapur III. 383-388 Vahram IV. 388-399 Yazgird I. 399-421 Vahram V. Gor 439-457 Yazgird II. 439-457 Hormzid III. 457-459 Peroz 459-484 Valaxsh 484-488 Kavad I. 488-496, 499-531 Zamasp 496-498 Chosraw I. 531-579 Hormizd IV. 579-590 Chosraw II. 590-628 Vahram VI. Chobin 590-591 Kavad II. 628 Ardaxshir III. 628-630 Shahrbaraz 630 Chosraw III. 630 Puran 630-631 Azarmigduxt 631 Hormizd V. 631-632 Chosraw IV. 631-633 Yazdgird III. 633-651 Klibanarier, Felsrelief, Firuzabad
  168. 168. Sasanid Army: Cataphracts
  169. 169. Sasanid Army: Archers
  170. 170. The Lahmid allies of the Persians
  171. 171. Who were The Enemies of the Romans? The Jewish Revolts: The Sicarii
  172. 172. The Roman military camps Castrum – Castra Ancient Writer: Hyginius Gromaticus (ca. – century AD) On the Furnishment of Military Camps (Liber de Munitionibus Castrorum) https://archive.org/details/liberdemunitioni00hygiuoft
  173. 173. The Roman military camps Mesurement quadrillation according to Hyginus Gromaticus The 60 feet “Stringa”
  174. 174. Roman castellum: Saalburg, Germany Roman castellum: ‘Udruh, Jordan
  175. 175. Encampment in tents
  176. 176. Encampment in tents Tents of the Contubernia : 3 m x 3 m = “paliliones” Tents of the Centuriones : 6 m x 6” m Tents of Commander (legatus) = “augurale” side length 14 m and more
  177. 177. Encampment in tents The contubernium: simple leather tent (“papilio”) 3 m 3 m Tent = “Papilio” = “butterfly”
  178. 178. Encampment in tents The contubernium: leather tent (“papilio”)
  179. 179. Encampment in tents Commander’s tent (augurale) with fanum
  180. 180. Outposts and Camps
  181. 181. The Planning of a castrum groma Agrimensores Centuriation of town and countryside into equal units= actus (710 meters) The Military Surveyors: “ Gromatici”
  182. 182. The Religious Foundation of a Colony
  183. 183. Survival of Roman Centuriation today Po-Valley in northern Italy
  184. 184. Encampment in tents The Principle Elements of a Castrum (schematic) Praetorium Groma Via Principalia Sinstra Via Principalia Dextra ViaPraetoriaPrincipia Commanders Residence contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium Tribuni Praefecti Praefecti Centuriones Centuriones Centuriones Centuriones Centuriones Ala Ala Ala contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium Horreumarmentarium Signiferi and vexillarius contubernium contubernium contubernium Hospital ViaDecumana
  185. 185. The Organization of a castrum
  186. 186. Stone castrum with defensive ditches (fossae)
  187. 187. Stone castrum with defensive ditches (fossae)
  188. 188. The praetorium
  189. 189. The Commander’s place: The praetorium
  190. 190. The Commander’s place: The praetorium
  191. 191. The Commander’s place: The praetorium
  192. 192. The praetorium and the principia
  193. 193. The Sanctuary of Flags and Standards (Aedes)
  194. 194. The Tabularium Roman Diptych: Two wooden tablets filled with wax and metal pen (stylus) Registration and messenger (postal) service
  195. 195. The Tabularium: Written Record of a Legionary fabrica Hand-written Papyrus Berlin P. 6765, detailing the production in a legionary weapon workshop (fabrica) over two days (late 2nd to begin of 3rd century AD), found in Egypt. Items: Swords, shields, bows, parts of artillery Staff: Legionaries, auxiliaries, civilians, slaves of solderies
  196. 196. The Tabularium: Military Administrators (selection) Cornicularius: Head of Military Office, chief of administrative paper work in the tabularium Act(u)arius: Keeper of records Librarius: Keeper of archives Exactus: Controller of payments Primiscrinius: Head of administrative office Scriniarius : An administrative official or clerk. Numeriarius: Accountant, clerk Erogator: Tax collector , also responsible for credit payments Adiutiva: Helper, secretary Subadiuva: Under-secretary Military Scribe Heliodoros, in the rank of an actuarius, painting from Dura Europos (Syria), New Haven, Ct., Yale University Art Museum
  197. 197. The Roman Army Equipment
  198. 198. The Roman Army Equipment Basic Bibliography
  199. 199. Roman Legionary The Roman Army Equipment
  200. 200. Roman Legionary The Roman Army Equipment
  201. 201. Roman Auxiliary Infantry (“marines”) The Roman Army Equipment
  202. 202. Roman Auxiliary Cavalrists The Roman Army Equipment
  203. 203. Roman Army Equipment underwear
  204. 204. Roman Army Equipment underwear: Tunica: cut-design and colors
  205. 205. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Original Textile Finds at Ghor as-Safi
