Biotechnology and public health


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Biotechnology and public health

  2. 2. Introduction • Definition of BT and its evolution • Domains of BT and their application • BT in India • BT and public health • Important to remember 2
  3. 3. Convention on Biological Diversity United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) • Nov 1988 Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity • May 1989 Ad Hoc Working Group of Technical and Legal Experts • Feb 1991 AHWG now k/a the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee • 22 May 1992 Nairobi Conference for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity. • 05 June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Rio "Earth Summit"). • It remained open for signature until 4 June 1993, by which time it had received 168 signatures. The Convention entered into force on 29 December 1993, which was 90 days after the 30th ratification. 3
  4. 4. Definition of Biotechnology • Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. • History  Agriculture  Fermentation of beer  Selective breeding of organisms  Manufacturing corn starch using Clostridium acetobutylicum, to produce acetone  Development of Penicillin antibiotics  Paul Berg’s Stanford experiment  Diamond V. Chakraborty  Bio-fuels 4
  5. 5. Applications of Biotechnology • Health care • Crop production and agriculture • Non-food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels) • Environmental Branches  Bioinformatics  Blue BT  Green BT  Red BT  White BT 5
  6. 6. Medical Biotechnology  Pharmacogenomics  Biopharmaceuticals  Gene therapy  Genetic testing/screening  Human genome project  Cloning 6
  7. 7. Pharmacogenomics • Designing the most effective drug therapy and treatment strategy based on the specific genetic profile of a patient. Different individuals react differently to the same drug or treatment. • It is hoped that genetic studies will lead to personalized drugs with greater safety and efficacy. • Role in cancer, cardiovascular disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorders, HIV, tuberculosis, asthma, and diabetes. 7
  8. 8. Pharmacogenomics 8
  9. 9. Bio-pharmaceuticals • Medical drugs produced using biotechnology. • They include proteins (including antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA or antisense oligonucleotides) and living microorganisms like virus and bacteria where the virulence of viruses and bacteria is reduced by the process of attenuation, they can be used for therapeutic or in vivo diagnostic purposes, and are produced by means other than direct extraction from a native (non-engineered) biological source. • Designer drugs 9
  10. 10. Bio-pharmaceuticals  Recombinant DNA  Monoclonal antibody  Antisense RNA  Blood factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX)  Thrombolytic agents (TPA)  Hormones (insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, gonadotrophins)  Haematopoietic growth factors (Erythropoietin, CSFs)  Interferons (IFN-α, -β, -γ)  Interleukin-based products (IL-2)  Vaccines (Hepatitis B surface antigen)  Additional products (tumour necrosis factor, therapeutic enzymes)10
  11. 11. Bio-pharmaceuticals • Use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO) • Development of molecular diagnostic devices that can be used to define the target patient population for a given biopharmaceutical. Example: Herceptin and HER2 protein 11
  12. 12. Bio-pharming EDIBLE VACCINES  A pathogen protein gene is cloned  Gene is inserted into the DNA of plant (potato, banana, tomato)  Humans eat the plant  The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein  Human are “immunised” against the pathogen Examples: a) Diarrhoea (EHEC) b) Hepatitis B c) Measles 12
  13. 13. Bio-pharming • A chimeric secretory IgG–IgA antibody against a surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans (tooth decay) is tobacco-produced antibody. • Humanized anti-herpes-simplex virus (HSV) antibody made in soybean, was effective in the prevention of vaginal HSV-2 transmission in a mouse model. • Antibody to CEA has recently been expressed in rice and wheat. • A plant virus vector has been used to produce a tumour-specific vaccine transiently in tobacco for the treatment of lymphoma and colorectal CA. 13
