Matter
Substance Mixtures
Elements Compounds
Metals Non-metals Metalloids
Substance
Mixtures
• A form of matter in which 2 or more substances
are present in any proportion
• Homogenous or Heterogeneous
Eg. ...
4. Solutions are homo, rest mix are hetero
5. Components can be separated by simple
physical methods.
Elements
An element ...
Compounds
A compound is made up of 2 or more elements
combined chemically in a definite proportion by
mass.
All compounds ...
Mixture Compounds
• Except solutions all mix
r heterogeneous
• Components r in any
proportion
• Properties of
components r...
Types of Mixtures
Solutions Suspensions Colloids
Solutions
A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances is
a solution.
Th...
Eg. of solution
• Sugar in water ( liquid + solid )
• Ethyl alcohol in water ( liquid + liquid )
• Carbon-dioxide and wate...
Concentration of solution
The quantity of solute dissolved in the given
mass or volume of the solvent is called the
concen...
Suspensions
A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which
very fine particles of solid are dispersed in any
medium. The...
Colloids
A heterogeneous mixture in which very fine particles
which can be observed only under powerful microscope
are dis...
Application of Colloids
• In our food. Eg milk, starch, proteins, jelly
• In medicines. Eg calcium and silver is used in
o...
Is matter arounds is pure
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Is matter arounds is pure

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Is matter arounds is pure

  1. 1. Matter Substance Mixtures Elements Compounds Metals Non-metals Metalloids
  2. 2. Substance
  3. 3. Mixtures • A form of matter in which 2 or more substances are present in any proportion • Homogenous or Heterogeneous Eg. Kerosene, salt solution Sand+water, Uniform in its composition salt+iron powder and properties. Different comp and properties Characteristics of Mixtures – 1. 2 or more subs in any proportion 2. Shows properties of all constituents 3. No energy is absorbed or evolved to make mix
  4. 4. 4. Solutions are homo, rest mix are hetero 5. Components can be separated by simple physical methods. Elements An element is the simplest form of matter which cannot be split into simpler substances by any chemical or physical method. (Antonie Laurent Lavoisier) Element is composed of atoms of the same kind 115 elements – 92 natural and 23 man-made On basis of phy and chem properties elements r classified into Metals eg. gold, silver, copper Non-metals eg. hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen Metalloids eg. Boron, silicon, germanium.
  5. 5. Compounds A compound is made up of 2 or more elements combined chemically in a definite proportion by mass. All compounds r formed as a result of chemical reaction hence called chemical compounds Eg. Water is a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen combined in the ratio of 2:1 by volume.
  6. 6. Mixture Compounds • Except solutions all mix r heterogeneous • Components r in any proportion • Properties of components r properties of mix • Can be separated by simple physical method • No energy is evolved or absorbed • Always homogeneous • Components r in fixed proportion • Property of compound is diff than components • Cannot be separated by simple phy method, need chem method to separate • Involves evolution or absorption of energy
  7. 7. Types of Mixtures Solutions Suspensions Colloids Solutions A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances is a solution. The substance that is dissolved to obtain a solution is called a solute. The substance in which the solute is dissolved to obtain a solution is called the solvent. In general the component present in larger amount in the solution is the solvent and the component that is present in smaller amount in solution is called the solute.
  8. 8. Eg. of solution • Sugar in water ( liquid + solid ) • Ethyl alcohol in water ( liquid + liquid ) • Carbon-dioxide and water ( liquid + gas ) • Brass – 70% copper + 305 zinc ( solid +solid ) • Ornaments- gold + copper or silver ( “ ) Solutions in which water is the solvent is called the Aqueous solutions. (salt solution) Solutions obtained by dissolving solute in any other solvent than water is called Nonaqueous solution.(tincture iodine)
  9. 9. Concentration of solution The quantity of solute dissolved in the given mass or volume of the solvent is called the concentration of the solution. Mass % of solute = mass of solute/mass of solution X 100 Solve – To make a saturated solution, 36g of sodium chloride is dissolved in 100g of water. Find its concentration. Conc = M of NaCl/M of solution X 100 = 36/36 + 100 X 100 = 36/136 X 100 = 26.5 %
  10. 10. Suspensions A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which very fine particles of solid are dispersed in any medium. The fine particles remain suspended in the medium. Eg. Muddy water, chalk + water, smoke from chimney. • Heterogeneous • Particles are visible to eye or under simple microscope. • Particles have tendency to settle down (sedimentation). But fine particles remain suspended. • Large particles can be separated by filtration.
  11. 11. Colloids A heterogeneous mixture in which very fine particles which can be observed only under powerful microscope are dispersed in a continuous medium is called a colloid or sols. Eg. Milk, blood, jelly, gum, fog • Heterogeneous • particle size is btn 1 to 100nm. 1nm=1/1000000000m • Colloids are unstable. Particles tend to come together and settle. • It shows Brownian Movement. (zig-zag) • Tyndall effect – the scattering of light by the particles in the colloid. • Under electric current colloidal particles move to +ve electrode. This is Electrophoresis.
  12. 12. Application of Colloids • In our food. Eg milk, starch, proteins, jelly • In medicines. Eg calcium and silver is used in oral medicines and ointments. • Raw natural rubber and clay is colloidal in nature. • Deltas at the sea are result of precipitation of colloidal clay in the river water.

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