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The Anatomy of Pectoral Region
Pectoralis major
Origin
Anterior sternal half of the
clavicle;
Manubrium and Sternum upto
sixth costal cartilages
Cartilag...
Actions
Flexion of the
humerus,
Adduction of the
humerus and
Medial rotation of
the humerus.
Clavicular part : flexion,
ad...
Origin
It arises from the upper margins and outer
surfaces of the third, fourth, and fifth ribs,
 Inserted into the medi...
Clavipectoral fascia
Encloses subclavius and Pectoralis
Minor.
It is pierced by :
Lateral pectoral nerve.
Thoraco- acrom...
Serratus anterior Origin
Arises from ribs 1 to 8, to be inserted into
the medial border of the scapula.
Insertion
• Medial...
Applied aspect
• Serratus anterior is called the
Boxer’s muscle since it is
responsible for pushing and
punching movements...
The mammary gland or
The breast
 Modified Sweat Gland
(Apocrine Type)
 Lies in Superficial fascia of
pectoral region.
BU...
EXTENT
VERTICALLY
From second to sixth rib
in midclavicular line.
HORIZONTALLY
From lateral border of
sternum to midaxilla...
Deep relations
The Base of the Mammary gland called
Mammary Bed rests upon the following
structures (from Superficial to d...
PRESENTING PARTS
(A)Nipple
Lies in fourth intercostal space, has high nervous
innervation and openings of 15-20 lactiferou...
STRUCTURE
3 COMPONENTS
(A) FIBROUS TISSUE
(B) GLANDULAR TISSUE
(C) AREOLAR TISSUE
FIBROUS
TISSUE
• Forms Suspensory Ligaments of Cooper which
anchor gland to overlying skin and underlying deep
fascia.
• D...
(B) GLANDULAR TISSUE
• Consists of 15-20 lobes.
• Arranged in a radiating
manner around the areola.
• In lobes are alveoli...
Axillary Lymph
Nodes
 Anterior or Pectoral group
receive lymph from upper half
of anterior wall trunk and from
major part...
Lymphatic drainage of Breast
 Superficial portion of the
breast drains into the
subareolar plexus Of
Sappey.
 Deep porti...
Lymphatic drainage of breast
 The lateral quadrants drain into
the anterior axillary or pectoral
group of lymph nodes. (7...
ARTERIAL
SUPPLY
 Perforating branches of
the Internal thoracic
artery
Lateral mammary
branches from the
Lateral thoracic...
Venous Supply
• Venous drainage of the breast is mainly
accomplished by the axillary vein.
• The subclavian, intercostal, ...
Applied Aspect
Mammography is a radiographic examination of the breast. This technique is
used for screening the breasts f...
 Localized cancer is treated by simple mastectomy .
 Localized cancer of breast with early metastasis of axillary
lymph ...
In a breast abscess an acute infection of the
mammary gland occurs in which pathogenic
bacteria gain entrance to the brea...
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The anatomy of pectoral region

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The Pectoral Muscles ,Serratus Anterior and Mammary gland and its applied aspect

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The anatomy of pectoral region

