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PROFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANANA
STATE AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY,
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE , RAJENDRA NAGAR
SHAIKH WASIM CHAND
• Botanical Name : Cicer arientinum
• Family : Leguminosae
• Common Name : Chick pea, Chana
• Origin : South Western Asia
• Bengal Gram commonly known as 'chick pea'
or gram is the most important pulse crop in
• India ranks first in terms of Bengal gram
production and consumption.
• Andhra Pradesh show high growth rate of
Bengal gram production in India.
• It is emerged as a cash crop in black cotton
soils of Andhra Pradesh.
Origin and Distribution
• It is said to be one of the oldest pulses known and
cultivated from ancient times both in Asia and in
• Its probable place of origin lies in south western Asia
(probably eastern Turkey) which is in the countries
lying to the north-west of India such as Afganistan and
• According to De Candolle, the fact that gram gas a
Sanskrit name would indicate that the crop has
been under cultivation in India longer than in any
• Chick pea is one of the important pulse crop
of the world cultivated over an area of 12.0
• Production of about 9.2 million tones of grain.
• The important gram growing countries are
India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Burma and Turkey.
• India ranks first in the world in respect of
production as well as acreage followed by
• Pulse crops, besides being rich in protein and
some of the essential amino acids, enrich the
soil through symbolic nitrogen fixation from
• It is used for human consumption as well as
for feeding to animals.
• Fresh green leaves are used as vegetable (sag).
• The grains are also used as vegetable (chhole).
• Used for making DAL.
• Chick pea flour (Besan) is used in the
preparation of various types of sweets.
• Chick pea is considered to have medicinal
effects and it is used for blood purification.
• It is rich in protein, carbohydrates, iron ,
• Malic acid and oxalic acid is found in leaves
,stems of bengal gram which have medicinal
properties commonly called Amb.
• Bengal gram leaves contain 90-90% malic acid
and 4-10 % ascorbic acid.
Bengal gram and its Germination
• Chick pea belongs to family Leguminoseae.
• It is a small, much branched herbaceous plant
rarely exceeding 60 centimeter height.
• The roots usually include a central strong tap
root, with numerous lateral branches that
spread out in all directions in the upper layer
• There are numerous nodules on roots.
• The rhizobium bacteria present in these
nodules fix up atmospheric nitrogen.
• Stem is generally grayish in appearance.
• main branches may produce numerous lateral
• The leaves are pinnately compound, usually
with one terminal leaflet.
• There are 9-15 pairs of leaflets.
• Flowers are of various colors from white to
shades of pink or blue.
• A single plant produces about 50 to 150 pods.
• The Indian grams have been classified into two broader groups:
• Kabuli or White Gram (Cicer kabulium):
- color of the seed: white.
- Seed size is bold and attractive.
- Weight of 100 seed is grater than 26 gm.
• Desi or Brown Gram (Cicer arientinum L.):
- color of the seed: yellow to dark brown.
- Seed size is usually small.
- Weight of 100 seed is 17-26 gm
- It is the most widely grown group.
- Yield potential of kabuli is poor as compared to desi or brown gram.
GROWTH STAGES OF BENGAL GRAM
Pod filling stage
Area & Production
• Chick pea is one of the important pulse crop of the
world cultivated over an area of 12.0 million hectares
with a production of about 9.2 million tones of grain.
• Nearly 66% of the world acreage and 67% of the global
chickpea production is from India alone.
• In India bengal gram is cultivated on 7.1 Mha
,producing 5.7 Mt with a productivity of 800 kg / ha.
• Madhya Pradesh with 2.6 Mha producing 2.4 mt with a
productivity of 930 kg / ha ranks first in area
production and productivity.
• National average productivity is 800kg/ha which is
much less than the highest average productivity is 1.8
t/ha in egypt.
• Bengal gram is subtropical crop it grows well in
wide range of climates.
• The crop is very sensitive to excess moisture,
high humidity and cloudy weather.
• In India it is grown as Rabi crop .
• Rainfall requirement : 400-700 mm
• The optimum temperature varies from 24°-30° C.
• In peninsular India where winters are warm the
crop duration is short(90-110 days). Hence the
productivity of bengal gram is higher under north
• Chick pea is grown on a wide range of soils
from medium to heavy black soils, mixed red
and black soil and alluvial soils but requires
well drained aerated conditions.
