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Bengal gram by Shaikh Wasim

agriculture

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Bengal gram by Shaikh Wasim

  1. 1. PROFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANANA STATE AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE , RAJENDRA NAGAR BENGAL GRAM BY SHAIKH WASIM CHAND RAM/15-13
  2. 2. BENGAL GRAM • Botanical Name : Cicer arientinum • Family : Leguminosae • Common Name : Chick pea, Chana • Origin : South Western Asia
  3. 3. Introduction • Bengal Gram commonly known as 'chick pea' or gram is the most important pulse crop in India. • India ranks first in terms of Bengal gram production and consumption. • Andhra Pradesh show high growth rate of Bengal gram production in India. • It is emerged as a cash crop in black cotton soils of Andhra Pradesh.
  4. 4. Origin and Distribution • It is said to be one of the oldest pulses known and cultivated from ancient times both in Asia and in Europe. • Its probable place of origin lies in south western Asia (probably eastern Turkey) which is in the countries lying to the north-west of India such as Afganistan and Persia. • According to De Candolle, the fact that gram gas a Sanskrit name would indicate that the crop has been under cultivation in India longer than in any other country.
  5. 5. • Chick pea is one of the important pulse crop of the world cultivated over an area of 12.0 million hectares. • Production of about 9.2 million tones of grain. • The important gram growing countries are India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Burma and Turkey. • India ranks first in the world in respect of production as well as acreage followed by Pakistan.
  6. 6. Economic Importance • Pulse crops, besides being rich in protein and some of the essential amino acids, enrich the soil through symbolic nitrogen fixation from atmosphere. • It is used for human consumption as well as for feeding to animals. • Fresh green leaves are used as vegetable (sag). • The grains are also used as vegetable (chhole). • Used for making DAL. • Chick pea flour (Besan) is used in the preparation of various types of sweets.
  7. 7. • Chick pea is considered to have medicinal effects and it is used for blood purification. • It is rich in protein, carbohydrates, iron , calcium. • Malic acid and oxalic acid is found in leaves ,stems of bengal gram which have medicinal properties commonly called Amb. • Bengal gram leaves contain 90-90% malic acid and 4-10 % ascorbic acid.
  8. 8. Bengal gram and its Germination
  9. 9. Morphology • Chick pea belongs to family Leguminoseae. • It is a small, much branched herbaceous plant rarely exceeding 60 centimeter height. • The roots usually include a central strong tap root, with numerous lateral branches that spread out in all directions in the upper layer of soils. • There are numerous nodules on roots. • The rhizobium bacteria present in these nodules fix up atmospheric nitrogen.
  10. 10. • Stem is generally grayish in appearance. • main branches may produce numerous lateral branches. • The leaves are pinnately compound, usually with one terminal leaflet. • There are 9-15 pairs of leaflets. • Flowers are of various colors from white to shades of pink or blue. • A single plant produces about 50 to 150 pods.
  11. 11. A Typical Bengal gram Plant
  12. 12. Classification • The Indian grams have been classified into two broader groups: • Kabuli or White Gram (Cicer kabulium): - color of the seed: white. - Seed size is bold and attractive. - Weight of 100 seed is grater than 26 gm. • Desi or Brown Gram (Cicer arientinum L.): - color of the seed: yellow to dark brown. - Seed size is usually small. - Weight of 100 seed is 17-26 gm - It is the most widely grown group. - Yield potential of kabuli is poor as compared to desi or brown gram.
  13. 13. GROWTH STAGES OF BENGAL GRAM bra Seedling stage Branching stage
  14. 14. Flowering stage Pod filling stage
  15. 15. Area & Production • Chick pea is one of the important pulse crop of the world cultivated over an area of 12.0 million hectares with a production of about 9.2 million tones of grain. • Nearly 66% of the world acreage and 67% of the global chickpea production is from India alone. • In India bengal gram is cultivated on 7.1 Mha ,producing 5.7 Mt with a productivity of 800 kg / ha. • Madhya Pradesh with 2.6 Mha producing 2.4 mt with a productivity of 930 kg / ha ranks first in area production and productivity. • National average productivity is 800kg/ha which is much less than the highest average productivity is 1.8 t/ha in egypt.
