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EDM 703
INSTRUCTIONAL
LEADERSHIP
Prepared by
NOR ZAKIAH BT ISMAIL
2013741249
STUDENT DIVERSITY
WHAT IS STUDENT
DIVERSITY?
Students differences in
-Gender
-Ethnicity
-Students ability
Student
Diversity
Ethnicity/
Cultural
Knowledge
Skills
Rules
Traditions
Belief
Values
Gender - Mental Abilities
-Sexual Id...
LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE
 Dealing with a wealth of student
differences.
 Examines student differences in
culture and gender.
TODAY'S DIVERSE CLASSSROOM
 Fostering resilience in students, in
teachers and in classrooms to
overcome the educational p...
Resilient
Classrooms
First strand :
Self -Agency
Academic self-
efficacy
Behavioral self-
control
Academic self-
determina...
FIRST STRAND : SELF -AGENCY
Academic self-efficacy
 A belief in your own ability to learn.
 It emerges when students tac...
Academic self-determination
 It’s about making choices, setting
goals, and following through.
 Students who are self-det...
SECOND STRAND : RELATIONSHIP
Caring teacher-student relationships
 It’s consistently associated with better
school perfor...
Effective home-school relationships
 When parents stay involved, their
children’s grade and test scores
improved ( Corner...
Culture
diversity
Culture includes knowledge, skills, rules,
traditions, beliefs and values that guide
behaviour in partic...
Language
Differences
in the
Classroom
Dialect
It's a variety of
language spoken by
a particular group
Differences in diale...
CREATING CULTURALLY
INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM
 Goal
-"to eliminate racism, classism and
prejudice while adapting the content
an...
THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM
(ROLAND THARP,1998).
Social
organization
Learning
style
Participation
structures
THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM
(ROLAND THARP,1998).
Social
organization
Def: the ways people interact
to accomplish a parti...
THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM
(ROLAND THARP,1998).
Learning
style
Cultural
practices
and values
E:g Hispanic American stud...
THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM
(ROLAND THARP,1998).
Participation structures
Def: Differing activity
rules. As class activi...
Should teachers focus on
Students' learning style?
Should teachers focus on
Students' learning style?
Cognitive
ability
High spatial
ability
High
proficiency in
creating,
ho...
Cognitive style
Visualizer
Uses visual
modes of
thinking
Verbalizer
Uses verbal
modes of
thinking
Learning
preference
Visual learner
Prefers
instruction
involving pictures
Verbal learner
Prefers
instruction
involving wor...
CULTURALLY
COMPATIBLE
CLASSROOMS
Creating culturally
compatible classrooms
requires the teachers
know, respect and
effecti...
CULTURALLY
RELEVANT
PEDAGOGY
Student
Experience
academic success
Develop/maintain
their cultural
competence
Develop a crit...
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE
CLASSROOM
Differences
in mental
abilities
Femal
e
Females obtain higher
grades in school, score
...
Gender
discrimination
in classrooms
Active interaction
between teacher and
students usually
happens more with the
male stu...
Eliminating
Gender Bias
It makes sense to
balance both cooperative
and competitive
approaches so that the
students who lea...
Sexual
Identity
Gender
identity
A person's self-
identification
as male or
female
Gender-
role
behaviour
Behaviours
and ch...
KEY POINTS
1. A key to overcome the educational problems
of poverty is by fostering resilience in
students, in teachers, a...
4. Bilingualism is an asset, not a liability,
provided that there is balance-equal
fluency in both languages.
5. Learning ...
7. There appear to be some gender
differences in spatial and mathematical
abilities, but these do not hold in all
cultures...
THANK YOU
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Instructional leadership (chapter 2 student diversity)

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STUDENT DIVERSITY

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Instructional leadership (chapter 2 student diversity)

