Themes for DiscussionIntroductionTourism Development- needs, opportunities, scope and ConstraintsTourism Environment Interrelationship: Synergy, conflicts and relevance ofSustainable DevelopmentContemporary Approaches in Tourism Planning & DevelopmentSustainable Tourism Development: Definition, Interpretation and the GuidingPrinciplesSustainable Tourism in Religious Traditions of IndiaAlternative Tourism and Sustainable Tourism – Inter-relationships andDifferentiationTourism Carrying Capacity – the Concept and its ApplicationEco Tourism – Thrust Areas, Principles and the on-going PracticesCommunity Approach of Sustainable Tourism DevelopmentDestination Lifecycle and Sustainable TourismCase studies on Sustainable TourismCase Studies on Tourism – Environment Inter-relationship:Tourism in Mountain EnvironmentTourism in National Parks and Wildlife SanctuariesTourism in Coastal Areas, Beaches, IslandsTourism in Cultural and Historical SitesSustainable Tourism Development in India’s Tourism Policy and Planning Framework
Tourism Development : Need, Opportunities and Scope• Need to Promote Tourism: To reap the multifaceted benefits of Tourism; Tourism with its multifarious advantage may prove to be an agent to holistic development of any place, region or country The benefits of tourism are generally distributed over wide geographic and social cross sections; part of the benefits also percolating to the grass root levels. (Thus, obviously tourism becomes all the more vital, especially for developing economies/economically backward areas) Tourism development needs immediate and urgent attention to be dynamically able to take advantage of the dramatic growth prospects of this smokeless and yet mega industry
Tourism development directly and indirectly helps in protections/conservation of natural and cultural heritage- which is a key issue – the worldover. The need of scientifically planned tourism is pivotal on account of its extremely sensitive nature (Contingency planning is needed)Opportunities Tourism can be promoted anywhere and everywhere, even in areas where otherwise no alternate economic activity is even distantly possible (beaches, snow peaks. Deserts etc) Tourism can be promoted, hand in hand with other on-going economic activities; it rather energises other sectors of economy On account of Monopolistic nature of the basic tourism product, tourism provides considerably even platform for aspiring but economically/technologically weaker destinations to compete with the otherwise strong economies.
Certain forms of tourism can be promoted with minimal investment and infrastructure (eco/rural/trekking tourism etc) The contemporary tourism trends aptly indicate the emergence of a strong market segment keenly interested in pure nature (ecotourism) and Old World Culture. Since India is bestowed with fabulously rich and diverse natural and cultural heritage, it is opportune time for her to adopt a pre-active approach to this effect.Scope: On account of consistent diversification in tourist motivation, there will remain ever greater scope for promotion of newer attractions/destination/tourist activities (Mountaineering – Traditional Type/Alpine/ solo/traversing/ consecutive summiting etc; Cultural Tourism – now ethnic tourism, rural tourism, agri- tourism, farm tourism, tribal tourism, historical tourism/craft tourism etc) Unity of production and consumption of the tourist product not only ensures more net gains but also lessens financial risks
The ensuing push and pull forces of tourism are bound to grow stronger, thus sustaining long term benefits from tourism is always there. Law of diminishing marginal utility too is not applicable to the tourist product; rather the travel experience further motivates the tourists to travel more (Once a tourist – a tourist for ever) Due to the Non consumptive/non-renewable nature, the scope of selling the basic tourism products to different socio-economic and psychographic segments of tourists in long term basis, remains open till such products are finally deteriorated/degraded. Due to non economic value judgment and high price elasticity, tourism products have highly diversified market Tourism may help in creating better understanding among communities and countries. UN in its conference on Travel and Tourism (1963) especially acknowledged and appreciated tourism to this effect.