• Optimum pH of soil is 6.0-7.5.
• It does not withstand water logging, saline
and alkaline conditions.
• it is not suited to soils having a pH higher than
Desi type Duration Kabuli type Duration
Avrodhi 150-155 days C-104 130-140 days
Pant G-186 125 days L-550 160 days
Gaurav 140-145 days L-144 140 days
Uday (KP-75) 140-145 days Pusa-1003 130-135 days
Pusa-256 145-150 days Pusa-1053 130-140 days
JG-315 145-150 days Sadabahar 145-160 days
Haryana Chana-1 135-145 days kranti 130-140 days
Gora Hisari 140-150 days
K-850 145-150 days
Pratap chana 90 days
-Unlike cereals high yielding photo-insensitive
cultivars are not available in pulses and this
appears to be the most important reasons for low
productivity of pulse crops in the country.
-Several improved varieties of chick pea have been
evolved in different chick pea growing states.
-Avarodhi and Vijay are wilt resistance type
- Varieties widely accepted in Andhra Pradesh are ,
- BDN 9
High Yielding Varieties of Bengal Gram in India
State Recommended Varieties
Andhra Pradesh ICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10
Assam KWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59
Gujarat Pusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053
Haryana Haryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav,
H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053
Himachal Pradesh BBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550
Jammu & Kashmir GNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1
Karnataka BDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1
Punjab PBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa-
1053, GPF-2, PDG-3
Rajasthan GNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa-
1053, PDG 84-1
Tamil Nadu ICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4
Uttar Pradesh KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315,
Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa-1053
Madhya Pradesh JG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053
Maharashtra Vijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053
Orissa Radhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003
West Bengal Pusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003
Bihar KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003
North Eastern States KWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256
• It is recommended to use varieties which are
pest and disease resistant/tolerant.
• Stress is being given to on-farm seed
production and preservation.
• Bengal gram seed can be self produced by
farmers themselves or purchased from
• It is highly economical to produce one's own
seed, without losing vigour of variety by
proper roguing of off types, 3 times in a crop
season namely, prior to flowering, at flowering
and finally, at near maturity.
• For seed purpose identify vigorously growing
healthy plants, free from insect pests and
• Use appropriate grading sieve to obtain
uniformity in size and weight of seed.
• Sun drying of seed is essential to obtain moisture
level below 9% for preservation.
• Kabuli types fetch more income compared to desi
types. High yielding Kabuli type varieties which
yield equal to desi types are available which
farmers can use and take advantage of.
• For chickpea, light field preparation is required.
• Weed free situation is compulsory.
• After harvest of kharif crop prepare field with plough
or cultivator (Gorru) or tractor drawn cultivator so that
top soil is free from weeds and at the same time stored
soil moisture is preserved to the maximum extent for
• Application of 2 tonnes of well decomposed FYM or
compost/Ac or 0.8 tonnes of vermicompost mixed with
2 kg PSB (phosphate solubilising bacteria)/Ac is
recommended at last tilling.
• Apply 200 litres of Sanjeevak or Jeevamrutam/Ac at
sowing or immediately after, for ready availability of
micro-organisms to improve soil fertility.
- Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply 12.5 t
- seed bed should be rough and seeds should be
placed at 8-9 cm depth to escape wilt disease.
- Chick pea is highly sensitive to soil aeration.
- Very fine and compact seedbed is not good for
chick pea. If requires a loose and well aerated
-Mould Board plough can be used for ploughing.
-9 tine tractor drawn or 3 tine animal drawn
cultivators can be used in field preparation.
SEED AND SOWING
• Peninsular India = first fort night of October
• northern India = second fortnight of October
• Delay beyond this period results in conspicuous
reduction in yield.
• Early sowing of chick pea results in excessive vegetative
growth and poor setting of pods.
• The crop may be sown by seed drill or local plough at a
row spacing of 30-40 centimeters.
• Seed rate-
60-75 kg/ ha (Desi),
80-100 kg/ha (Kabuli)
- Seed treatment with Thiram or Carbendazim (Bavistin)
• Chick pea is sown after the harvest of kharif
• Chick pea in rotation with cereal crops help in
controlling soil borne diseases.
