Dr. Mohamed Al-Shekhani
Background:
• Hemorrhoids are pathologically dilated vascular sinusoids in the
anal canal.
• Cause rectal bleeding, prurit...
Background:
• When medical treatment fails, most patients with symptomatic
grade I, II&III internal hemorrhoids may be tre...
Non-surgical office-based techniques:
• Several techniques are available with the goal of causing
fibrosis, retraction& fi...
Rubber band ligation:
1

• Most popular nonsurgical
intervention for piles.

2

• Indicated for Grade 1 & 2.

3

•Can be p...
Endoscopic RBL:
• The devices comprise a transparent plastic cap with preloaded
bands that fits on the tip of an endoscope...
Endoscopic RBL:
• It is similar to the banding of esophageal varices, except that it is
often performed in retroflexion.
•...
Endoscopic RBL:
• RBL without an endoscope.
• The Short Shot Saeed Hemorrhoidal Multi-Band Ligator (Cook
Medical, Winston-...
Endoscopic RBL:
• RBL without an endoscope.
• The CRH O’ Regan Disposable Hemorrhoid Banding System (CRH
Medical Corp, Van...
Endoscopic RBL:
• RBL without an endoscope.
• The McGivney Hemorrhoidal Ligator (Miltex, York, Pa) is a
stainless steel de...
Infrared coagulation:
• IRC uses direct application of heat to induce
coagulation&fibrosis in the submucosal layer.
• The ...
Bipolar diathermy:
• Bipolar diathermy,bipolr electrotherapy,BICAP (bipolar
circumactive probe), first in 1987 as a treatm...
Injection sclerotherapy:
• Used usually for grade I or II.
• A sclerotherapy needle is passed through the endoscope or
ano...
Doppler-guided laser photocoagulation
• The HeLP system (Biolitec AG, Jena, Germany) uses a 980-nm
laser diode to deliver ...
Cryotherapy
• Cryotherapy uses special probes through which cooled liquid
nitrogen or nitrous oxide is delivered to hemorr...
RBL versus IRC & sclerotherapy
• Most studies showed equivalent long-term success, although 2
found RBL to be significantl...
RBL versus other methods.
• RBL was compared with Doppler-guided laser photocoagulation
(DLC) in a randomized trial of 60 ...
RBL by rigid vs flexible endoscopy
• A randomized, controlled trial of 100 patients found that fewer
treatment sessions &f...
Different methods of RBL.
• A prospective, randomized trial of 100 consecutive patients with
grade II & III hemorrhoids co...
Sclerotherapy, bipolar diathermy, IRC
• Electrocoagulation was more painful, but was more effective in
reducing bleeding ....
Surgical versus endoscopic treatment
• Overall,patients undergoing surgical hemorrhoidectomy had a
significantly better re...
Safety:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Nonsurgical treatment of hemorrhoids is generally safe:
Mild to moderate pain in 22.6%
Severe pai...
Ease of use:
• Although the endoscopic methods of band ligation, injection
,bipolar cautery are familiar to most gastroent...
Git j club office based pile treatments.
Git j club office based pile treatments.
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Git j club office based pile treatments.

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  • Git j club office based pile treatments.