  1. 1. EDM 703 INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP Prepared by NOR ZAKIAH BT ISMAIL 2013741249 STUDENT DIVERSITY
  2. 2. WHAT IS STUDENT DIVERSITY? Students differences in -Gender -Ethnicity -Students ability
  3. 3. Student Diversity Ethnicity/ Cultural Knowledge Skills Rules Traditions Belief Values Gender - Mental Abilities -Sexual Identity
  4. 4. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE  Dealing with a wealth of student differences.  Examines student differences in culture and gender.
  5. 5. TODAY'S DIVERSE CLASSSROOM  Fostering resilience in students, in teachers and in classrooms to overcome the educational problems of poverty.  What is resilience? - Students who survive and thrive.
  6. 6. Resilient Classrooms First strand : Self -Agency Academic self- efficacy Behavioral self- control Academic self- determination Second strand : Relationship Caring teacher- student relationships Effective peer relation Effective home- school relationships
  7. 7. FIRST STRAND : SELF -AGENCY Academic self-efficacy  A belief in your own ability to learn.  It emerges when students tackle challenging and meaningful tasks with the support needed to be successful and they see other students do the same.  Encouraging feedback from teachers
  8. 8. Academic self-determination  It’s about making choices, setting goals, and following through.  Students who are self-determined are more motivated and committed to learning. Behavioral self-control  It’s also called as student self- regulation.  It’s is essential for a safe and orderly learning environment
  9. 9. SECOND STRAND : RELATIONSHIP Caring teacher-student relationships  It’s consistently associated with better school performance, especially for students who face serious challenges. Effective peer relations  It’s also critical in connecting students to school
  10. 10. Effective home-school relationships  When parents stay involved, their children’s grade and test scores improved ( Corner, Haynes, & Joyner, 1996).
  11. 11. Culture diversity Culture includes knowledge, skills, rules, traditions, beliefs and values that guide behaviour in particular group of people as well as the art and artifacts produced and passed down to the next generation (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993; Pai & Adler, 2001) Cultural group can be defined along regional, ethnic, religious, racial, gender, social class or other lines Each person is a unique product of many influences, a member of a variety groups.
  12. 12. Language Differences in the Classroom Dialect It's a variety of language spoken by a particular group Differences in dialect are not errors because each dialect is logical, complex and rule-governed Bilingualis m Benefit s Correlated with increased in cognitive abilitiesAdvanced awareness about language; more likely to notice grammar errors. Speaking two languages is an asset for those graduate entering the business world (Mears, 1998).
  13. 13. CREATING CULTURALLY INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM  Goal -"to eliminate racism, classism and prejudice while adapting the content and methods and instructions in order to meet students need".
  14. 14. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Social organization Learning style Participation structures
  15. 15. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Social organization Def: the ways people interact to accomplish a particular goal. It can be by cooperation and collaboration in which student play together in groups or it may be solitary in which students won't work together with the opposite sex.
  16. 16. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Learning style Cultural practices and values E:g Hispanic American students are more oriented toward family and group loyalty. They prefer cooperative activities and dislike being made to compete with fellow students (Garcia,1992; Vasquez,1990) Cultural differences in learning style E:g Native Americans appear to have a more global/ visual style learning. For example Navajo students prefer hearing a story all the way through to the end before discussing parts of the story. Teachers who stop to ask questions seem odd to these students and interrupt the learning process (Tharp, 1989). However, some other group may prefer verbal/analytical approach.
  17. 17. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Participation structures Def: Differing activity rules. As class activities change, rules change. A student may have different ways of asking Q's due to different cultural background.
  18. 18. Should teachers focus on Students' learning style?
  19. 19. Should teachers focus on Students' learning style? Cognitive ability High spatial ability High proficiency in creating, holding, and manipulating spatial representations . Low spatial ability Low proficiency in creating, holding, and manipulating spatial representations .
  20. 20. Cognitive style Visualizer Uses visual modes of thinking Verbalizer Uses verbal modes of thinking
  21. 21. Learning preference Visual learner Prefers instruction involving pictures Verbal learner Prefers instruction involving words
  22. 22. CULTURALLY COMPATIBLE CLASSROOMS Creating culturally compatible classrooms requires the teachers know, respect and effectively teach all their students
  23. 23. CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDAGOGY Student Experience academic success Develop/maintain their cultural competence Develop a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo. Teacher must believe in children's inherent intellectual ability, humanity, spiritual character must fight foolishness test scores or scripted lesson make for good learning must learn who their children are and the legacies they bring.
  24. 24. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE CLASSROOM Differences in mental abilities Femal e Females obtain higher grades in school, score much higher on tests of writing (Halpern,2000; Hyde,2005; Spelke,2005). Male More males with very high and very low scores on math tests (Berk,2005; Willingham & Cole, 1997). More males diagnosed with learning disabilities, (ADHD) and autism
  25. 25. Gender discrimination in classrooms Active interaction between teacher and students usually happens more with the male students where as female students get less attention (Sadker & Klein, 1991).
  26. 26. Eliminating Gender Bias It makes sense to balance both cooperative and competitive approaches so that the students who learn better each way have equal opportunities.
  27. 27. Sexual Identity Gender identity A person's self- identification as male or female Gender- role behaviour Behaviours and characters that the culture associate with each gender. Sexual orientation Person's choice of a sexual partner.
  28. 28. KEY POINTS 1. A key to overcome the educational problems of poverty is by fostering resilience in students, in teachers, and in classrooms. 2. Academic self-efficacy is a belief in your own ability to learn, and it is one of the consistent predictors of academic achievement. 3. A dialect is a variety of language spoken by a particular groups; it’s important that teachers remember that differences in dialect are not errors.
  29. 29. 4. Bilingualism is an asset, not a liability, provided that there is balance-equal fluency in both languages. 5. Learning styles are preferred ways of learning and processing information; teachers need to be aware of cultural differences in learning style so that teaching approaches are consistent with the learning style. 6. Creating culturally compatible classrooms requires that teachers know, respect, and effectively teach their students.
  30. 30. 7. There appear to be some gender differences in spatial and mathematical abilities, but these do not hold in all cultures and situation. 8. Teachers are in positions to reinforce or challenge gender stereotypes through their choice of materials and interactions with students.
  31. 31. THANK YOU

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