  1. 1. The Anatomy of Pectoral Region
  2. 2. Pectoralis major Origin Anterior sternal half of the clavicle; Manubrium and Sternum upto sixth costal cartilages Cartilages of all the true ribs, Aponeurosis of the abdominal external oblique Insertion By a bilaminar tendon into the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus Innervation Medial and lateral pectoral nerves
  3. 3. Actions Flexion of the humerus, Adduction of the humerus and Medial rotation of the humerus. Clavicular part : flexion, adduction, and medial rotation of the humerus. Sternocostal part extension of the flexed arm as in climbing. It aids in deep inspiration.
  4. 4. Origin It arises from the upper margins and outer surfaces of the third, fourth, and fifth ribs,  Inserted into the medial border and upper surface of the coracoid process of the scapula. Innervation Medial and lateral pectoral nerves Actions Protracts the scapula with serratus anterior Depresses the shoulder with the rhomboids and levator scapulae Important The pectoralis minor muscle is covered by the clavipectoral fascia. The medial pectoral nerve pierces the pectoralis minor . Axillary artery is divided into three parts by pectoralis minor. Pectoralis minor
  5. 5. Clavipectoral fascia Encloses subclavius and Pectoralis Minor. It is pierced by : Lateral pectoral nerve. Thoraco- acromial artery Cephalic vein.  Lymph nodes from pectoral region to apical group of axillary lymph nodes
  6. 6. Serratus anterior Origin Arises from ribs 1 to 8, to be inserted into the medial border of the scapula. Insertion • Medial border of the scapula between the superior and inferior angles. • 1st and 2nd digitations to upper angle of scapula.(C5) • 3rd and 4th digitations to medial border on costal surface upto the inferior angle. • Lower 4 digitations to inferior angle of scapula. Action Protraction of the scapula along with pectoralis minor. • The fibres inserted on inferior angle rotate scapula laterally and upwards in overhead abduction with trapezius. Assists in respiration. Innervation long thoracic nerve(Nerve of Bell)
  7. 7. Applied aspect • Serratus anterior is called the Boxer’s muscle since it is responsible for pushing and punching movements. • Paralysis of this muscle results in a "winged scapula" ,results in protrusion of the scapula on the affected side when the patient is asked to push against the wall with both arms extended. • Winged scapula occurs in lateral thoracic nerve paralysis
  8. 8. The mammary gland or The breast  Modified Sweat Gland (Apocrine Type)  Lies in Superficial fascia of pectoral region. BUT A small extension known as Axillary tail of Spence pierces the axillary fascia through a small foramen called the Foramen Of Langer and lies in the axilla.
  9. 9. EXTENT VERTICALLY From second to sixth rib in midclavicular line. HORIZONTALLY From lateral border of sternum to midaxillary line along the fourth rib.
  10. 10. Deep relations The Base of the Mammary gland called Mammary Bed rests upon the following structures (from Superficial to deep) (a)Retromammary Space (b)Deep Fascia (Pectoral Fascia) (c)Muscles- Pectoralis Major, Serratus Anterior, External Oblique. RETROMAMMARY SPACE A Space deep to the base of the gland, lies superficial to deep fascia, contains loose areolar tissue, makes the gland freely movable.
  11. 11. PRESENTING PARTS (A)Nipple Lies in fourth intercostal space, has high nervous innervation and openings of 15-20 lactiferous ducts. (B) Areola Pigmented area at the base of nipple, contains modified sebaceous glands which become enlarged during pregnancy and lactation forming Tubercles of Montgomery
  12. 12. STRUCTURE 3 COMPONENTS (A) FIBROUS TISSUE (B) GLANDULAR TISSUE (C) AREOLAR TISSUE
  13. 13. FIBROUS TISSUE • Forms Suspensory Ligaments of Cooper which anchor gland to overlying skin and underlying deep fascia. • Divide the gland into 15-20 lobes. • They may become contracted from fibrosis around a carcinoma and produce a characteristic pitting of the skin of the breast (peau d orange)
  14. 14. (B) GLANDULAR TISSUE • Consists of 15-20 lobes. • Arranged in a radiating manner around the areola. • In lobes are alveoli which secrete milk. • Alveoli lined by myoepithelial cells under oxytocin control. • Each lobe has one lactiferous duct. • The lactiferous duct dilates near its opening in the nipple to form lactiferous sinus which acts as reservoir of milk.
  15. 15. Axillary Lymph Nodes  Anterior or Pectoral group receive lymph from upper half of anterior wall trunk and from major part of breast.  Posterior or Scapular group receive lymph from posterior wall of upper half of trunk and from axillary tail of breast.  Lateral group receives lymph from upper limb.  Central group receives lymph from preceding groups and drains into apical group. (intercostobrachial N)  Apical or infraclavicular (subclavian) group lie deep to clavipectoral fascia. They receive lymph from the central group, from upper part of breast and from the thumb.
  16. 16. Lymphatic drainage of Breast  Superficial portion of the breast drains into the subareolar plexus Of Sappey.  Deep portion of the breast drains to the submammary plexus.  All the lymphatic of the breast converge into the Sappey plexus.
  17. 17. Lymphatic drainage of breast  The lateral quadrants drain into the anterior axillary or pectoral group of lymph nodes. (75%)  The medial quadrants drain by internal thoracic group of nodes. (20%)  A few lymph vessels follow posterior intercostals arteries and drain into posterior intercostals nodes. (5%)  Some vessels communicate with lymph vessels of opposite breast and with lymph vessels of anterior abdominal wall(Subdiaphragmatic and subperitoneal lymph plexuses)
  18. 18. ARTERIAL SUPPLY  Perforating branches of the Internal thoracic artery Lateral mammary branches from the Lateral thoracic artery Twigs from the Intercostal arteries  Pectoral branch of the Thoracoacromial artery
  19. 19. Venous Supply • Venous drainage of the breast is mainly accomplished by the axillary vein. • The subclavian, intercostal, and internal thoracic veins also aid in returning blood to the heart. Nerve Supply • 4th through 6th intercostal nerves
  20. 20. Applied Aspect Mammography is a radiographic examination of the breast. This technique is used for screening the breasts for benign and malignant tumours of the breast. Breast cancer occurs in upper lateral quadrant (about 60% cases) and forms a palpable mass in later stages.  It enlarges, attaches to Cooper’s ligaments and produces shortening of ligaments, causing depression or dimpling of overlying skin.  It may attach to and shorten lactiferous ducts and cause retraction of nipple.  Obstruction of superficial lymph vessels by cancer cells may produce edema of skin giving rise to an orange skin appearance called Peau d’orange appearance.  The cancer can spread through veins to the vertebrae and brain because the veins draining the breast communicate with the vertebral venous plexus.
  21. 21.  Localized cancer is treated by simple mastectomy .  Localized cancer of breast with early metastasis of axillary lymph nodes, radical mastectomy is done to remove the primary tumor and the lymph vessels and nodes that drain the area. These are removed a large area of skin overlying the tumor and including the nipple, all the breast tissue the pectoralis major and associated fascia, the pectoralis minor and associated fascia ,all the fat, fascia and lymph nodes in axilla fascia covering upper part of rectus sheath, the serratus anterior, the subscapularis and the latissimus dorsi muscles  In modified radical mastectomy, the pectoral muscles are left intact.
  22. 22. In a breast abscess an acute infection of the mammary gland occurs in which pathogenic bacteria gain entrance to the breast tissue through a crack in the nipple.  The abscess is localized to a lobe which id drained through a radial incision to avoid damage to the radially arranged ducts.

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