  16. 16. Climatic Requirement • Bengal gram is subtropical crop it grows well in wide range of climates. • The crop is very sensitive to excess moisture, high humidity and cloudy weather. • In India it is grown as Rabi crop . • Rainfall requirement : 400-700 mm • The optimum temperature varies from 24°-30° C. • In peninsular India where winters are warm the crop duration is short(90-110 days). Hence the productivity of bengal gram is higher under north Indian conditions.
  17. 17. Soil • Chick pea is grown on a wide range of soils from medium to heavy black soils, mixed red and black soil and alluvial soils but requires well drained aerated conditions. • Optimum pH of soil is 6.0-7.5. • It does not withstand water logging, saline and alkaline conditions. • it is not suited to soils having a pH higher than 8.5.
  18. 18. Varieties Desi type Duration Kabuli type Duration Avrodhi 150-155 days C-104 130-140 days Pant G-186 125 days L-550 160 days Gaurav 140-145 days L-144 140 days Uday (KP-75) 140-145 days Pusa-1003 130-135 days Pusa-256 145-150 days Pusa-1053 130-140 days JG-315 145-150 days Sadabahar 145-160 days Haryana Chana-1 135-145 days kranti 130-140 days Gora Hisari 140-150 days K-850 145-150 days Pratap chana 90 days
  19. 19. -Unlike cereals high yielding photo-insensitive cultivars are not available in pulses and this appears to be the most important reasons for low productivity of pulse crops in the country. -Several improved varieties of chick pea have been evolved in different chick pea growing states. -Avarodhi and Vijay are wilt resistance type varieties. - Varieties widely accepted in Andhra Pradesh are , - Annegiri - Jyothi - Kranti - BDN 9
  20. 20. High Yielding Varieties of Bengal Gram in India State Recommended Varieties Andhra Pradesh ICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10 Assam KWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59 Gujarat Pusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053 Haryana Haryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav, H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053 Himachal Pradesh BBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550 Jammu & Kashmir GNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1 Karnataka BDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1 Punjab PBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa- 1053, GPF-2, PDG-3 Rajasthan GNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa- 1053, PDG 84-1 Tamil Nadu ICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4 Uttar Pradesh KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315, Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa-1053 Madhya Pradesh JG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053 Maharashtra Vijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053 Orissa Radhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003 West Bengal Pusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003 Bihar KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003 North Eastern States KWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256
  21. 21. Seed Selection • It is recommended to use varieties which are pest and disease resistant/tolerant. • Stress is being given to on-farm seed production and preservation. • Bengal gram seed can be self produced by farmers themselves or purchased from reliable source. • It is highly economical to produce one's own seed, without losing vigour of variety by proper roguing of off types, 3 times in a crop season namely, prior to flowering, at flowering and finally, at near maturity.
  22. 22. • For seed purpose identify vigorously growing healthy plants, free from insect pests and diseases. • Use appropriate grading sieve to obtain uniformity in size and weight of seed. • Sun drying of seed is essential to obtain moisture level below 9% for preservation. • Kabuli types fetch more income compared to desi types. High yielding Kabuli type varieties which yield equal to desi types are available which farmers can use and take advantage of.
  23. 23. Pre-cultivation Practices • For chickpea, light field preparation is required. • Weed free situation is compulsory. • After harvest of kharif crop prepare field with plough or cultivator (Gorru) or tractor drawn cultivator so that top soil is free from weeds and at the same time stored soil moisture is preserved to the maximum extent for crop use. • Application of 2 tonnes of well decomposed FYM or compost/Ac or 0.8 tonnes of vermicompost mixed with 2 kg PSB (phosphate solubilising bacteria)/Ac is recommended at last tilling. • Apply 200 litres of Sanjeevak or Jeevamrutam/Ac at sowing or immediately after, for ready availability of micro-organisms to improve soil fertility.
  24. 24. FIELD PREPARATION - Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply 12.5 t FYM/ha. - seed bed should be rough and seeds should be placed at 8-9 cm depth to escape wilt disease. - Chick pea is highly sensitive to soil aeration. - Very fine and compact seedbed is not good for chick pea. If requires a loose and well aerated seedbed. -Mould Board plough can be used for ploughing. -9 tine tractor drawn or 3 tine animal drawn cultivators can be used in field preparation.