  206. 206. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Original Textile Finds at Ghor as-Safi
  207. 207. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Original Textile Finds at Ghor as-Safi
  208. 208. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Handmade Cotton Tissue at ‘Iraq al-Emir
  209. 209. The Purple Snail: MUREX Murex trunculus (Sidon) Murex brandaris (Tyros) Purpura haemostoma Porphyry Stone (Egypt) Plinius, Nat.Hist. IX 132; XXI 45: Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Purple Representation of a Byzantine couple dressed in purple official ornate. Chrysobullon of emperor Alexios I. Komnenos(1204-1222), Mone Dionysiou, Mount Athos.
  210. 210. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Purple: Saida
  211. 211. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Purple: Tyros
  212. 212. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  213. 213. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  214. 214. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  215. 215. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: The Kermes-Insect
  216. 216. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  217. 217. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  218. 218. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Cochineal Red Cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus)
  219. 219. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Cochineal Red
  220. 220. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red Rubia Tinctorum, engl.: Rubia; arab.: fuwwa; seba
  221. 221. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red Carthamus tinctorius, engl.:Safflower; arab.: kurtum; ‘usfur
  222. 222. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red Opuntia cochinillifera, engl.:Cochinea cactus; arab.: sabr
  223. 223. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  224. 224. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  225. 225. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  226. 226. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  227. 227. Roman Army Equipment Tunica and Paenula
  228. 228. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula
  229. 229. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula
  230. 230. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula, military version
  231. 231. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula, military version
  232. 232. Roman Army Equipment Legionary Sandal: The Caliga(e) Original Caliga found at Mainz, 1st century AD. Mainz, Landesmuseum
  233. 233. Roman Army Equipment Legionary Sandal: The Caliga(e) Food of a bronze statue of a horseman, Roman Kalkriese, Museum
  234. 234. Roman Army Equipment Legionary Sandal: The Caliga(e)
  235. 235. The Roman Army Equipment The body armor (lorica “musculata”) Marble Loricati Statues of Emperors and high-ranked Generals: from left Toledo (Ohio), Sabratha (Libya) and Munich (Germany).
  236. 236. The Roman Army Equipment The body armor : Greek Tradition Greek “muscle armor”, 7th century BC Greek Panoply of am Hoplites;6h century BC
  237. 237. The Roman Army Equipment The body armor : Greek Tradition Spartanian Phalanx and heavy armed Hoplite, 7th - 6th century BC
  238. 238. The body armor (lorica segmentata): The Roman Army Equipment The Corbridge Hoard
  239. 239. The body armor (lorica): The Roman Army Equipment The Corbridge Hook Type
  240. 240. The body armor (lorica): The Roman Army Equipment The Locrica Segmentata
  241. 241. Roman Army Equipment The body armor (lorica): 1st-2nd century AD: Type Corbridge The Amman Replica
  242. 242. Roman Army Equipment The Body Armor (Lorica Hamata) Chain mail Armors Original chain mail shirt from Palestine, Jerusalem, Israel Museum
  243. 243. Roman Army Equipment The Body Armor (Lorica Hamata) Chain mail Armors Reconstructed Lorica Hamata Original breast lock of a Lorica Hamata, Bronze, Mainz, Roman-Germanic Central Museum
  244. 244. The Shield (scutum): Literary Source: Polybios: VI 23 “It (the shield) consists of two layers of wood fastened together with bull’s hide glue: The outer surface is then covered first with canvas and then with calf skin. The upper and lower edges are bound with iron to protect the shield from the cutting strokes of swords and from wear when resting on the ground. In the centre is fixed an iron boss, which turns aside the heavy impact of stones, pikes and weighty missiles in general.”