    1. 1. Dr. Mohamed Al-Shekhani
    2. 2. Background: • Hemorrhoids are pathologically dilated vascular sinusoids in the anal canal. • Cause rectal bleeding, pruritus& pain. • The pathogenesis is controversial: • Vascular congestion (eg, prolonged sitting,pregnancy) • Mucosal prolapse (eg,aging or constipation/straining) • Mostly: destructive changes to the supporting connective tissue • >50% of adults >50 have experienced symptoms due to hemorrhoids. • Internal hemorrhoids are graded based on protrusion& reducibility. • External hemorrhoids are not graded.
    3. 3. Background: • When medical treatment fails, most patients with symptomatic grade I, II&III internal hemorrhoids may be treated with officebased procedures. • Surgical therapy is usually reserved for patients with larger grade IV hemorrhoids that may be refractory to medical therapy or office procedures.
    4. 4. Non-surgical office-based techniques: • Several techniques are available with the goal of causing fibrosis, retraction& fixation of the hemorrhoidal cushions. • Nonsurgical trt is done in the office or endoscopy suite. • Patients are usually unsedated to allow for patient feedback from inadvertent treatment below the dentate line. • Patients may be in the jackknife position or in the left lateral decubitus position with the right knee drawn up. • No bowel preparation is required. • These techniques include : • Rubber band ligation (RBL) • Infrared coagulation (IRC) • Bipolar diathermy • Laser photocoagulation • Injection sclerotherapy • Cryotherapy.
    5. 5. Rubber band ligation: 1 • Most popular nonsurgical intervention for piles. 2 • Indicated for Grade 1 & 2. 3 •Can be performed with or without an endoscope.
    6. 6. Endoscopic RBL: • The devices comprise a transparent plastic cap with preloaded bands that fits on the tip of an endoscope. • Suction or forceps are used to capture/ position the hemorrhoid before placement of a small-diameter circular band around the base of the tissue. • A trip-wire or string runs from the cap to the endoscope handle via the accessory channel &when tightened by rotating a retracting spool fixed to the biopsy port, shortening of the string causes band deployment around the hemorrhoidal cushion. • Placement of the band causes ischemic necrosis, ulceration, &scarring, which result in fixation of the connective tissue to the rectal wall.
    7. 7. Endoscopic RBL: • It is similar to the banding of esophageal varices, except that it is often performed in retroflexion. • The only device specifically marketed for endoscopic band ligation of hemorrhoids is the Stiegmann-Goff Bandito Endoscopic Hemorrhoidal Ligator (ConMed Corp, Utica, NY), which fits on a 13-15-mm endoscope. • Standard endoscopic variceal band ligation devices have been used as well.
    8. 8. Endoscopic RBL: • RBL without an endoscope. • The Short Shot Saeed Hemorrhoidal Multi-Band Ligator (Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, NC) is a single-use, disposable device designed for use with an anoscope. • It is in the shape of a pistol, with a suction tubing port at the base of the handle. • The tip of the ligation device holds 4 preloaded bands& is placed through an anoscope to visualize internal hemorrhoids. • Suction is activated by covering a vent on the anterior side of the handle with the index finger after the tip of the ligation device is placed on the hemorrhoid,taking care to remain just above the dentate line. • The vessel is suctioned into the ligation device&a wheel is turned using the thumb, leading to deployment of a band.
    9. 9. Endoscopic RBL: • RBL without an endoscope. • The CRH O’ Regan Disposable Hemorrhoid Banding System (CRH Medical Corp, Vancouver, BC, Canada) is a single-use device consisting of a plastic syringe with a band at its tip. • The plunger on the syringe is retracted to suction the hemorrhoid into the device&the band pusher is moved forward to deploy the band. • The procedure can be performed with a slotted anoscope or by using a “ blind” or “ touch” technique.
    10. 10. Endoscopic RBL: • RBL without an endoscope. • The McGivney Hemorrhoidal Ligator (Miltex, York, Pa) is a stainless steel device advanced through an anoscope that applies latex or latex-free O-rings or bands directly to hemorrhoids with the aid of grasping forceps rather than suction. • The device has a compressible handle & a 7- or 10-inch long shaft that can be rotated to obtain the optimal angle for band placement. • Under direct vision, the hemorrhoid is grasped with forceps &traction is applied. • The ligator tip is approximated to the hemorrhoid& the handle is squeezed, causing O-ring deployment. • A new O-ring must be manually loaded to the tip of the device for each hemorrhoid treated.
    11. 11. Infrared coagulation: • IRC uses direct application of heat to induce coagulation&fibrosis in the submucosal layer. • The Precision Endoscopic IC (Precision Endoscopic Technologies,Sturbridge, Mass) uses a single-use, 3.2-mm outer diameter, 300 cm long flexible fiberoptic probe that is passed through an endoscope channel. • The distal tip of the probe is placed in contact with the hemorrhoid tissue, ideally at the pedicle of the hemorrhoid’s 3, 7&11 o’clock positions& short 1- 5 second bursts of infrared radiation are delivered to by depressing a foot pedal. • The procedure can be performed at the time of sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in a retroflexed position& is approved by FDA for treatment of grade I, II&III internal hemorrhoids. • IRC 2100 (Redfi eld Corp, Rochelle Park, NJ) is nonendoscopic consisting of compact power unit with a tungsten-halogen lamp.
    12. 12. Bipolar diathermy: • Bipolar diathermy,bipolr electrotherapy,BICAP (bipolar circumactive probe), first in 1987 as a treatment for hemorrhoids. • High-frequency electrical current is applied by a probe or forceps under direct vision in 1-2-second bursts • iT causes coagulation& tissue destruction, leading to fibrosis in the submucosal layer. • Most use a rigid through a slotted anoscope. • The technique has largely been replaced by RBL.