  25. 25. SEED AND SOWING • Peninsular India = first fort night of October • northern India = second fortnight of October • Delay beyond this period results in conspicuous reduction in yield. • Early sowing of chick pea results in excessive vegetative growth and poor setting of pods. • The crop may be sown by seed drill or local plough at a row spacing of 30-40 centimeters. • Seed rate- 60-75 kg/ ha (Desi), 80-100 kg/ha (Kabuli) - Seed treatment with Thiram or Carbendazim (Bavistin) before sowing.
  26. 26. Cropping System • Chick pea is sown after the harvest of kharif crops. • Chick pea in rotation with cereal crops help in controlling soil borne diseases. • Kharif fallow-chick pea (in barani areas) • Rice-Chick pea • Pearl millet-Chick pea • Sorghum-Chick pea • Maize-Chick pea
  27. 27. MANURES AND FERTILIZERS • Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg • Irrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O • Zinc deficiency can be cure by Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under SEED TREATMENT WITH BIOFERTILIZER • Treat the seeds with one packet (200 g/ha) of Rhizobial culture (200 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria . Spacing • Desi type : 30x10 cm • Kabuli type : 45x10 cm
  28. 28. Nutrient Requirement • Being a legume, chickpea obtains its nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. • It requires optimum amounts of phosphorus, potash, sulfur, and other nutrients. • The response to nutrient application in chickpea depends on the nutrient status of the soil, agroclimatic conditions, and the genotype. • Both organic and inorganic sources of nutrients and Rhizobium inoculation have been found to be useful for chickpea growth and yield.
  29. 29. Nitrogen (N) : • An application of 15-25 kg N ha-1 has been found to be optimum for stimulating growth and yield of chickpea in sandy and loam soils • when an active symbiotic nitrogen-fixing system was present, there was no response to nitrogen application up to 100 kg N ha-1 . • In the alluvial soils of India, an application of 30-40 kg N ha-1 was found to be profitable under rainfed cultivation • Application of 20 kg N ha1 increased chickpea yield in sandy loam soils. • A high yield was obtained with 20 kg N ha-1 and Rhizobium inoculation in Gujarat, India (Patel and Patel 1991). • Increase in yield was reported with nitrogen application as basal dose and at post flowering stage. • Foliar application of 2% urea increased yield at some locations.
  30. 30. • Phosphorus (P) : • The response to phosphate application depends on the available soil P and other edaphic factors. • On alluvial soils in India with low available soil P, a 78% increase was observed in seed yield with an application of 32 kg P ha-1 under rainfed conditions (Singh et al). • Phosphorus application gave a yield increase of 30% under non irrigated conditions and about 40% under supplemental irrigation. • Supplemental irrigation increased consumptive water use as well as water-use efficiency (Prabhakar and Saraf). • Application of 17.48 kg P ha-1 as single superphosphate with two irrigations gave maximum seed yield. • Phosphorus application significantly increased drymatter production and resulted in greater diversion of dry matter to pods.
  31. 31. • Potassium (K) : • Information on the response of chickpea to potassium application is limited. • There was no response or a negative response due to the high levels of available K in chickpea-growing soils. • In India and Pakistan, application of 17 to 50 kg K ha-1 increased chickpea yield from 18 to 20% .
  32. 32. Balanced Fertilizer Application Calcium (Ca) : • In sodic soils, application of 300-500 kg ha-1 gypsum (CaSO4) was effective in increasing the rate of germination, nodulation, and seed yield. Sulfur (S) : • Application of 10 kg elemental sulfur in a sandy loam soil increased the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and the yield. • sulfur application in the range of 40-80 kg ha-1 increased the yield and seed protein content. • increase in chickpea yield in alkaline soils with the application of 200-400 kg ha-1 pyrites.
  33. 33. • Zinc (Zn) : • Zinc deficiency generally occurs in soils with a high pH and in areas under chickpea-rice cropping system. • Basal application of zinc sulfate (10—25 kg ha-1) resulted in a positive response in terms of seed yield. • Foliar application of 0.5% zinc sulfate (ZnS04) mixed with 0.25% lime was found to be effective in correcting zinc deficiency. • Iron (Fe) : • In calcareous soils with a high pH, chlorosis is caused by the non availability of iron due to water logging. • In calcareous soil, a spray of 2% FeSO4 30 days after sowing increased yield.