Constraints: Extremely sensitive nature of Tourism; it is affected by too many internal and external factors Complex nature of the ‘holistic tourist Product’ which is created by isolated efforts of many developers/service providers Extreme diversity in Tourist Demand; the demand is satisfied in bits and pieces at different stage and places; Also, even the demand pattern of same tourist may not be same at different place/point of time/destination) ‘Multiplicity of Service Providers/players ; Performance of the product / overall tourist satisfaction is guided by the performance of different service providers independently operating from different locations; Multiplicity of Jurisdiction No definitive Chain of Distribution Prevalence of Common Property Resources The Basic Tourist product is not generally in the control of Tourism Planners/Developers
Tourism – Environment Inter-relationship: Synergy, Conflicts and Relevance of Sustainable DevelopmentTourism has very contrasting and contradictory nature, as far as it impacts are concerned. Judiciously planned tourism ensures holistic well-being of the concerned destination/destination region; on the contrary, if ill planned, it may lead to devastating and far reaching implications – often beyond the scope of any corrective measure. Irresponsible Tourism may consume the environment (Socio- economic, cultural and ecological) to the extent of consuming it up all. Thus, tourism has the tendency to sow the seeds of its own destruction
Tourism – A New Kind of Sugar Tourism – Blessing or Blight Tourism – The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Tourism - Savior or the Destroyer of Ecology and Environment Tourism – Conserver or the Exploiter of Natural Habitat Tourism – Appreciator or the Abuser
Synergy and Symbiosis Significantly contributes in improving balance of payment; Leads to Transfer of external purchasing power to host economy; Tourist expenditure denotes Net addition to local economy; Generate employment for professional, semiskilled and unskilled workforce High Income and Employment Multiplier Helps in abridging the economic gap due to flow of income from affluent to poorer regions/sections Infuses social awareness and leads to improvement in living standard/ health and hygiene Activates latent entrepreneurship; Motivates for modernization of basic infrastructure Infuse positive changes in the outlook towards life Leads to shift from superstations Inculcates the feeling of self-reliance, self-confidence, self esteem and sense of belongingness towards the social /cultural / natural heritage
Leads to shift from superstations and mis-beliefs Inculcates the feeling of self-reliance, self-confidence, self esteem and sense of belongingness towards the social /cultural / natural heritage Helps in rediscovery and revival of lost traditions Directly and indirectly supports protection and conservation of cultural heritage objects Creates environmental awareness Offers most effective and yet non-consumptive use of natural bounties/areas/ ecosystems (eco-tourism, skiing, rafting, trekking, mountaineering and wind surfing etc) Justifies the inception of nature reserves (national Parks/WS/Biosphere Reserves etc (Success story of Kenya is an example) Discourages exploitation of natural areas for extension of agriculture and other economic activities by offering effective alternate for sustenance
Motivates the destinations to maintain environmental quality; since no tourists would like to visit an environmentally degraded destination. Conflicts Inflation/price hike; neo-colonization; excessive imports; Misuse of peoples’ money in tourist facilitation withdrawal of labour from other sectors(especially from agriculture) Transforms local economy into tourism-centric economy – which is too Dangerous in view of the hypersensitive nature of this industry Consequences of Seasonality
poor consistently shifted towards periphery; Host society becomes more materialistic and self centred thus social coherence is eroded/disruption of social institutions; Promotes conspicuous consumption patterns among hosts; Exerts excessive stress on the support infrastructure and services thus creating constraints for local people; Hosts become secondary citizens at their own place due to extra attention paid to the tourists; resentment, frustration and ultimately ill will develops towards tourists and tourism develops in the destination community, as Doxy has indicated in his Irridex Model (Euphoria – Apathy –irritation – antagonism) Increases incidences of crime and unethical practices
Change in life style(dress/food habits etc)/superimposition of foreign culture commercialization of art and craft, dilution of traditions and cultural values; Beggar Mentality; consistent shift from traditional cultural cycles; Drug addiction/prostitution and the like evils; overuse of the cultural objects(i.e., monuments/ museums/historical sites); Distorted image of destination culture; Human Museumifcation; Disregard to rituals and religious beliefs Leads to transformation in traditional settlements and architectural designs
Noise, pollution (Land/air/water), congestion, trash, overcrowding; Overuse of natural areas Deforestation/ Selective eradication of unique plants Loss of wildlife habitat/ Change in wildlife behaviouristic Large scale land clearing to make room for roads/treks/touristic infrastructure; Worst effected are the ecologically sensitive and fragile areas like high mountains, river and lakesides, beaches, habitats of rare and endangered plants and animals
Need for Sustainable Development:Sustainable Development has now become the ‘core global concern’.Why? Nomadic Man was living in perfect harmony with nature, using the requisite resource to meet the immediate/bear minimum needs. Due to (ii) Scientific and technological advancements; (ii) population explosion(iii) ever-growing and diversifying materialistic demands; (iv) wrongly trying to master the natural processes for own convenience and comforts, we have jeopardized not only our the future of generations but the life on earth, as a whole. Green house effect, depletion of Ozone Layer, changing meteorological patterns, increase in geo-tectonic consequences, rapid extinction of animal and plant species, alarmingly depleting natural resources and the like problems with no immediate solution have led to our realization that the situation has reached to the point of no returns.