• Kharif fallow-chick pea (in barani areas)
• Rice-Chick pea
• Pearl millet-Chick pea
• Sorghum-Chick pea
• Maize-Chick pea
MANURES AND FERTILIZERS
• Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg
• Irrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O
• Zinc deficiency can be cure by Soil application of 25 kg
SEED TREATMENT WITH BIOFERTILIZER
• Treat the seeds with one packet (200 g/ha)
of Rhizobial culture (200 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria .
• Desi type : 30x10 cm
• Kabuli type : 45x10 cm
• Being a legume, chickpea obtains its nitrogen
through nitrogen fixation.
• It requires optimum amounts of phosphorus,
potash, sulfur, and other nutrients.
• The response to nutrient application in chickpea
depends on the nutrient status of the soil,
agroclimatic conditions, and the genotype.
• Both organic and inorganic sources of nutrients
and Rhizobium inoculation have been found to be
useful for chickpea growth and yield.
Nitrogen (N) :
• An application of 15-25 kg N ha-1 has been found to be
optimum for stimulating growth and yield of chickpea in
sandy and loam soils
• when an active symbiotic nitrogen-fixing system was present,
there was no response to nitrogen application up to 100 kg N
• In the alluvial soils of India, an application of 30-40 kg N ha-1
was found to be profitable under rainfed cultivation
• Application of 20 kg N ha1 increased chickpea yield in sandy
• A high yield was obtained with 20 kg N ha-1 and Rhizobium
inoculation in Gujarat, India (Patel and Patel 1991).
• Increase in yield was reported with nitrogen application as
basal dose and at post flowering stage.
• Foliar application of 2% urea increased yield at some
• Phosphorus (P) :
• The response to phosphate application depends on the
available soil P and other edaphic factors.
• On alluvial soils in India with low available soil P, a 78%
increase was observed in seed yield with an application
of 32 kg P ha-1 under rainfed conditions (Singh et al).
• Phosphorus application gave a yield increase of 30%
under non irrigated conditions and about 40% under
• Supplemental irrigation increased consumptive water use
as well as water-use efficiency (Prabhakar and Saraf).
• Application of 17.48 kg P ha-1 as single superphosphate
with two irrigations gave maximum seed yield.
• Phosphorus application significantly increased drymatter
production and resulted in greater diversion of dry
matter to pods.
• Potassium (K) :
• Information on the response of chickpea to
potassium application is limited.
• There was no response or a negative response
due to the high levels of available K in
• In India and Pakistan, application of 17 to 50
kg K ha-1 increased chickpea yield from 18 to
Balanced Fertilizer Application
Calcium (Ca) :
• In sodic soils, application of 300-500 kg ha-1
gypsum (CaSO4) was effective in increasing the
rate of germination, nodulation, and seed yield.
Sulfur (S) :
• Application of 10 kg elemental sulfur in a sandy
loam soil increased the nitrogen and phosphorus
uptake and the yield.
• sulfur application in the range of 40-80 kg ha-1
increased the yield and seed protein content.
• increase in chickpea yield in alkaline soils with the
application of 200-400 kg ha-1 pyrites.
• Zinc (Zn) :
• Zinc deficiency generally occurs in soils with a high pH
and in areas under chickpea-rice cropping system.
• Basal application of zinc sulfate (10—25 kg ha-1)
resulted in a positive response in terms of seed yield.
• Foliar application of 0.5% zinc sulfate (ZnS04) mixed
with 0.25% lime was found to be effective in correcting
• Iron (Fe) :
• In calcareous soils with a high pH, chlorosis is caused
by the non availability of iron due to water logging.
• In calcareous soil, a spray of 2% FeSO4 30 days after
sowing increased yield.
Nutrient Deficiency in
• Nitrogen (N)
• Plants turn yellow-green with the older leaves at
the base of the plant yellower than the upper
• The stem develops a pink coloration at the base
of the plant and on the sides that are directly
exposed to light.
• When there is severe N deficiency, the pink
coloration extends right up the stem to within
one or two nodes from the top of the plant.
• A reddish-pink pigmentation also develops as a
very fine margin around the serration of the
leaflets, on the upper surface and edges.