  34. 34. Nutrient Deficiency in Chickpea • Nitrogen (N) • Plants turn yellow-green with the older leaves at the base of the plant yellower than the upper ones. • The stem develops a pink coloration at the base of the plant and on the sides that are directly exposed to light. • When there is severe N deficiency, the pink coloration extends right up the stem to within one or two nodes from the top of the plant. • A reddish-pink pigmentation also develops as a very fine margin around the serration of the leaflets, on the upper surface and edges.
  35. 35. • Phosphorus (P) • Plants are smaller and dark green in color. • The stem develops a reddish-purple anthocyanin pigmentation on the side exposed to direct light. This pigmentation darkens and intensifies later. • A reddish-purple margin develops on the top edge and upper surface of the leaflets of the lower leaves. • The affected leaflets lose color and become yellow- green or buff green. • The discoloration starts from the lower leaflets of the lower leaves and spreads to the other leaflets and then to the leaves above. • Some lower leaves show reddish-brown anthocyanin on their upper surfaces which tends to accumulate at the tips and margins of the leaflets. • Ultimately the leaves lose their color and turn bronze.
  36. 36. • Potassium (K) • Symptoms first appear on the older leaves. Margins and tips of leaves show chlorosis i.e., turn yellow-green or reddish. • The tips of affected leaflets show brown necrotic patches, and eventually they die, turning light brown and rolling inward towards the rachis. • The leaflets then abscise and drop off. The stem develops a reddish-brown anthocyanin pigmentation, where it is exposed to direct light.
  37. 37. • Calcium (Ca) • The affected plant roots are short and thick with dark brown or black tips. • Slow development of the rachis and leaflets results in short leaves with fewer leaflets than in a normal plant. • Leaflets develop necrotic spots 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter, more so on the upper surface. • The rachis of the affected leaf withers, starting from the tip back towards the stipule. • The growing points of stems of calcium deficient plants also wither and die. • Death of the growing point enhances development of small axillary buds which often wither later. The older plant parts remain dark green.
  38. 38. • Sulfur (S) • In sulfur-deficient plants, chlorosis starts from the leaves at the top, while the leaves at the base remain dark green. • Early sulfur deficiency is similar to nitrogen deficiency. However, when it is severe, chlorosis affects the entire plant. • Some leaflets become completely yellow, die, and drop off. Red anthocyanin pigmentation is also seen on the stem.
  39. 39. • Iron (Fe) • Symptoms first appear as chlorosis on the terminal three or four newly formed leaves. • The leaflets of these leaves turn a uniform yellow-green. • The deficiency becomes severe, white or light straw-colored necrotic patches develop on the distal half of the leaflets of young leaves and stipules. These patches then enlarge and the affected leaves wither and die. • The rachis withers from the tip back towards the base. • The top two or three leaves die and turn white or light straw-colored. Such leaves collapse and fall off.
  40. 40. • Copper (Cu) • The leaves remain dark green, but the top three or four leaves are small and slightly folded inward along the midrib. • There are fewer leaflets per leaf (sometimes only 5 or 6). • The growing point of the leaf usually withers and turns rust brown. • Stem elongation is reduced and the terminal point is retarded, and it may wither, die, and turn rust brown.
  41. 41. • Zinc (Zn) • Initially, the younger leaves become pale green followed by the formation of a reddish- brown pigmentation on the margins of the upper surface of the leaflets and on the lower parts of the stem. • At a later stage, leaflets become light in color, and the reddish-brown pigmentation on the margins is reduced. • Stipules of younger leaves become chlorotic with a reddish-brown margin. • Plant growth is stunted.
  42. 42. • Boron (B) • Deficient plants remain dark green in color. • The first symptom is yellowing and bronzing of the tips and margins of leaflets of young, fully expanded leaves. • The tips and margins of the affected leaves start to die, showing narrow straw-colored necrotic areas near the leaf margins. • The roots are also stunted and thick with dark tips. Excess boron in the soil is toxic to chickpea. • The tips and serrate margins of leaflets and tips of stipules become yellow. • As the necrotic area expands, the distal one-third part of the leaflet withers and dies, often causing cupping of the affected leaflet. Such leaves abscise and drop. At a later stage, as the toxicity spreads, the whole leaflet turns yellow.
