Indian biodiversity


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  • Indian biodiversity

    1. 1. Presentation on Indian Biodiversity Submitted by:- Shailja Singh M.Sc 1st Sem Deptt of Env. Sc BBAU Submitted to:- Dr. Richa K. Tyagi Assistant Professor Deptt of Env. Sc. BBAU
    2. 2. Biodiversity - Definition The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
    3. 3.  Total land area of India - 143 million.ha  India occupies 2.47% of the World’s geographical area and has only 1% of the forest  India has 16.1% of world human population and 15.1% of cattle population  Forest cover in India-23.57% Biodiversity of India
    4. 4. Continued….  India is sharing 12.53 % of world’s biodiversity  India has 3.9 % of grasslands, 2.0 % of hot deserts, 4.1 m.ha of wetland ecosystems.  India is the 7th largest country in the world and one among the 17 mega diversity centers.  Among 34 globally identified biodiversity hotspots, India harbours 4 hotspots and they are-  Eastern Himalaya  Indo-Burma  Western Ghats and Sri-Lanka  Andaman and Nicobar island
    5. 5. India recorded :  45,000 + species of wild plants  89,000 + species of wild animals  At least 320 species of wild relatives of crops have been originated here.  1,39,000 species of plants, animals and microbes are recorded  More than 4 lakh species are yet to be identified  There are three mega centers of endemism and 26 micro centers of endemism.
    6. 6. 10 Biogeographic Zones of India
    7. 7. Western Ghats  This zone is one of the hotspots of Indianand great natural resource extends from Kanyakumari in south to the hills of Tapti river in north.  The zone shows exceptionally rich biodiversity.  It has 4,000 species of higher plants.  There are about 1,800 endemic species.  Out of 29 spp of Dipterocarpaceae present in India 13 are  found in this region.  There are 62 mammal genera.  Significant species and species groups restricted to ghats Are as follows:-  Primates(Nilgiri langur,Lion Tailed Macaque)  Rodents(Platacothomysan endemic monotype genus,the Spiny durmouse)  Carnivores(Malabar Civert,rusty spotted cat)  It also have large population of tiger,leopard,sloth bear,Indian elephant and Gaur).
    8. 8. Eastern Himalayas  The Eastern Himalayas is the region encompassing Bhutan, northeastern India and southern central and eastern Nepal.  The Eastern Himalayan hotspot has nearly 163 globally threatened species including the One- horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the Wild Asian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis (Arnee)) and in all 45 mammals, 50 birds, 17 reptiles, 12 amphibians, 3 invertebrate and 36 plant species.  The Relict Dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) is an endangered species found here with the only other species in the genus being found in Japan.  The region is also home to the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus), the only salamander species found within Indian limits.
    9. 9. Birds • Ardea insignis (White-bellied Heron)(Imperial • Heron) • Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Spoon-billed Sandpiper) • Grus leucogeranus (Siberian Crane) • Gyps bengalensis (White- rumped Vulture) • Gyps indicus (Indian Vulture) • Gyps tenuirostris (Slender-billed Vulture) Some Endemic species of India Plants • Aralia malabarica • Citrus indica • Cotoneaster obovatus • Eugenia indica • Gymnostachyum febrifugum • Hopea parviflora • Euonymus angulatus
    10. 10. Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fishes • Anoxypristis cuspidata (Knifetooth sawfish) • Batagur baska (Four-toed Terrapin) • Batagur kachuga (Red-crowned Roofed Turtle) • Biswamoyopterus biswasi (Namdapha Flying Squirrel) • Carcharhinus hemiodon (Pondicherry shark) • Cremnomys elvira (Large Rock-rat) • Crocidura andamanensis (Andaman White- toothed Shrew) • Crocidura jenkinsi (Jenkin's Shrew), Endemic to India. • Crocidura nicobarica (Nicobar Shrew)
    11. 11. Thank You All