• Phosphorus (P)
• Plants are smaller and dark green in color.
• The stem develops a reddish-purple anthocyanin
pigmentation on the side exposed to direct light. This
pigmentation darkens and intensifies later.
• A reddish-purple margin develops on the top edge and
upper surface of the leaflets of the lower leaves.
• The affected leaflets lose color and become yellow-
green or buff green.
• The discoloration starts from the lower leaflets of the
lower leaves and spreads to the other leaflets and then
to the leaves above.
• Some lower leaves show reddish-brown anthocyanin
on their upper surfaces which tends to accumulate at
the tips and margins of the leaflets.
• Ultimately the leaves lose their color and turn bronze.
• Potassium (K)
• Symptoms first appear on the older leaves.
Margins and tips of leaves show chlorosis i.e.,
turn yellow-green or reddish.
• The tips of affected leaflets show brown
necrotic patches, and eventually they die,
turning light brown and rolling inward towards
• The leaflets then abscise and drop off. The
stem develops a reddish-brown anthocyanin
pigmentation, where it is exposed to direct
• Calcium (Ca)
• The affected plant roots are short and thick with dark
brown or black tips.
• Slow development of the rachis and leaflets results in
short leaves with fewer leaflets than in a normal plant.
• Leaflets develop necrotic spots 0.5 to 1.0 mm in
diameter, more so on the upper surface.
• The rachis of the affected leaf withers, starting from
the tip back towards the stipule.
• The growing points of stems of calcium deficient plants
also wither and die.
• Death of the growing point enhances development of
small axillary buds which often wither later. The older
plant parts remain dark green.
• Sulfur (S)
• In sulfur-deficient plants, chlorosis starts from
the leaves at the top, while the leaves at the
base remain dark green.
• Early sulfur deficiency is similar to nitrogen
deficiency. However, when it is severe,
chlorosis affects the entire plant.
• Some leaflets become completely yellow, die,
and drop off. Red anthocyanin pigmentation is
also seen on the stem.
• Iron (Fe)
• Symptoms first appear as chlorosis on the
terminal three or four newly formed leaves.
• The leaflets of these leaves turn a uniform
• The deficiency becomes severe, white or light
straw-colored necrotic patches develop on the
distal half of the leaflets of young leaves and
stipules. These patches then enlarge and the
affected leaves wither and die.
• The rachis withers from the tip back towards the
• The top two or three leaves die and turn white or
light straw-colored. Such leaves collapse and fall
• Copper (Cu)
• The leaves remain dark green, but the top
three or four leaves are small and slightly
folded inward along the midrib.
• There are fewer leaflets per leaf (sometimes
only 5 or 6).
• The growing point of the leaf usually withers
and turns rust brown.
• Stem elongation is reduced and the terminal
point is retarded, and it may wither, die, and
turn rust brown.
• Zinc (Zn)
• Initially, the younger leaves become pale
green followed by the formation of a reddish-
brown pigmentation on the margins of the
upper surface of the leaflets and on the lower
parts of the stem.
• At a later stage, leaflets become light in color,
and the reddish-brown pigmentation on the
margins is reduced.
• Stipules of younger leaves become chlorotic
with a reddish-brown margin.
• Plant growth is stunted.
• Boron (B)
• Deficient plants remain dark green in color.
• The first symptom is yellowing and bronzing of the tips
and margins of leaflets of young, fully expanded leaves.
• The tips and margins of the affected leaves start to die,
showing narrow straw-colored necrotic areas near the
• The roots are also stunted and thick with dark tips.
Excess boron in the soil is toxic to chickpea.
• The tips and serrate margins of leaflets and tips of
stipules become yellow.
• As the necrotic area expands, the distal one-third part
of the leaflet withers and dies, often causing cupping
of the affected leaflet. Such leaves abscise and drop. At
a later stage, as the toxicity spreads, the whole leaflet
• Chick pea being a stature crop suffers severely by
infestation of weeds.
• Pre emergence herbicides : Pendimethalin (0.5-1.0)
• Pre- plant Incorporation : Fluchloralin 1 kg per hectare
in 800-1000 liters of water as pre-planting spray may
be used as an effective herbicide.
• Hand weeding or inter culture with the help of hoe is
always better than herbicides because inter culture
operations improve aeration in the soil.
• Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 0.75 kg
ha-1 or pre sowing incorporation of fluchloralin at 0.75
kg ha-1 was quite effective in chickpea weed control.
• Mechanical methods
• Weeding is done using a flat chisel (khurpi),
sickle, hand hoe, wheel hoe, or any other
• Two or three weedings are required during
early crop growth.
• The first mechanical operation is carried out
three to four weeks after sowing.
• In some cases, one weeding after 25-30 days
of sowing is adequate.
• Chemical methods
• Presowing :
Trifluralin = 0.40 lit. or 1.0 kg /ha
Triallate = 0.40 lit./ha
Oxyfluorten+ = 0.36 lit./ha
• Pre-emergence :
Pendimethalin = 1.5 kg/ha
Diuron = 0.30 kg/ha
Alachlor = 1.5 kg/ha
Tribunil = 1.5 kg/ha
• Post-emergence :
Prometryne = 0.5 L or 0.25 kg/ha
Methabenzthiazuron = 0.47 kg/ha
Chenopodium album Melilotus indica,
Lathyrus aphaca Trigonella polycerata
• Chick pea is mostly sown as a rainfed crop.
• 59% area of chick pea is under rainfed condition.
• It requires irrigation at their critical growth stages, if winter
rain fails at
- Pre flowering stage (40-50 DAS)
- Pod development stage (70-80 DAS)
- A light irrigation should be given because heavy irrigation is
always harmful to gram crop.
- Excess of irrigation enhances vegetative growth and
depresses chick pea yield.
- In no case first irrigation should be given at flowering time of
Advantages of using Micro Irrigation Methods
• Sprinkler irrigation is becoming popular for bengal
gram due requirement of very light irrigations in
many undulating areas.
• When there is terminal moisture deficit to the crop
due to exhausting of stored soil moisture, it becomes
crucial for irrigating fields.
• Giving life saving irrigation during moisture deficit
period is also easy with clip on pipes of sprinkler unit.
Due to availability of clip on pipes in sprinkler unit,
preparation of field channels is not required.
• Land levelling is also not required in undulated
• Labour saving techniques can be adopted easily in
• Less expenditure on labour as there is no need to
prepare field channels.
• Water logging can be avoided.
• There is no soil erosion.
• 90% subsidy is available to all farmers. SC and ST
farmers can get 100% subsidy on sprinkler irrigation
Diseases and Their Control Measures
1. Wilt : Fusarium orthocerus
- The leaves start yellowing and afterwards drying.
-The plants too become yellowish and finally dry out.
- Roots turn black and ultimately decompose.
CONTROL MEASURES :
-Treat the seed with Benlate T.
- Grow the resistant varieties like C-214, Uday,
Avrodhi, JG-315, Phule G-5 etc.
-Deep planting of chick pea about 8-10 cm
deep in the light soils reduces
the gram wilt incidence.
2. Ascochyta blight: Ascochyta rabiei
-All plant parts are affected, leaves as water soaked lesions, disease is
seed borne in nature.
-Under favorable conditions, these spots enlarge rapidly and coalesce,
blighting the leaves and buds.
CONTROL MEASURES :
• Sow disease-free seed,Follow rotation crop.
• Intercrop with wheat, barley, mustard
• Seed treatment with
Carbendazim @ 1g/kg of seed.
• Spray the crop with
Mancozeb @ 2.5g/lit
if noticed during the growth period.
3. Alternaria blight: Alternaria alternata
• The disease occurs during the flowering stage of the
crop,Leaves are infected most.
• Shedding of lower leaves, Infected pods turn blackish in
colour, Infected seeds get shriveled.
CONTROL MEASURES :
• Intercrop with linseed.
• Avoid excessive irrigation.
• Use compact varieties.
• Use Mancozeb at the rate of 2.5g/lit
• or Use Carbendazim at 1g/lit
4.Collar rot: Sclerotium rolfsii
• It comes in the early stages i.e up to six weeks from sowing, Seedling
• The joint of stem & root turns soft slightly contracts and begins to
decay, Infected parts turn brown white.
• Black dots, like mustard in shape known as sclerotia are seen appearing on
the white infected plant parts.
CONTROL MEASURES :
• Deep ploughing in summer.