  43. 43. Weed Management • Chick pea being a stature crop suffers severely by infestation of weeds. • Pre emergence herbicides : Pendimethalin (0.5-1.0) • Pre- plant Incorporation : Fluchloralin 1 kg per hectare in 800-1000 liters of water as pre-planting spray may be used as an effective herbicide. • Hand weeding or inter culture with the help of hoe is always better than herbicides because inter culture operations improve aeration in the soil. • Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at 0.75 kg ha-1 or pre sowing incorporation of fluchloralin at 0.75 kg ha-1 was quite effective in chickpea weed control.
  44. 44. • Mechanical methods • Weeding is done using a flat chisel (khurpi), sickle, hand hoe, wheel hoe, or any other interrow cultivator. • Two or three weedings are required during early crop growth. • The first mechanical operation is carried out three to four weeks after sowing. • In some cases, one weeding after 25-30 days of sowing is adequate.
  45. 45. • Chemical methods • Presowing : Trifluralin = 0.40 lit. or 1.0 kg /ha Triallate = 0.40 lit./ha Oxyfluorten+ = 0.36 lit./ha • Pre-emergence : Pendimethalin = 1.5 kg/ha Diuron = 0.30 kg/ha Alachlor = 1.5 kg/ha Tribunil = 1.5 kg/ha • Post-emergence : Prometryne = 0.5 L or 0.25 kg/ha Methabenzthiazuron = 0.47 kg/ha
  46. 46. Chenopodium album Melilotus indica, Lathyrus aphaca Trigonella polycerata
  47. 47. Water Management • Chick pea is mostly sown as a rainfed crop. • 59% area of chick pea is under rainfed condition. • It requires irrigation at their critical growth stages, if winter rain fails at - Pre flowering stage (40-50 DAS) - Pod development stage (70-80 DAS) - A light irrigation should be given because heavy irrigation is always harmful to gram crop. - Excess of irrigation enhances vegetative growth and depresses chick pea yield. - In no case first irrigation should be given at flowering time of gram crop.
  48. 48. Advantages of using Micro Irrigation Methods • Sprinkler irrigation is becoming popular for bengal gram due requirement of very light irrigations in many undulating areas. • When there is terminal moisture deficit to the crop due to exhausting of stored soil moisture, it becomes crucial for irrigating fields. • Giving life saving irrigation during moisture deficit period is also easy with clip on pipes of sprinkler unit. Due to availability of clip on pipes in sprinkler unit, preparation of field channels is not required. • Land levelling is also not required in undulated areas.
  49. 49. • Labour saving techniques can be adopted easily in sprinkler irrigation. • Less expenditure on labour as there is no need to prepare field channels. • Water logging can be avoided. • There is no soil erosion. • 90% subsidy is available to all farmers. SC and ST farmers can get 100% subsidy on sprinkler irrigation in AP. Contn……
  50. 50. Diseases and Their Control Measures 1. Wilt : Fusarium orthocerus - The leaves start yellowing and afterwards drying. -The plants too become yellowish and finally dry out. - Roots turn black and ultimately decompose. CONTROL MEASURES : -Treat the seed with Benlate T. - Grow the resistant varieties like C-214, Uday, Avrodhi, JG-315, Phule G-5 etc. -Deep planting of chick pea about 8-10 cm deep in the light soils reduces the gram wilt incidence.
  51. 51. 2. Ascochyta blight: Ascochyta rabiei -All plant parts are affected, leaves as water soaked lesions, disease is seed borne in nature. -Under favorable conditions, these spots enlarge rapidly and coalesce, blighting the leaves and buds. CONTROL MEASURES : • Sow disease-free seed,Follow rotation crop. • Intercrop with wheat, barley, mustard • Seed treatment with Carbendazim @ 1g/kg of seed. • Spray the crop with Mancozeb @ 2.5g/lit if noticed during the growth period.
  52. 52. 3. Alternaria blight: Alternaria alternata • The disease occurs during the flowering stage of the crop,Leaves are infected most. • Shedding of lower leaves, Infected pods turn blackish in colour, Infected seeds get shriveled. CONTROL MEASURES : • Intercrop with linseed. • Avoid excessive irrigation. • Use compact varieties. • Use Mancozeb at the rate of 2.5g/lit • or Use Carbendazim at 1g/lit
  53. 53. 4.Collar rot: Sclerotium rolfsii • It comes in the early stages i.e up to six weeks from sowing, Seedling become chlorotic. • The joint of stem & root turns soft slightly contracts and begins to decay, Infected parts turn brown white. • Black dots, like mustard in shape known as sclerotia are seen appearing on the white infected plant parts. CONTROL MEASURES : • Deep ploughing in summer. • Avoid high moisture at the sowing time. • Destroy the residues of last crop and weed before sowing and after harvest. • Treat the seeds with a mixture of Carbendazim 1g per kg of seed.
