M.Sc 1st Sem
Deptt of Env. Sc
Dr. Richa K. Tyagi
Deptt of Env. Sc.
Biodiversity - Definition
The variability among living organisms from all
sources including terrestrial, marine, and other
aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are a part; this includes diversity within
species, between species and of ecosystems.
Total land area of India -
India occupies 2.47% of the
World’s geographical area
and has only 1% of the forest
India has 16.1% of world
human population and 15.1%
of cattle population
Forest cover in India-23.57%
Biodiversity of India
India is sharing 12.53 % of world’s
India has 3.9 % of grasslands, 2.0
% of hot deserts, 4.1 m.ha of
India is the 7th largest country in
the world and one among the 17
mega diversity centers.
Among 34 globally identified
biodiversity hotspots, India
harbours 4 hotspots and they are-
Western Ghats and Sri-Lanka
Andaman and Nicobar island
India recorded :
45,000 + species of wild plants
89,000 + species of wild animals
At least 320 species of wild relatives of crops
have been originated here.
1,39,000 species of plants, animals
and microbes are recorded
More than 4 lakh species are yet to be
There are three mega centers of
endemism and 26 micro centers of
This zone is one of the hotspots of Indianand great natural resource
extends from Kanyakumari in south to the hills of Tapti river in
The zone shows exceptionally rich biodiversity.
It has 4,000 species of higher plants.
There are about 1,800 endemic species.
Out of 29 spp of Dipterocarpaceae present in India 13 are
found in this region.
There are 62 mammal genera.
Significant species and species groups restricted to ghats
Are as follows:-
Primates(Nilgiri langur,Lion Tailed Macaque)
Rodents(Platacothomysan endemic monotype genus,the
Carnivores(Malabar Civert,rusty spotted cat)
It also have large population of tiger,leopard,sloth bear,Indian
elephant and Gaur).
The Eastern Himalayas is the region encompassing
Bhutan, northeastern India and southern central
and eastern Nepal.
The Eastern Himalayan hotspot has nearly 163
globally threatened species including the One-
horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the
Wild Asian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis
(Arnee)) and in all 45 mammals, 50 birds, 17
reptiles, 12 amphibians, 3 invertebrate and 36
The Relict Dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) is an
endangered species found here with the only other
species in the genus being found in Japan.
The region is also home to the Himalayan Newt
(Tylototriton verrucosus), the only salamander
species found within Indian limits.