    13. 13. Injection sclerotherapy: • Used usually for grade I or II. • A sclerotherapy needle is passed through the endoscope or anoscope&1-3 mL of sclerosant is injected into the submucosa at the base of the hemorrhoid (rather than intravascularly). • A variety of sclerosing agents, including ethanolamine, quinine, hypertonic saline solution, but the most commonly used agent is 5% phenol in oil. • Recently, a newer sclerosing agent composed of aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) to treat up to grade III hemorrhoids.
    14. 14. Doppler-guided laser photocoagulation • The HeLP system (Biolitec AG, Jena, Germany) uses a 980-nm laser diode to deliver energy. • 2 probes, a 1000-mm disposable laser fiber&a disposable 3-mm, 20-MHz Doppler probe, are passed through a specially designed proctoscope. • The Doppler probe allows identification of the branches of the superior hemorrhoidal arteries that supply blood to the hemorrhoids&laser energy is then applied in a pulsed fashion, resulting in photocoagulation of the arterial branches&fixation of the rectal mucosa and submucosa to the muscular layer.
    15. 15. Cryotherapy • Cryotherapy uses special probes through which cooled liquid nitrogen or nitrous oxide is delivered to hemorrhoidal tissue, causing necrosis and destruction of the tissue. • Prolonged postprocedure symptoms (eg, anal leakage, pain) have been reported& has largely been abandoned.
    16. 16. RBL versus IRC & sclerotherapy • Most studies showed equivalent long-term success, although 2 found RBL to be significantly more effective. • Long-term control of symptoms in 59-97% after RBL compared with 81-98% after IRC. • RBL had higher immediate postprocedure bleeding rates& patient discomfort. • A meta-analysis of 18 randomized, controlled trials comparing 2 or more treatments for hemorrhoids (hemorrhoidectomy, sclerotherapy, RBL, IRC) showed that RBL was superior compared with sclerotherapy for all grades of hemorrhoids (P Z .005), with no difference in complication rates, and required fewer treatment sessions compared with sclerotherapy and IRC.
    17. 17. RBL versus other methods. • RBL was compared with Doppler-guided laser photocoagulation (DLC) in a randomized trial of 60 patients. • Postprocedure pain scores were lower for DLC (P ! .001), and at 6-month followup,90% of DLC patients were symptom free compared with 53% of RBL patients (P! .001). • Overall satisfaction was reported as 75% for RBL&90% for DLC. • There was no difference in bleeding rates, but tenesmus& mild urinary retention were reported in 4 RBL patients but no DLC patients (P! .001). • RBL has been compared with bipolar electrocoagulation in 45 patients with grade II or III hemorrhoids&RBL led to symptom control with fewer treatments (2.3 0.2 vs 3.8 0.4; P! .05)&had a higher success rate (92% vs 62%; P ! .05). • Symptomatic recurrence at 1 year was similar.
    18. 18. RBL by rigid vs flexible endoscopy • A randomized, controlled trial of 100 patients found that fewer treatment sessions &fewer bands were required by using endoscopically applied band ligation compared with ligation by using rigid proctoscopy. • No significant differences were noted in postligation bleeding requiring intervention, analgesic medication requirement, or recurrent bleeding at 12-month follow-up. • A smaller randomized, prospective study comparing RBL performed by using rigid proctoscopy& flexible endoscopy found that post-ligation pain was more common in the flexible endoscopy group ,but more bands were placed per patient in the flexible endoscopy group.
    19. 19. Different methods of RBL. • A prospective, randomized trial of 100 consecutive patients with grade II & III hemorrhoids compared the use of suction band ligation with forceps-assisted band ligation. • Immediate/postprocedure pain was more severe in the forceps group on a visual analogue &more intraprocedure bleeding. • Both approaches were effective& no differences in morbidity using single versus multiple hemorrhoids per treatment session. • Retroflexed endoscopic band ligation has been evaluated as an alternative method to conventional forwardviewing RBL, but the 2 techniques have not been directly compared.
    20. 20. Sclerotherapy, bipolar diathermy, IRC • Electrocoagulation was more painful, but was more effective in reducing bleeding . • A noncomparative study found success rates of higher than 97% at 28 days for grade II to IV hemorrhoids after injection of ALTA; the recurrence rate was 18.3% at 2 years. • Two retrospective studies comparing ALTA with surgical hemorrhoidectomy showed that ALTA injection had recurrence rates of 3.6% to 16% versus 0% to 2% in surgical patients with follow-up of 6 to 45 months.
    21. 21. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment • Overall,patients undergoing surgical hemorrhoidectomy had a significantly better response than those undergoing treatment with RBL However, a significantly greater risk of complications and pain was noted with surgical therapy. • A Cochrane Review included 3 randomized, controlled trials comparing RBL with excisional hemorrhoidectomy: Hemorrhoidectomy achieved a better overall cure rate for grade III hemorrhoids but no significant difference was noted for grade II hemorrhoids.
    22. 22. Safety: • • • • • • • • Nonsurgical treatment of hemorrhoids is generally safe: Mild to moderate pain in 22.6% Severe pain in 2.2%. Mild hemorrhage in 2.5% Urinary retention in 0.1% Hemorrhage requiring transfusion in 0.1%. RBL: no pelvic sepsis& no admissions for bleeding Rare serious adverse events with nonsurgical hemorrhoid treatments, including perineal sepsis, retroperitoneal gas ,edema, bacteremia, epididymitis,rectal perforation,abscesses of the liver, prostate, seminal vesicle.
    23. 23. Ease of use: • Although the endoscopic methods of band ligation, injection ,bipolar cautery are familiar to most gastroenterologists, application of these techniques in the anorectal area to hemorrhoids is not part of many training programs. • Knowledge of anorectal anatomy,proper patient selection& the management of immediate& delayed adverse events are essential.

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