  54. 54. 5. Fusarium wilt: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri • The disease can affect the crop at any stage. The field symptoms of wilt are dead seedlings or adult plants, usually in patches • At seedling stage, 3-5 weeks after sowing, whole seedlings collapse and lie flat on the ground with dull green leaves and shrunken stem. • Dark drown or dark discoloration of the internal stem tissues is visible. CONTROL MEASURES : • Deep summer ploughing • Follow crop rotation measures continuously. • Always use disease free seeds. • Avoid sowing when temperatures are high. • Follow 6-year crop rotations with sorghum. • Seed treatment with Thiram + Carbandizm @ 1g+2g per kg of seed
  55. 55. 6. Powdery mildew: Oidiopsis taurica • Crop plants of all the age group are affected. • With the onset of the disease white powdery mass appear on the leaves. • Small patches of white powder coating initially develop on both surfaces of older leaves. • Affected leaves turn purple and then die. • When infection is severe, stems, young leaves, and pods are also covered with the powdery coating. CONTROL MEASURES : • Field and crop sanitation. • Dithane M-45 or Carbendazim at 2.5 g/lit should be sprayed.
  56. 56. Pests and Their Management 1. Gram Pod Borer : Helicoverpa armigera • Skeletinization of leaves – feeding chlorophyll only leaving veins by young larvae Defoliation • Feeds flower and green pods • In green pods – make circular holes and feed the grains and make empty. Management : • Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha • Bird perches 50/ha • Hand picking of grown up larvae and blister beetles • Ha NPV 1.5 x1012 POB/ha with teepol (1 ml/lit.) • Apply any one of the following • Dichlorvos 76 WSC 625 ml/ha • Neem seed kernel extract 5% • Triazophos 40 EC 780 ml/ha • Neem oil 12.5 lit./ha • Phosalone 35 EC 1.25 lit./ha
  57. 57. 2. Cut worm: Agrotis ipsilon • The caterpillar remains the soil at a depth of 2-4 inches. The caterpillars cut the tender plants at the base, and branches or stems of growing plants. • The caterpillars drag the cut parts into soil for feeding. The buried stem or branches is almost the sure index of the place where the caterpillar is hiding. Management : • Deep summer ploughing. • Use well decomposed organic manure. • Adapt crop rotation. • Early sowing in the last week of October. • Intercropping with wheat or Linseed or Mustard reduces infestation. • Do not grow Tomato or Lady Finger in near by field. • Grow marigold on bunds • Spray insecticides like quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha
  58. 58. 3. Semilooper : Autographa nigrisigna • Skeletinization of leaves and the plant becomes whitish • The larvae feed on leaf buds, flowers, tender pods and developing seeds. • Ragged and irregular pod. (This is in contrast with the neat, and round hole, characteristic of pod borer damage. Management : • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa. • Early sowing, short duration varieties. • Avoid closer plant spacing. • Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest. • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times. • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%. • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha. Chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP, quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D. • Spray insecticides like Carbaryl 10%DP.(OR) Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha
  59. 59. 4. Termites: Odontotermes obesus • Termite bores into the roots and stem. Due to the bore the plants soon dries. • Attack may continue to the standing crop also especially during the period of drought. Management : • Frequent intercultural operations and irrigation before sowing. • Field sanitation, timely disposal of crop stables and undecomposed plant parts. • Undecomposed FYM or composed should not be used • Two-three deep ploughing could also help control this pest. • Destroy the termite bunds in and around the field and kill the queen and complimentary form. • Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 4ml/kg of seed.
  60. 60. IPM in Bengal gram • Monitoring for Pest and Disease -Use pheromone traps for monitoring gram pod borer. -Use specific lure for each pest species. • Pre-sowing stage -Deep ploughing in summer. -Apply well decomposed FYM or neem cake. -Removal of crop stubbles. -Marigold plantation should be adopted as trap crop/antagonistic crop for nematode. • Seed treatment with Trichoderma @ 4 gm/kg of seed. • Detopping to reduce pest occurrence. • At fruiting and flowering stage Conservation of predators like spiders, chrysopa and other natural enemies by avoiding indiscriminate use of pesticides. • Installing of bird perches for predatory birds.
