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Evolution of Wireless technology
Shahzaib Ahsan
Department of Computer Science,
The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan
...
2.0) 2G Mobile communication system:
2G denotes second generation which was next step in
development of mobile communicati...
 Difficult to build the infrastructure for 3G
3G Mobile phone fig No.5
4.0) 4G Mobile communication system:
4G denotes th...
Mobile phone concept of 5G fig No.8
5.1) Features of 5G
 Remote management
 Higher uploading and downloading speed
 Lar...
Comparison between 1G,2G ,3G,4G fig no.9
Generatio
n
Features
1g 2g 3g 4g 5g
Years 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s 2010’s 2020’s
Data...
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Differentiate between 2G, 3G, 4G,5G with Pros and Cons

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I had done a brief comparison in my course wireless Networks In this I had reviewed all generation with their advatages and limitations.

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Differentiate between 2G, 3G, 4G,5G with Pros and Cons

  1. 1. Evolution of Wireless technology Shahzaib Ahsan Department of Computer Science, The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan Shahzaibahsan3@gmail.com Abstract—Mobile communication is one of the hottest areas that are developing in a rapid speed with Advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mobile and wireless communications. I tried to make a comparative study of wireless cellular technology termed as 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G A mobile network is radio network spread over land areas called cell and served by one fixed location known as a cell site or base station. In cellular network each cell uses a different set of frequencies to avoid interference the first generation was referred to as cellular which was shortened to cell. Second generation phones used GSM technology to improve voice quality but the network still supports limited data services, Third generation revolution allowed mobile phone users to use audio video and graphics application 4g provides a comprehensive and secure IP based solution that provide access through a collection of radio interfaces Phones or/and hand held devices. (Abstract) Keywords 1G 2G 3G 4G cellular network I. INTRODUCTION We are living in modern age where we can’t live easily without science. Today world is shrink due to development of science and technology, different mobile technology. We cannot think a single moment without science. Modern world is being compressed due to the development of science and its technologies. During few decades, the world has seen phenomenal changes in the telecommunications industry due to science and technology. We have different mobile and wireless communication technologies, which are mass deployed, such as WiMAX (IEEE 802.16 wireless and mobile networks) , Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 wireless networks), LTE (Long Term Evolution), 3G mobile networks (UMTS, cdma2000) and 4G as well as accompanying networks, such as personal area networks (e.g., Bluetooth, ZigBee) or sensor networks. 1) 1G Mobile Communication System: 1G refers to first generation of mobile communication system which was started in 1974 and completed in 1984. 1G was deployed on early stages to communicate with mobiles phones with network of distributed transceiver 1G was first technology based on AMPS technology it was based on Frequency modulation radio system using Frequency Division access (FDM) with 30 KHZ channel capacity it allows only voice calls having speed of 2.4 Kbps Architecture of Advance Mobile Phone Services (AMPS) Fig No.1 1.1) Features of 1G system  Channel bandwidth 30khz  No of voice channel 790  No of control channel 42  Cell radius 2-20 km  Modulation voice channel FM  Modulation control channel FSK 1.2) Limitations of 1G system  Limited capacity  No room for spectrum growth  Minimal privacy  No encryption  Poor sound quality  Unreliable Hand off 1G mobile phone Fig No.2
  2. 2. 2.0) 2G Mobile communication system: 2G denotes second generation which was next step in development of mobile communication after 1G. It was started in 1980’s and completed in 1990’s 2G was mainly for voice transmission with digital signal and speed up to 64 kbps,2G provides services like SMS MMS. Two schemes were used in second generation (TDMA) and (CDMA) TDMA allows for the division of signals into time slots and a special code generated by a CDMA for each user in order to communicate over a multiplex physical channel 2G GSM Architecture Fig No.3 2.1) Features of 2G system  Emit less radio power  Mobile Unit max power is 20 W 2.2) Limitations of 2G  Powerful digital signals are required to make the mobile phones work.  There would be signal problem if there is no proper network coverage in the specified area.  There is difficulty to handle complex data such as video etc. 2.3) 2.5 G: 2G cellular systems can combine with the General Packet radio Services (GPRS) or other facilities that are not found in 2G or 1G network 2.5G implements as packet switched network to make use of 2G system infrastructure. It have data rate up to 144kbps and the technologies used in 2.5G are GPRS, CDMA 2000. The major features are Web Browsing Send/Receive E-Mail. 2G Mobile phone Fig No.3 3.0) 3G Mobile communication system: 3G was introduced in 2000 3G overcome many problems particularly low speed incompatible technologies such TDMA and CDMA. 3G uses packet switching technology which is better than technologies used in 1g and 2g. The speed of 3G technology is 125kbps-2 Mbps because of better data rate 3G deliver more new features such as web browsing email TV steaming, Video conferencing, Navigation maps The purpose of 3G is to provide more coverage and evolution with lowest investment 3G Architecture Fig No.4 3.1) Features of 3G system:  Uses WCDMA/CDMA technology  Bandwidth 5-10 Mbps  3G consist of circuit and packet switching  Frequency band 15-25 GHZ  Better Security 3.2) Limitation of 3G system:  Requires higher bandwidth.  Cost of mobile phone is higher.  The Price for 3G licenses services is higher.