• Avoid high moisture at the sowing time.
• Destroy the residues of last crop and
weed before sowing and after harvest.
• Treat the seeds with a mixture of
Carbendazim 1g per kg of seed.
5. Fusarium wilt: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri
• The disease can affect the crop at any stage. The field symptoms of wilt
are dead seedlings or adult plants, usually in patches
• At seedling stage, 3-5 weeks after sowing, whole seedlings collapse and lie
flat on the ground with dull green leaves and shrunken stem.
• Dark drown or dark discoloration of the internal stem tissues is visible.
CONTROL MEASURES :
• Deep summer ploughing
• Follow crop rotation measures continuously.
• Always use disease free seeds.
• Avoid sowing when temperatures are high.
• Follow 6-year crop rotations with sorghum.
• Seed treatment with
Thiram + Carbandizm @ 1g+2g per kg of seed
6. Powdery mildew: Oidiopsis taurica
• Crop plants of all the age group are affected.
• With the onset of the disease white powdery mass appear on the leaves.
• Small patches of white powder coating initially develop on both surfaces
of older leaves.
• Affected leaves turn purple and then die.
• When infection is severe, stems, young leaves, and pods are also covered
with the powdery coating.
CONTROL MEASURES :
• Field and crop sanitation.
• Dithane M-45 or Carbendazim at 2.5 g/lit
should be sprayed.
Pests and Their Management
1. Gram Pod Borer : Helicoverpa armigera
• Skeletinization of leaves – feeding chlorophyll only leaving veins by young
• Feeds flower and green pods
• In green pods – make circular holes and feed the grains and make empty.
• Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha
• Bird perches 50/ha
• Hand picking of grown up larvae and blister beetles
• Ha NPV 1.5 x1012 POB/ha with teepol (1 ml/lit.)
• Apply any one of the following
• Dichlorvos 76 WSC 625 ml/ha
• Neem seed kernel extract 5%
• Triazophos 40 EC 780 ml/ha
• Neem oil 12.5 lit./ha
• Phosalone 35 EC 1.25 lit./ha
2. Cut worm: Agrotis ipsilon
• The caterpillar remains the soil at a depth of 2-4 inches. The caterpillars
cut the tender plants at the base, and branches or stems of growing
• The caterpillars drag the cut parts into soil for feeding. The buried stem or
branches is almost the sure index of the place where the caterpillar is
• Deep summer ploughing.
• Use well decomposed organic manure.
• Adapt crop rotation.
• Early sowing in the last week of October.
• Intercropping with wheat or
Linseed or Mustard reduces infestation.
• Do not grow Tomato or Lady Finger in near by field.
• Grow marigold on bunds
• Spray insecticides like quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha
3. Semilooper : Autographa nigrisigna
• Skeletinization of leaves and the plant becomes whitish
• The larvae feed on leaf buds, flowers, tender pods and developing seeds.
• Ragged and irregular pod. (This is in contrast with the neat, and round hole,
characteristic of pod borer damage.
• Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
• Early sowing, short duration varieties.
• Avoid closer plant spacing.
• Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches
• Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
• Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
• Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5
lakh/ha/ week for four times.
• Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
• Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha. Chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP, quinalphos 4D,
• Spray insecticides like Carbaryl 10%DP.(OR) Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha
4. Termites: Odontotermes obesus
• Termite bores into the roots and stem. Due to the bore the plants
• Attack may continue to the standing crop also especially during the
period of drought.
• Frequent intercultural operations and irrigation before sowing.
• Field sanitation, timely disposal of crop stables and undecomposed
• Undecomposed FYM or composed should not be used
• Two-three deep ploughing could also help control this pest.
• Destroy the termite bunds in and
around the field and kill the queen
and complimentary form.
• Seed treatment with
chlorpyriphos @ 4ml/kg of seed.
IPM in Bengal gram
• Monitoring for Pest and Disease
-Use pheromone traps for monitoring gram pod borer.
-Use specific lure for each pest species.
• Pre-sowing stage
-Deep ploughing in summer.
-Apply well decomposed FYM or neem cake.
-Removal of crop stubbles.
-Marigold plantation should be adopted as trap
crop/antagonistic crop for nematode.