  245. 245. The Shield (scutum)
  246. 246. The Shield (scutum) Dura Europos (Syria)
  247. 247. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Dura Europos (Syria)
  248. 248. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Dura Europos (Syria)
  249. 249. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Shield Decorations according to the Notitia Dignitatum
  250. 250. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Shield Decorations according to the Notitia Dignitatum
  251. 251. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum0 Shield bosses Munich, Art Market
  252. 252. Roman Arms: The short combat sword (gladius) Early swords: Type Mainz with “Spanish blade”
  253. 253. Roman Arms: The short combat sword (gladius) Early Swords-Sections: Application of Iron with different grade of carbon
  254. 254. Roman Army Weapons Roman Swords Early Roman gladius (spatha) worn with balteus and broad officers belt (cingulum)
  255. 255. Roman Army Weapons Roman Swords Replica of Roman Cavalry Sword (Spatha) made in Jordan: Blade according to the “gladius Hispanensis” Type Mainz; Sheath out of wood covered by aluminium foil (olive oil containers). Note the oblique balteus fixed on four rings along the shed.
  256. 256. Roman Army Weapons Roman Sword
  257. 257. Roman Army Equipment The Sword Fatal injures caused by Roman swords on the skulls of killed enemies
  258. 258. Roman Arms: The daggers (pugio)
  259. 259. Roman Arms: Military Belt (cingulum militare) Bibliography: Stephanie Hoss, C I N G U L U M M I L I T A R E . Studien zum römischen Soldatengürtel des 1. bis 3. Jh. n. Chr, Diss. Leiden 2014; S. Hoss, The Roman Military Belt, in : Wearing the Cloak, Dressing the Soldier in Roman Times, ed. M.-L. Nock, Oxford – Oakville 2013, 29-44
  260. 260. Roman Army Weapons Roman Military Belt (cingulum militare) Replica of Roman Cingulum made in Jordan, broad officer’s version, without hanger straps and pendants (aprons)
  261. 261. Roman Army Weapons Roman Officer Belt: The cingulum militare
  262. 262. Roman Army Weapons Roman Military Belt (Cingulum militare) Replica of Roman Cingulum made in Jordan, broad officer’s version, with hanger straps and pendants (aprons)
  263. 263. Roman Army Weapons Roman Military Belts (Cingula) Replica of Roman Cingulum made in Jordan, broad officer’s version, with hanger straps and pendants (aprons)
  264. 264. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  265. 265. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  266. 266. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  267. 267. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  268. 268. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  269. 269. Roman Arms: The spears (pilum)
  270. 270. Roman Arms: The spears (pilum) Fatal injures caused by Roman spears on the skulls of killed enemies
  271. 271. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st Century AD: Type Haguenau 1st – 2nd Century AD: Type Weisenau
  272. 272. Roman Arms: The Helmets 2nd – 3rd Century AD: Type Niederbieber
  273. 273. Roman Arms: The Helmets
  274. 274. Roman Arms: The Helmets
  275. 275. Roman Arms: The Helmets 3rd -1st Century BC: Type Montefortino Bologna, Museo Civico Monterenzio Vecchio, Bologna
  276. 276. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st Century AD: Type Haguenau
  277. 277. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st Century AD: Type Haguenau Roman Legionary Helmet from Haguenau/Drusenheim: Haguenau, Musee To the right: Modern replica (material wrongly restored).
