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  1. 1. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has played a crucial role in improving international efforts for tiger conservation. CITES is an international governance network employing tools and measures which adapt and become more efficient with time. One measure specifically aimed at protecting the tiger is visible in the network’s efforts to ban the trade of tigers or tiger derivatives. CITES members have agreed to adhere to this international trade ban; once a member states ratifies and implements CITES it bans such trade within its national borders. The CITES Secretariat is administrated by the UNEP which works closely with NGOs such as The Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC) to assist member states with the implementation of the convention. States are provided with training and information about requirements (when necessary), and their progress and compliance are monitored and evaluated. In order for CITES to work effectively it requires the involvement of institutions, NGOs, civil society and member states: especially Asian tiger range member countries. The Tiger Range Countries (TRC) – countries where tigers still roam free – are: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam and North-Korea. Whilst there have been no recent tigers sightings in North-Korea, it is the only country listed which has not ratified CITES.
  2. 2. The 13 TRC who are CITES member states recently held a conference in Russia and jointly vowed to double the estimated number of tigers left in the wild (3200). Poaching, however, remains a very significant problem in all 13 TRC, despite the implementation of CITES regulations within their borders. In the 15th CITES conference held in Doha, Qatar in March 2010 all party members agreed to stricter agreements between members states to protect the tiger However the United Nations warned that tigers are still at risk of becoming extinct as members states are currently failing to clamp down hard on the illegal trade of tigers and tiger derivatives within their borders. Although CITES has been successful in curbing this illegal trade, CITES as an international institution relies on member states to effectively implement conventions within their national borders. The quality of such implementation varies significantly within member states. For example, Thailand implemented CITES policies to a very high standard but the illegal tiger trade is still rife within this country. A governance structure such as CITES is powerless to control issues such as poaching unless it has the full cooperation of all actors, including the state. Another reason why CITES seems to be failing could be ascribed to the lucrative nature of the tiger trade. The World Bank estimates that the illegal international trade of wildlife on the black market is worth an estimated $10bn per year. By selling one tiger skeleton, a poacher could make an amount equal to what some labourer would earn in 10 years.[
  3. 3. Project Tiger, started in 1972, is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats in India At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed the existence of only 1827 tigers. Various pressures in the latter part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife, and the shrinkage of wilderness in India from poaching. In 1970, a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed, and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. The framework was then set to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. Launched on 1 April 1973, Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. The project aims at tigerconservation in specially-constituted 'tiger reserves', which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. It strives to maintain viable tiger populations in their natural environment. Today, there are 27 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India, covering an area of 37,761 km². At the Kalachakra Tibetan Buddhist festival in India in January 2006, the Dalai Lama preached a ruling against using, selling, or buying wild animals, their products, or derivatives. When Tibetan pilgrims returned to Tibet afterwards, his words resulted in the widespread destruction by Tibetans of their wild animal skins, including tiger and leopard skins used as ornamental garments.
  4. 4. One of the biggest threats to tiger populations is habitat fragmentation. A program called the Terai-Arc Landscape (TAL) has been working directly with improving tiger habitats, specifically fragmented habitats in Nepal and northern India . Their main strategy is to link up the subpopulations of tigers that have been separated by setting up special tiger corridors that connect the fragmented habitats. The corridors are built to promote migration and/or dispersion of certain tiger populations giving them the ability to unite with other tigers. Giving tigers the ability to mate with a larger selection of individuals will increase the gene pool for the tigers, which will lead to more diversity, higher birth rates, and higher cub survival. Panthera is a conservation organization that’s main goal is to preserve wild cats focusing on tigers, lions, snow leopards, and jaguars. In July of 2006, Panthera collaborated with the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) to form Tigers Forever, one of their main tiger projects. Tigers Forever plans to increase the number of tigers in key areas by 50% over ten years. Key Areas include: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Malaysia and Indonesia. This project is experimental and hopes to increase the number of tigers by eliminating human threats and monitoring tiger and prey populations. To accomplish these goals they are increasing the amount and quality of law enforcement in these areas and working with informants to catch poachers. Another project spearheaded by Panthera is the Tiger Corridor Initiative (TCI). Human development in the Tiger Range Countries (TRC) has left many tiger habitats fragmented. Habitat fragmentation leads to a division of tiger populations, which reduces the gene pool and makes it difficult for tigers to reproduce. The TCI is a new project, very similar to the Terai-Arc Landscape (TAL) project that plans to link protected core populations of tigers with one another using corridors that will provide safe passage for tigers. This will give the separated tiger populations access to each other, which in theory should increase the number of tigers as well as genetic diversity.
  5. 5. WONDERS OF SCIENCE Science has changed the face of the world. It has also revolutionized the life of man. Man can now live a longer and more comfortable life because of the progress of science. Man has conquered Nature with the help of science.