  14. 14. Gene therapy 14  Inserting a normal gene into a non-specific location  Swapping abnormal gene for normal gene  Repairing abnormal gene  Turning a gene on or off
  15. 15. Gene therapy 15
  16. 16. Genetic testing/screening • Predictive screening • Newborn screening • Carrier screening  Chromosomal Ex. Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome  Single Gene Ex. Sickle Cell Anemia, Cystic Fibrosis  Complex Ex. Birth defects, most cancers 16
  17. 17. Genetic testing/screening 17
  18. 18. Analysis of whole chromosomes Karyotyping 18
  19. 19. Analysis of whole chromosomes FISH 19
  20. 20. Analysis of sequence • Sequencing how is sequence different in patient from a normal individual? • Polymerase chain reaction viral load, early diagnosis of leukemia, genetic fingerprinting • Gel electrophoresis DNA cleavage properties of drugs, protein separation • RFLP genome mapping, genetic linkage, paternity testing • Probes  Microarrays (multiple mutations)  Dot blots (STDs, TB, Typhoid) 20
  21. 21. Analysis of protein shape • X-ray crystallography • NMR spectroscopy • Dual polarisation interferometry Analysis of protein function • Microarray analysis • RNA interference • Yeast two-hybrid system 21
  22. 22. Human genome project • Began in 1990 by DoE and NIH, USA • Aims  identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA  determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA  transfer related technologies to the private sector  address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project 22
  23. 23. Cloning  By technique of nuclear transfer • Animal models of disease • Stem cells for research • Pharming for drug production • Reviving endangered or extinct species • Dangers 23
  24. 24. Agricultural Biotechnology A range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques, that alter living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses • Improved taste, texture or appearance of foods  Tomato, papaya, soybean, bread • Production of novel substances in crop plants 24 Extended shelf-life tomato (FlavrSavr Tomato) Herbicide resistant soybean (Roundup Ready Soybean)
  25. 25. Agricultural Biotechnology • Reduced vulnerability of crops to environmental stresses  The gene, At-DBF2, from Thale cress, makes tomato and tobacco resistant to drought and salty water. • Increased crop yield • Animal biotechnology  Hybrid cows  Biotech chymosin  Bovine somatotrophin • Increased nutritional qualities  Golden rice 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Agricultural Biotechnology • Insecticide resistant crops  Bt cotton, potato, corn • Herbicide tolerant crops  Roundup Ready soybeans and corn and Liberty Link corn 28
  29. 29. VEGETABLES Tomato, Potato, Eggplant Lettuce, Celery, Cauliflower Cabbage, Sugarbeet, Carrot, Cucumbers, Sweetpotato, Cassava FRUITS Apple, Strawberry, Walnut, Muskmelon, Papaya, Grape Transgenic Crops for Food EDIBLE OILS Mustard Oilseed rape Canola Sunflower CEREALS Wheat, Rice Maize, Rye LEGUMES Soybean, Pigeon pea, Chick pea 29
  30. 30. Industrial Biotechnology  Biomass production Rhizobium, Blue Green Algae, Azotobacter  Biocontrol agents biofertilisers, bioherbicides, bioinsecticides  Fermentation 30
  31. 31. Industrial Biotechnology  Recovery of metals desulphiration of coal by Thiobacillus spp  Metabolite production antibiotics, enzymes, alcohol, organic acid, vitamins  Bio-catalysts yeast and bacteria, enzymes  Bio-polymers Polylactic acid and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate 31
  32. 32. Environmental Biotechnology  Molecular ecology a) Phylogeography b) Gene flow (migration and dispersal) c) Reproductive systems/strategies d) Relatedness e) Ecological interactions  Bio-remediation a) Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacterium b) Sunflowers at Chernobyl removed Cesium and Strontium  Bio-sensors enzyme electro-chemical devices  Bio-fuels bio-diesel (rape seed oil, groundnut oil) 32