• Seed treatment with Trichoderma @ 4 gm/kg of seed.
• Detopping to reduce pest occurrence.
• At fruiting and flowering stage Conservation of predators
like spiders, chrysopa and other natural enemies by
avoiding indiscriminate use of pesticides.
• Installing of bird perches for predatory birds.
• Following care should be taken during harvest
1) Avoid use of pesticides prior to harvest.
2) Avoid over-maturity of crop.
3) Harvesting before the crop matures usually
means a lower yield and also a higher
proportion of immature seeds.
4) Timely harvesting ensures optimum grain
quality and consumer acceptance.
5) Keep harvested crop for drying in the field.
6) Tag the bundles properly and keep at proper
7) Drying results in optimum moisture content in
safe storage of produce over a longer period
8) Avoid harvesting during adverse weather
• Chick pea has the potential to yield far higher than the
• A well managed crop yields about 20-25 quintals of grain per
hectare which is about three to four times higher than the
Processing of chick pea
Receiving and Storage of Chickpeas :
A) Receiving of Chickpeas:
After receiving , samples are taken to
determine the quality of the goods and we
proceed to unload the goods, which can be
received in bulk, big bags or bags.
B) Storage of Chickpeas:
According to the packaging of the goods, it is
unloaded in bulk silos, or stowed if it comes in
big bags or bags.
Main Processing :
A) Pre-cleaning :
Chickpeas undergo a pre-cleaning process,
separating all kind of light foreign materials and
B) Size Classification :
Chickpeas are classified by size through rounded
and pit screens, removing broken grains, foreign
materials and soil.
C) Vibrate :
All grains from the size classification process are
subjected to the separation process of impurities,
through gravities tables that separate the light
foreign bodies and the damaged grains.
D) Electronic Selection :
This step consists in the removal of damaged grains, with
some damaged and foreign material, by a grain comparison
with a standard colour parameter. This is a fundamental
process to guarantee the quality of the goods.
E) Packaging of Final Product :
The big bag packaging process is made in the production line by
direct filling of gravity action. It can also be packaged in 25Kg.
or 50Kg. bags
Storage and Delivery of Finished Product
A) Storage of Finished Product :
Finished product is stored in the corresponding warehouse,
and according to the time it is stored, we proceed to the
B) Delivery of Finished Product :
We proceed to load the truck to go to the stuffing facilities.
• Mean Grain Yield (GY, t/ha) and total above-
ground Dry Biomass (BY, t/ha) of Chickpea for
the various sowing-date and Irrigation
treatments in the four growing seasons
(1997–1998 to 2000–2001)
• Theib Oweis
• Ahmed Hachum
• Mustafa Pala
1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001
GY BY GY BY GY BY GY BY
Rainfed 1.65 4.25 0.82 2.87 0.73 1.56 1.59 4.33
1/3 SI 2.29 5.15 1.11 3.30 1.14 2.98 1.98 5.32
2/3 SI 2.76 6.11 1.37 4.02 1.41 3.56 2.47 6.34
Full SI 2.63 6.32 1.45 4.40 1.64 4.42 2.28 6.16
Rainfed 2.01 4.71 0.87 2.28 0.73 1.72 1.68 3.97
1/3 SI 2.42 5.81 1.05 2.78 0.92 2.49 1.89 5.04
2/3 SI 2.69 7.02 1.30 3.17 1.46 3.68 2.12 5.41
Full SI 2.82 7.23 1.55 3.92 1.68 4.10 2.04 5.46
Rainfed 1.44 4.18 0.55 1.49 0.77 1.84 1.24 3.42
1/3 SI 1.97 4.92 0.71 1.79 0.98 2.30 1.47 4.26
2/3 SI 2.20 5.72 0.74 3.13 1.69 4.11 1.58 4.88
Full SI 2.55 7.12 0.88 2.36 1.68 4.03 1.97 5.44
S.E Grain 0.11 0.14
Biomass 0.30 0.37
Yield Components and Grain Yield of Chickpea as affected by
different Production Inputs during 2007-08
Abdur Rashid et al
Influence of Nitrogen Fixing and Phosphorus
Solubilizing Bacteria on the Nodulation, Plant Growth
and Yield of Chickpea
Erdal elkoca & Faik kantar