  3. 3.  Difficult to build the infrastructure for 3G 3G Mobile phone fig No.5 4.0) 4G Mobile communication system: 4G denotes the fourth generation of mobile communication system which was introduced in year 2010 4G is IP based that provides access through a collection of radio interfaces. It has compatibility to provide speed of 100 Mbps -1 Gbps and high quality of services and security. Smart Antenna for Multiple input and multiple output, Ipv6 is also involved in 4G technology the significant features of 4G are video conferencing, Location based services, low cost per bit. The term MAGIC indicates in 4G as M=Mobile multimedia A=any time any where G=Global mobility support I=Integrated wireless solution C=Customized personal services 4G mobile communication system fig No.6 4.1) Features of 4G  Bandwidth of 200 Mbps  Low cost then 3g  Frequency band of 2-8 GHZ  It provides virtual navigation 4.2) Limitations of 4G  New frequency means new component in cell tower  Higher Data price for consumers  To use 4G supported device is required, it is impossible to make current equipment compatible with 4G network 4G Mobile phone fig No.7 5.0) 5G Mobile communication system: The 5G fifth generation of wireless communication in now under development the 5G is called as Real world wireless because it doesn’t require limitations. Physical layer and data link layer defines wireless technology in 5G these two layer indicates that 5G technology is like open wireless architecture , virtual wireless is also maintained in the 5G technology phones to perform this network layer is sub divided into upper network layer or upper terminal and lower network for interface where routing is based in IP addresses:
  4. 4. Mobile phone concept of 5G fig No.8 5.1) Features of 5G  Remote management  Higher uploading and downloading speed  Large broadcast of data support almost 65000 connections  Wearable device with AI (artificial intelligence) and six sense. 5.2) Limitations of 5G The major disadvantage of the 5G technology is higher rate. Open Wireless Architecture fig No.9 II. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The last few years have witnessed the phenomenal changes in wireless generation The increasing demand of wireless technology motivates researchers to introduce 4G and continue their struggle for development of 5G.History of mobile communication shows many attempts has been made to reduce size of technology to global standard. The first generation has fulfilled the basic mobile voice using analog technique, where second generation introduced capacity and coverage using digital technique. The quest for higher data rate opens the gate for truly “Mobile broad band” experience, 4G will provide better than TV quality images and video links 5G technology has changed the mean to use cellphones within very higher data bandwidth. The fifth generation includes all types of advanced features which make technology more powerful. For future work I will make comparison of 2.5 3G lite and other version introduced with advantages and limitations.
  5. 5. Comparison between 1G,2G ,3G,4G fig no.9 Generatio n Features 1g 2g 3g 4g 5g Years 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s 2010’s 2020’s Data Bandwidth 2kbps 64kbps 2Mbps 200Mbp s 1Gbps Standards Amps TDMA, CDMA, GSM WCDMA Single unified standards Single unified standards Technology Analog Digital Cellular Broadban d with Unified IP Unified IP & seamless Services Mobile Technolo gy(Voice) Voice, sms Integrated high quality video Dynamic informatio n access Dynamic informatio n access With wearable devices Multiplex ing FDMA TDMA,C DMA CDMA CDMA CDMA Switching Circuit Circuit and packet Packet All packet All packet Detail comparison table of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G REFERENCES 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Mobile_Phone_System#/ media/File:DynaTAC8000X.jpg 2. http://www.juniper.net/techpubs/en_US/junos- mobility12.1/topics/concept/gateways-mobility-3g-overview.html 3. http://www.slideshare.net/bindiakumari/4g-technology-18801331 4. http://nrio.blogspot.com/2011/09/4g-technology-advantages- and.html 5. http://www.slideshare.net/anoopunnikrishnan777/5g-future- mobile-technology 6. http://www.slideshare.net/anoopunnikrishnan777/5g-future- mobile-technology 7. http://www.seminarsonly.com/Labels/5g-Mobile-Technology- Advantages.php 8. www.techrepublic.com/article/does-the-world-really-need-5g/ 9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5G 10. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/4/4G.html 11. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/4/4G.html 12. http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/feature/mobile-phone/what-is-4g- complete-guide-4g-3403880/ 13. http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/feature/Building-the-4G- wireless-network-Exploring-LTE-architecture-and-services-drivers 14. http://www.rcrwireless.com/20140513/network- infrastructure/lte/lte-network-architecture-diagram 15. http://www.whatsag.com/G/Generation_History.php 16. http://www.engadget.com/2011/01/17/2g-3g-4g-and-everything-in- between-an-engadget-wireless-prim/ 17. http://www.slideshare.net/bernieinq/2g-3g-overview 18. http://www.2gprod.com/a-review-of-the.html 19. http://technology.blurtit.com/3166885/what-are-disadvantages-of- 1g-technology 20. http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/first-generation-mobile- communications-technology/76774 21. http://www.cleardoubts.com/technology/what-is-1g-or-first- generation-of-wireless-telecommunication-technology/ 22. http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/it/wireless/what-is-1g-first- generation.html 23. http://www.brighthub.com/mobile/emerging- platforms/articles/30965.aspx 24. https://www.telcoantennas.com.au/site/guide-to-mobile-networks

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