  278. 278. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st - 2nd Century AD: Type Weisenau The Amman Replica
  279. 279. The Nabataean Army
  280. 280. The Nabataean Army
  281. 281. The Arabian Army
  282. 282. Nabataean Army Corinthian Helmet of the 66th century BC The Nabataean Show at Petra
  283. 283. Nabataean Army: Helmets
  284. 284. Nabataean Army: Helmets
  285. 285. Nabataean Army: Helmets Relief representation of a Late-Hellenistic Helmet of Attic Type, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum
  286. 286. Hellenistic Army: Pseudo-Attic Helmets Marble Portrait Head of a Hellenistic King (Seleucos I Nicator?) from Beirut, Paris, Louvre MA 3597
  287. 287. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Hellenistic Mural Painting: The Tomb of Lysson and Kallikles at Vergina / Macedonia/ Greece
  288. 288. Hellenistic Army: Helmets
  289. 289. Hellenistic Army: Helmets
  290. 290. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Hellenistic Helm from Melos, 2nd century BC: Berlin, Staatliche Museen
  291. 291. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Hellenistic Helm from Melos, 2nd century BC: Berlin, Staatliche Museen
  292. 292. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Late-Hellenistic Helm from Pergamon, late 1st century BC: Berlin, Staatliche Museen Relief representation of a Late-Hellenistic Helmet of Attic Type, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum
  293. 293. Nabataean Army: Armor
  294. 294. Nabataean Army: Armor
  295. 295. Nabataean Army: Armor
  296. 296. Nabataean Army: Armor Relief busts of the astral sign of the twins, both in Hellenistic armors with sholder straps and leater arm guards. On the head the typical conical felt caps (piloi), from Khiret ad-Dharih, Amman, Jordan Museum
  297. 297. Nabataean Army: Armor Fragments of men in Hellenistic armors with shoulder straps and arm guards, from Khirbet at-Tannour, Amman Jordan Archaeologial Museum (Citadel)
  298. 298. Nabataean Army: Armor Relief showing lower part of an Hellenistic armor with commander fillet and leather straps, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum
  299. 299. Nabataean Army: Armor
  300. 300. Royel Iron Armor with gold attachments, from Vergina, Royal Cemetery, Hellenistic Army: Iron-Armor
  301. 301. Hellenistic Army: Linnen Armor Alexander-Mosaic, from Pompeii, casa del Fauno, Naples, National Museum
  302. 302. Hellenistic Army: Linnen Armor (linothorax)
  303. 303. Nabataean Army: Swords
  304. 304. Reconstruction of a Nabataean Sword, Amman, University Nabataean Army: Swords Reconstruction of a Nabataean Sword, Amman, University
  305. 305. Nabataean Army: Shields Fragmented block with representation of a sea monster (left) and an oval shield with central boss in the shape of a Medusa’s head (Gorgoneion), from Petra, Petra. Archaeological Museum
  306. 306. Nabataean Army: Shields Fragment of Shield boss in the shape of an embossed frontal Lion head, from Petra, Petra. Archaeological Museum
  307. 307. Early Roman Army: Shield-Boss Bronze Shield boss in the Shape of a frontal Lion Head, Munich, Art Market
  308. 308. Nabataean Warrior-in Armor Bust Relief with two spears, Petra, near Nazal Camp
  309. 309. Nabataean Army: Spears Nabataean Horseman Bust Relief, wearing a balteus, in the background left blade of a spear and background right head of the horse, Kerak, Castle
  310. 310. Fragmented Bust of a Warrior God with two spears, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  311. 311. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  312. 312. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  313. 313. Bust of a bearded Warrior with two spears, from Khirbet Braq, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  314. 314. Relief block with representation of an ax with curved blade and hooked vftloral end, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Ax
  315. 315. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  316. 316. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  317. 317. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  318. 318. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  319. 319. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears

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