It is also now aptly evident that the situation can not be reversed but possibly delayed with honest and judicious efforts. Consequently ‘Sustainable Development’, and Sustainable Resource Use’ have taken a central stage in all kinds of planning.What is sustainable Development? According to World Commission on Environment and Development (1987), ‘ Sustainable development meets the need of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Which means careful utilization of the remaining resources while trying to conserve them
The philosophical solution to this effect is to ‘Use of available Natural resources in such a way that they could be used for same reasons, as long as possible, and that the future generations could also cherish them, as far as possible’. or Establish synergy between Economic, Environmental and Social Sustainability; or say mutually supporting relationship between Planet(Environment) – People (Society) and Profit (Material Gain/economic gain) is developed in turn is an extremely complex and challenging proposition.Relevance of Sustainable Tourism Development: Since tourism is a huge user of widely diverse resources ( including economic, socio-cultural , Biotic and environmental –land, year and water), it needs to be developed in sustained manner, else it may cause tremendous loss of resources and ultimately the global environment.
What is Sustainable Tourism Development? Sustainable Tourism Development meets the need of the present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing the opportunities for future. It envisages management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic need can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes. Biological diversity and Life support sysrem (WTO – UNEP – 2011)• Sustainable Tourism envisages as leading to management of all resources that essential economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support system.
Sustainable tourism is the tourism thatcombines high standards of quality withenvironmental constraints, tourists and localresidents in a friendly and stimulating mannerwhich would prove to be a better way toconduct tourism all over the world. In otherwords, it is self-maintaining tourism solvingproblems without harm to its surrounding.
Key Strategies/Inputs for Sustainable Tourism Development• Promotion of Eco Tourism (eco-centric Approach)• Special Interest/Selective Tourism• Tourism Complex Planning• Tourism Development according to Carrying Capacity• Regular EIA and application of remedial measures• Community Based/Community Approach of Tourism Development(Community empowerment/Use of Indigenous technology, Material and Styles• Wider distribution of tourism benefits• Synergy with on-going economic activities• Greater participation of various players of tourism in Policy/Decision Making (Travel Trade Institutions, Hoteliers, Transporters, Tourism Developers/ Destination Community/ Tourism Researchers/
Contemporary Concepts of Tourism Planning and Development• Sustainable Tourism• Responsible Tourism• Alternative Tourism• Just Tourism• Appropriate Tourism• Eco-Tourism• Community Based Tourism• Green Tourism• Rural Tourism• Wildlife & Wilderness Tourism
Eco-Tourism• Ecotourism is environmentally responsible tourism• Eco-tourists are generally interested to visit natural areas least effected from human intervention• Eco-tourism may involve eco friendly adventure/ethnic/trekking activities; thus in such cases eco-tourism becomes the indicator of behavior of specific tourist segment as also their deep respect toward the nature and natural processes.
Conclusion• Indeed the Alternative Tourism imbibes in itself a form of tourism activity which is more environmentally friendly, socially compassionate and aims at exploiting tourism with minimum negative impacts and maximizing the positive impacts.• It envisages ensuring that the socio-economic benefits are percolated down to the lowest levels of society, and hence, proper policies may be worked out for effectively promoting Newer forms of tourism for mitigating poverty among lesser developing economies.