  6. 6. The wonders of Science have contributed to the comforts and pleasures of man. Man can be comfortable anywhere on the surface of the earth. Air- conditioning can keep him cool at the Equator. Central heating makes it possible for him to keep warm at the Poles. He has become independent of the climate. Labour- saving gadgets have lightened the burden of house work for the housewife. Science has also added to our pleasure. We can turn on the radio or TV and entertain ourselves at home. If we wish for outdoor entertainment we can go and see a film or do a variety of other things.
  7. 7. Electricity is one of the wonders of Science. Without it we would not have had electric lights, fans, refrigerators and all the labour-saving devices in the home. We also have wonderful means of travel. Cars and buses are very common. Electric trains carry us across the land with great speed. Jet planes go like a flash across the sky. In no time, we can be in another continent. Thus speedy travel is possible only on account of the wonders of science. Electricity also enables us to use elevators and escalators that save us the trouble of going up and down flights of stairs. Science has also provided us with spectacles and contact lenses artificial limbs, fountain pens, type-writers and mechanical brains or computers, aren't all these the wonders
  8. 8. It is a wonder that science has conquered deadly diseases, made man healthier and lengthened the span of human life. There is now a cure for practically every fatal disease that used to take a heavy toll of human life in the past. Not only this still more wonderful is the fact that worn out organs like the human heart and kidneys can be replaced by transplants. In the future, perhaps, scientists might be able to make man live forever.
  9. 9. With the help of science, man has even reached the moon. Soon he will be visiting other planets too. be able to make man live forever. There is no limit to the wonders of science. Scientists are coming out with new inventions and wonders every now and then. The atom bomb and nuclear weapons are also wonders of science. As these can cause much destruction, it would be better for men to make constructive use of the wonders of science. Then only will they add to the happiness and prosperity of mankind
  10. 10. Since the beginning, trees have furnished us with two of life's essentials, food and oxygen. As we evolved, they provided additional necessities such as shelter, medicine, and tools. Today, their value continues to increase and more benefits of trees are being discovered as their role expands to satisfy the needs created by our modern lifestyles.
  11. 11. Community and Social Value Trees are an important part of every community. Our streets, parks, playgrounds and backyards are lined with trees that create a peaceful, aesthetically pleasing environment. Trees increase our quality of life by bringing natural elements and wildlife habitats into urban settings. We gather under the cool shade they provide during outdoor activities with family and friends. Many neighborhoods are also the home of very old trees that serve as historic landmarks and a great source of town pride. In addition, architectural and engineering functions are served by your community's trees. They frame landscapes, create beautiful backgrounds and enhance building designs. Trees can provide privacy, emphasize beautiful views, and screen unsightly areas. Noise from roadways and other urban activities is
  12. 12. Ecological and Environmental Value Trees contribute to their environment by providing oxygen, improving air quality, climate amelioration, conserving water, preserving soil, and supporting wildlife. During the process of photosynthesis, trees take in carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen we breathe. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, "One acre of forest absorbs six tons of carbon dioxide and puts out four tons of oxygen. This is enough to meet the annual needs of 18 people." Trees, shrubs and turf also filter air by removing dust and absorbing other pollutants like carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. After trees intercept unhealthy particles, rain washes them to the ground.
  13. 13. Trees control climate by moderating the effects of the sun, rain and wind. Leaves absorb and filter the sun's radiant energy, keeping things cool in summer. Trees also preserve warmth by providing a screen from harsh wind. In addition to influencing wind speed and direction, they shield us from the downfall of rain, sleet and hail. Trees also lower the air temperature and reduce the heat intensity of the greenhouse effect by maintaining low levels of carbon dioxide. Both above and below ground, trees are essential to the ecosystems in which they reside. Far reaching roots hold soil in place and fight erosion. Trees absorb and store rainwater which reduce runoff and sediment deposit after storms. This helps the ground water supply recharge, prevents the transport of chemicals into streams and prevents flooding. Fallen leaves make excellent compost that enriches soil. Many animals, including elephants, koalas and giraffes eat leaves for nourishment. Flowers are eaten by monkeys, and nectar is a favorite of birds, bats and many insects. Animals also eat much of the same fruit that we enjoy This process helps disperse seeds over great distances. Of course, hundreds of living creatures call
  14. 14. Personal and Spiritual Value The main reason we like trees is because they are both beautiful and majestic. No two are alike. Different species display a seemingly endless variety of shapes, forms, textures and vibrant colors. Even individual trees vary their appearance throughout the course of the year as the seasons change. The strength, long lifespan and regal stature of trees give them a monument-like quality. Most of us react to the presence of trees with a pleasant, relaxed, comfortable feeling. In fact, many people plant trees as living memorials of life-changing events. Trees help record the history of your family as they grow and develop alongside you and your kids. We often make an emotional connection with trees we plant or become personally attached to the ones that we see every day. These strong bonds are evidenced by the hundreds of groups and organizations across the