  33. 33. History of Biotechnology in India • 1982 National Biotechnology Board under the DST (MST) • 1983 under the 6th FYP, a long term plan on BT was identified as top priority for self sufficiency • 1986 Department of BT was created under the MST • Scientific initiatives  MST - DST, DBT  MoHFW - ICMR  MoA  MoHRD • 11th FYP has a 73.304 crore funding for science and technology (0.89% of GNP) 33
  34. 34. Biotechnology in India • A team lead by Prof. Asis Datta, Director, NIPGR, New Delhi produced GM potato variety with the help of AmA1 gene isolated from grain amaranth which contains up to 45 per cent more protein than traditional ones. • Dr Rakesh Tuli, Director, NBRI and his team synthesized two Bt genes-Cry1AC and Cry1EC for producing transgenic Bt-Cotton. • India accounted for the highest yearly percentage growth rate in its Bt cotton growing area (185% in 2007-08). With this India became the Fifth largest adopter of biotech crop. 34
  35. 35. Biotechnology in India • Biopharmaceuticals: 1.4 billion USD • Bio-agriculture: 225 million USD • Serum Ins., Biocon, Panacea Biotec 35
  36. 36. Taskforces of DBT • DBT BUILDER • Bioengineering • Biotechnology product and process development • Human genetics and genome analysis • ICMR expert committee on HIV/AIDS and microbiology • Promotion and popularization of Biotechnology 36
  37. 37. Mandate of DBT  Promote large scale use of Biotechnology  Support R&D and manufacturing in Biology  Responsibility for Autonomous Institutions  Promote University and Industry Interaction  Identify and Set up Centres of Excellence for R&D  Integrated Programme for Human Resource Development  To serve as Nodal Point for specific International Collaborations  Establishment of Infrastructure Facilities to support R&D and production  Evolve Bio Safety Guidelines, manufacture and application of cell based vaccines  Serve as nodal point for the collection and dissemination of information relating to biotechnology DBT has launched Small Business Innovation Research Initiative (SBIRI) to boost public-private-partnership effort in the country 37
  38. 38. Biotech park, Lucknow 38
  39. 39. Biotech park, Lucknow • Bio-fertilizer unit of the Park • Plant tissue culture facility • Human DNA bank • Stem cell facility for therapeutics • Jatropha genetic enhancement programme • Quality assurance of cosmetics/food 39
  40. 40. Biotechnology facilities under DBT  National Facility For Marine Cyanobacteria, Bharatidasan University, Tiruchirapalli  Tissue Culture & Cryopreservation Repository at NBPGR, New Dellhi  Repository of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants at CIMAP, Lucknow  Animal House Facility at CDRI, Lucknow and NIN , Hyderabad  Centre for Genetic Engineering and Strain Manipulation, MKU, Madurai  International Depository Authority at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh  Repository for Filarial Parasites and Reagents at MGIMS, Sevagram  DNA sequencing facility at University of Delhi South Campus  Biochemical Engineering Research and Process Development Centre at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh  National Facility for Stable Isotope Discrimination Studies at University of Agricultural Sciences, Banglore  FACS facility at CCMB, Hyderabad  NMR facilitity at TIFR ,Mumbai  NMR facilities at IISc., Bangalore  Biomedical Research Facility at SGPGI, Lucknow 40
  41. 41. Achievements of Biotechnology in India • IMMUVAC • Rabies • HIV/AIDS subtype C vaccine • JE • Cholera • TB • Malaria • Rotavirus vaccine 41
  42. 42. Biotechnology and public health • Preventive Genetic screening Vaccines Bio-magnification • Promotive Nutrition Environment • Curative Gene therapy 42
  43. 43. Important to remember  Products of biotechnology  Benefits of biotechnology  Dangers of biotechnology  Issues with biotechnology  Adoption of biotechnology 43
  44. 44. References • Consequences, challenges and opportunities of modern biotechnology, a Joint Research Centre Report 2010, European Commission • Biotechnology in India: Its Policy and Normative Framework, Dec 2010, GOI report along with University of Catalonia • Key recommendations, Discussion Meet on “Energy Biosciences Strategy for India” held on 10-11th September, 2007 at New Delhi, India • Annual report, 2007-08 and 2012-13, DBT, MST, GOI • Text of the Convention on biodiversity, available from website of UN • DBT website ( 44
  45. 45. THANK YOU… 45