  61. 61. HARVESTING • Following care should be taken during harvest 1) Avoid use of pesticides prior to harvest. 2) Avoid over-maturity of crop. 3) Harvesting before the crop matures usually means a lower yield and also a higher proportion of immature seeds. 4) Timely harvesting ensures optimum grain quality and consumer acceptance.
  62. 62. 5) Keep harvested crop for drying in the field. 6) Tag the bundles properly and keep at proper place. 7) Drying results in optimum moisture content in safe storage of produce over a longer period of time. 8) Avoid harvesting during adverse weather conditions.
  63. 63. Yield • Chick pea has the potential to yield far higher than the national average. • A well managed crop yields about 20-25 quintals of grain per hectare which is about three to four times higher than the national average.
  64. 64. Processing of chick pea Receiving and Storage of Chickpeas : A) Receiving of Chickpeas: After receiving , samples are taken to determine the quality of the goods and we proceed to unload the goods, which can be received in bulk, big bags or bags. B) Storage of Chickpeas: According to the packaging of the goods, it is unloaded in bulk silos, or stowed if it comes in big bags or bags.
  65. 65. Main Processing : A) Pre-cleaning : Chickpeas undergo a pre-cleaning process, separating all kind of light foreign materials and impurities. B) Size Classification : Chickpeas are classified by size through rounded and pit screens, removing broken grains, foreign materials and soil. C) Vibrate : All grains from the size classification process are subjected to the separation process of impurities, through gravities tables that separate the light foreign bodies and the damaged grains.
  66. 66. D) Electronic Selection : This step consists in the removal of damaged grains, with some damaged and foreign material, by a grain comparison with a standard colour parameter. This is a fundamental process to guarantee the quality of the goods. E) Packaging of Final Product : The big bag packaging process is made in the production line by direct filling of gravity action. It can also be packaged in 25Kg. or 50Kg. bags
  67. 67. Storage and Delivery of Finished Product A) Storage of Finished Product : Finished product is stored in the corresponding warehouse, and according to the time it is stored, we proceed to the corresponding fumigation. B) Delivery of Finished Product : We proceed to load the truck to go to the stuffing facilities.
  68. 68. Case studies
  69. 69. • Mean Grain Yield (GY, t/ha) and total above- ground Dry Biomass (BY, t/ha) of Chickpea for the various sowing-date and Irrigation treatments in the four growing seasons (1997–1998 to 2000–2001) • Theib Oweis • Ahmed Hachum • Mustafa Pala
  70. 70. Sowing dates Water level 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 GY BY GY BY GY BY GY BY Late Nov. (22-30 nov) Rainfed 1.65 4.25 0.82 2.87 0.73 1.56 1.59 4.33 1/3 SI 2.29 5.15 1.11 3.30 1.14 2.98 1.98 5.32 2/3 SI 2.76 6.11 1.37 4.02 1.41 3.56 2.47 6.34 Full SI 2.63 6.32 1.45 4.40 1.64 4.42 2.28 6.16 Mid – Jan. (5-16 jan) Rainfed 2.01 4.71 0.87 2.28 0.73 1.72 1.68 3.97 1/3 SI 2.42 5.81 1.05 2.78 0.92 2.49 1.89 5.04 2/3 SI 2.69 7.02 1.30 3.17 1.46 3.68 2.12 5.41 Full SI 2.82 7.23 1.55 3.92 1.68 4.10 2.04 5.46 Late Febr. (20-23 Feb) Rainfed 1.44 4.18 0.55 1.49 0.77 1.84 1.24 3.42 1/3 SI 1.97 4.92 0.71 1.79 0.98 2.30 1.47 4.26 2/3 SI 2.20 5.72 0.74 3.13 1.69 4.11 1.58 4.88 Full SI 2.55 7.12 0.88 2.36 1.68 4.03 1.97 5.44 S.E Grain 0.11 0.14 Biomass 0.30 0.37
  71. 71. Yield Components and Grain Yield of Chickpea as affected by different Production Inputs during 2007-08 Abdur Rashid et al
  72. 72. Influence of Nitrogen Fixing and Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria on the Nodulation, Plant Growth and Yield of Chickpea Erdal elkoca & Faik kantar

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