  15. 15. Practical and Commercial Value Trees have supported and sustained life throughout our existence. They have a wide variety of practical and commercial uses. Wood was the very first fuel, and is still used for cooking and heating by about half of the world's population. Trees provide timber for building construction, furniture manufacture, tools, sporting equipment, and thousands of household items. Wood pulp is used to make paper. We are all aware of apples, oranges and the countless other fruits and nuts provided by trees, as well as the tasty syrup of North American sugar maples. But did you know the bark of some
  16. 16. Fire safety is a fundamental consideration in building design and management, but unfortunately, one that is often overlooked—firewalls are today more likely to be associated with IT security than with physical safety. Illustration by Jayachandran Nanu / Mint The Mumbai Fire Brigade answered nearly 5,000 fire calls in 2007—a steadily rising figure. Such statistics are a grave reminder that the nation’sfinancial capital remains acutely vulnerable, on a daily basis, to one of the most basic threats tohuman life and property. Assess fire safety measures in your built environment with the help of this checklist
  17. 17. 1. Provide adequate means of escape The first rule of fire management requires sufficient escape routes out of the building, in accordance with its scale and occupancy. The number, size and location of exits are specified in the National Building Code (NBC) 2005, a detailed set of guidelines for constructing, maintaining and operating buildings of all types. Office occupiers must additionally ensure that staircases, stairwells and corridors are wellmaintained, ventilated and free of obstacles in order to be effective in an emergency. Open spaces in buildings play a crucial role in fire management. As P.D. Karguppikar, joint chief fire officer of the Mumbai Fire Brigade, remarked after the terrorist attacks on 26/11: ―The atrium in the old wing of
  18. 18. 2. Outline clear pathways to exit doors Getting to exits is as important as providing enough exits. NBC guidelines specify the maximum distance a person must travel in order to access a fire exit, and the importance of photo-luminescent signage to enable evacuation at night. Refuge areas such as terraces are critical for high-rises where people can safely congregate, when asked to leave the building in phases.
  19. 19. 3. Install smoke detection systems The first few minutes of a fire are crucial in containing it. Automatic fire alarm systems such as smoke and heat detectors are mandatory elements in international building codes, and particularly useful in spotting fires during times when occupancy in the building is low.
  20. 20. 4. Maintain smoke suppression systems Fire extinguishers are only useful if they work, so check them regularly. High-rise buildings, which are harder to access and evacuate, should consider installing automatic sprinkler systems. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), a US-based non-profit body, estimates that automatic suppression systems lower the cost of damage by 60%. Karguppikar endorses their use, admitting that ―the fire in one of the rooms on the 18th floor of the Oberoi was extinguished by its sprinkler system and it was an eye-opener for all of us‖.
  21. 21. 5. Conduct regular fire drills Preventing panic in an emergency is as important as staying away from flames and fumes. Regular fire drills familiarize people with emergency evacuation methods at little cost. Nominate a fire safety officer in every building to ensure that this becomes standard operating procedure.
  22. 22. 6. Use flame-retardant materials in interiors Materials used in the interiors can save or endanger lives. The combination of wood, paper and textiles makes workstations highly combustible. Fabrics can be made flame-retardant, however, so that they selfextinguish when lit. An increasing number of companies, especially multinationals, request such fabrics despite their price premium, according to data from Indian office furniture manufacturer BP Ergo. Stringent fire regulations abroad make it necessary for US furniture makers such as Herman Miller to provide only fire-tested fabrics. Doors are also assigned a fire-resistance rating, measuring how long they can remain resistant to excessive temperatures and flames without collapsing. Karguppikar lauds the construction of the fire-treated
  23. 23. 7. Make your office accessible to firefighters Grilled windows are a widespread urban phenomenon, and Jairaj Phatak, commissioner, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), wittily observes that ―residents who have grills on their windows presume that only thieves are kept out, and not firefighters‖. Occupants of offices in residential buildings with few exits should be wary of locking themselves into confined spaces.
  24. 24. 8. Keep the building plans handy The tragedy at the Taj was heightened by the lack of buildings plans to guide rescue agencies. It is imperative to make multiple copies of your building plan available, especially during an emergency. 9. Ask the local fire brigade to assess safety Fire departments, for a nominal fee, will independently assess your building’s level of fire safety. Storage of hazardous or inflammable materials, old and unstable
  25. 25. 10. Comply with National Building Code ―Green buildings‖ are in vogue but safe structures are sadly not. Both the Mumbai Fire Brigade and BMC commissioner concede that 80% of buildings likely violate accepted codes of building safety, with ignorance and personal whims leading to illegal modifications after gaining requisite occupancy permission. The Delhi Fire Brigade is legally authorized to seal unsafe structures; its Mumbai counterpart hopes to be similarly empowered soon.